BASICS OF HVAC SYSTEM

HVAC SYSTEM
• A HVAC System consists of a chain of components designed to heat,ventilate or cool a specific area while maintaining a defined environmental cleanliness level.

PURPOSE OF AIRCONDITIONING
 To Control/Maintain Temperature - Heating  To Purify the Air  To Control/Maintain Humidity - Ventilation - Air Conditioning

AIRCHANGES
The air change rate refers to the number of times in a 1-hr period that the volume of air in a space is renewed.

Design Consideration
The factors affecting air change rate are: • The presence of air pockets or dead space in the Controlled area. • The relative positioning of Supply and Return air grills. • Type of Machine and Equipments placed inside the area.

GENERAL LAYOUT OF HVAC SYSTEM
EXHAUST VENT

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CHILLED WATER CHILLED BRINE

HOT

WATER

10µ FILTER
CV

5µ FILTER

HEPA FILTER

MANOMETER
CV

CV
CV T H T

CONTROL VALVE

FRESH AIR

CONTROLLED ROOM Defumigation Outlet

MACHINE

COMPONENTS OF THE HVAC SYSTEM
• AIR MOVING EQUIPMENT The blowers / fans and their design characteristics govern the Amount of air flowing through the system and delivers the Static pressure required to overcome resistance offered by Filters,Coils and ducting layouts. Centrifugal blowers driven by electric motors are widely used SELECTION CRITERIA: • Volume of controlled space. • Desired air changes. • Desired environmental conditions. • Static pressure requirements based on specific layout.

COMPONENTS OF THE HVAC SYSTEM
• AIR COOLING AND HEATING SYSTEMS Central systems normally employ air-to-water cooling systems using finned copper coils and air heaters for heating systems.For humidity control upto 50% chilled water is used as cooling media while for lower humidity levels chilled brine at -1°C and or regenerative desiccant driers are used. SELECTION CRITERIA: • Desired Environment Conditions. • Ambient Environment Conditions. • Heat load and Volume of space to be Conditioned.

COMPONENTS OF THE HVAC SYSTEM
• AIR DISTRIBUTION NETWORK  It is the structural assembly whose primary function is to convey air between specific points.Galvanized Iron or Anodized Aluminum is used to fabricate the ducting.  Based on air volumes and total pressures handled air ducts are classified as:  High Pressure : 3” water gauge and upwards.  Low Pressure : 0 – 2” water gauge.  Components of air distribution network includes ducting,insulation,diffusers,louvers and grilles.

COMPONENTS OF THE HVAC SYSTEM
• • • • • • • • • • SELECTION CRITERIA: Dimensional stability. Integrity at specified air volumes and pressures. Vibration. Noise.(Transmission and Generation) Exposure to damage. Support. Compatibility with insulating,sealing or adhesive agents. Resistance to air flow. Air flow patterns inside the Controlled space. Nature and type of sanitizing procedures.

CLASSIFICATION OF FILTERS
• Air filters retain particles by various collection methods largely characterized by particle and aerosol behavior. Filters can be broadly classified as: SIEVING FILTERS DYNAMIC FILTERS

• • •

FILTERATION MECHANISM OF DYNAMIC FILTERS • INERTIAL IMPACTION Particles are trapped by randomly oriented obstrucles. Retention is due to the three dimensional array of filter matrix.Efficiency varies directly with particle diameter. • DIRECT IMPACTION Particles are trapped by the porosity of the filter. Retention is mainly due to collision of the particle with the filter fiber.Efficiency varies directly with particle dimensions.

FILTERATION MECHANISM OF DYNAMIC FILTERS

• DIFFUSION Retention by diffusion takes place with very small particles owing to Brownian motion and the efficiency is a function of Avagadro’s number,air velocity and particle diameter.
Particle size Dominant Retentive Action ≥ 1.0µm INERTIAL IMPACTION 0.5-1.0µm 0.2-0.3µm DIRECT IMPACTION DIFFUSION

EVALUATION OF AIR FILTERS
• • • • CRITERIA Airflow resistance Collection efficiency Service life Arrestance • • • • METHOD Measuring Dp across filter DOP test Measuring Dp across filter Area of filter media

CONSTRUTION OF HEPA FILTER • FRAME
Frame selection is based on chemical or fire resistance. Generally Stainless Steel or Anodized Aluminum is used.

• FILTER MEDIUM
Most common media in use today is glass microfibres.It can sustain air velocities upto 12 ft/sec and temperatures from 4°C to 450 °C .

• SEPERATORS
Used for supporting the media.Corrugated separators of Aluminum alloy,Kraft paper are widely used.

CONSTRUTION OF HEPA FILTER • ADHESIVES
Used to bond the frame to the glass medium.Polyurethane foams are used for low temperature applications while silicate adhesives are used in high temperature applications.

• GASKETS
Used to seal the frame of the filter against the filter plenum. Closed cell neoprene foam is used for low temperature applications while Teflon is used for higher temperatures.