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You are on page 1of 27

1. Digital-to-Analog Conversion

2. Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)

3. Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)

4. Phase Shift Keying (PSK)

5. Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)

6. Bit/Baud Comparison

7. Modems

Digital-to-analog modulation

Aspects to digital-to Analog conversion

Bit rate is the number of bits per second. Baud rate is the number

of signal units per second. Baud rate is less than or equal to the bit

rate.

Bit rate is important in computer efficiency

Baud rate is important in data transmission.

Baud rate determines the bandwidth required to send signal

Baud rate = bit rate / # bits per signal unit

An analog signal carries 4 bits in each signal unit. If 1000 signal units are

sent per second, find the baud rate and the bit rate

Baud rate = 1000 bauds per second (baud/s) Bit rate = 1000 x 4 = 4000

bps

The bit rate of a signal is 3000. If each signal unit carries 6 bits, what is

the baud rate?

Baud rate = 3000/6 =500 bauds/sec

Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)

s(t )

0 binary 0

On/Off keying

and 0.

Frequency and phase remains the same.

Highly susceptible to noise interference.

Used up to 1200 bps on voice grade lines, and on optical fiber.

Relationship between baud rate and bandwidth in ASK

BW = (1 + d) * Nd

Find the minimum bandwidth for an ASK signal transmitting at 2000

bps. The transmission mode is half-duplex.

In ASK the baud rate and bit rate are the same. The baud rate is therefore

2000. An ASK signal requires a minimum bandwidth equal to its baud rate.

Therefore, the minimum bandwidth is 2000 Hz.

Full duplex ASK

Given a bandwidth of 10,000 Hz (1000 to 11,000 Hz), if draw the full-duplex ASK

diagram of the system. We can find the carriers and the bandwidths in each direction.

Assume there is no gap between the bands in the two directions.

For full-duplex ASK, the bandwidth for each direction is

BW = 10000 / 2 = 5000 Hz

The carrier frequencies can be chosen at the middle of each band

fc (forward) = 1000 + 5000/2 = 3500 Hz

fc (backward) = 11000 – 5000/2 = 8500 Hz

Frequency Shift Keying

Frequency of the carrier is varied to represent digital data (binary 0/1)

Peak amplitude and phase remain constant.

Avoid noise interference by looking at frequencies (change of a signal)

and ignoring amplitudes.

Limitations of FSK is the physical capabilities of the carrier.

f1 and f2 equally offset by equal opposite amounts to the carrier freq.

In MFSK more than 2 freq are used, each signal element represents

more than one bit

A cos(2f1t ) binary1

s(t )

A cos(2f 2 t ) binary 0

Relationship between baud rate and bandwidth in FSK

FSK spectrum = combination of two ASK spectra centered on fc1 and

fc0.

BW = fc1-fc0 + Nbaud

FSK Examples (cont.)

• What is the Find the minimum bandwidth for an FSK signal

transmitting at 2000 bps. Transmission is in half-duplex mode, and the

carriers are separated by 3000 Hz.

• Because For FSK

BW = baud rate + fc1 - fc0

BW = bit rate + fc1 - fc0 = 2000 + 3000 = 5000 Hz

• What is the maximum bit rates for an FSK signal if the bandwidth of

the medium is 12,000 Hz and the difference between the two carriers is

2000 Hz. Transmission is in full-duplex mode.

– Because the transmission is full duplex, only 6000 Hz is allocated for each

direction.

– BW = baud rate + fc1 - fc0

– Baud rate = BW - (fc1 - fc0 ) = 6000 - 2000 = 4000

– But because the baud rate is the same as the bit rate, the bit rate is 4000

bps.

Phase Shift Keying

represent digital data (binary 0

or 1)

Amplitude and frequency

remains constant.

If phase 0 deg to represent 0,

180 deg to represent 1. (2-PSK)

PSK is not susceptible to noise

degradation that affects ASK or

bandwidth limitations of FSK

4-PSK (QPSK) method

8-PSK

(instead of 90 deg in 4-PSK)

With 8 = 23 different phases, each phase can represents 3 bits

(tribit).

Relationship between baud rate and bandwidth in PSK

Bandwith similar to ASK, but data rate can 2 or more times greater.

What is the bandwidth for a 4-PSK signal transmitting at 2000 bps. Transmission is in

half-duplex mode.

For PSK the baud rate is the same as the bandwidth, which means the baud rate is

5000. But in 8-PSK the bit rate is 3 times the baud rate, so the bit rate is 15,000 bps.

Given a bandwidth of 5000 Hz for an 8-PSK signal, what are the baud rate and bit rate?

For PSK the baud rate is the same as the bandwidth, which means the baud rate is

5000. But in 8-PSK the bit rate is 3 times the baud rate, so the bit rate is 15,000 bps.

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

between small differences in phases.

Limits the potential data rate.

Quadrature amplitude modulation is a combination of ASK and

PSK so that a maximum contrast between each signal unit (bit,

dibit, tribit, and so on) is achieved.

We can have x variations in phase and y variations of amplitude

x • y possible variation (greater data rates)

Numerous variations. (4-QAM, 8-QAM)

8-QAM and 16-QAM

not all possibilities are used, to increase

readability of signal, measurable differences

between shifts are increased

Because of ratio of phases to amplitudes

ITU-T recommendation.

Bit Baud comparison

Modulation Units

Assuming a FSK signal over ud rate Rate

voice-grade phone line can send ASK, FSK, 2-PSK Bit 1 N N

1200 bps, it requires 1200 signal

4-PSK, 4-QAM Dibit 2 N 2N

units to send 1200 bits (each

frequency shift represents one 8-PSK, 8-QAM Tribit 3 N 3N

bit, baud rate 1200) 16-QAM Quadbit 4 N 4N

Assuming 8-QAM, baud rate is 32-QAM Pentabit 5 N 5N

only 400 to achieve same data 64-QAM Hexabit 6 N 6N

rate.

128-QAM Septabit 7 N 7N

256-QAM Octabit 8 N 8N

Bit Baud comparison (examples)

the bit rate is 4800 bps, what is the baud rate?

The constellation indicates 8-PSK with the points 45 degrees apart. Since 23

= 8, 3 bits are transmitted with each signal unit. Therefore, the

baud rate is 4800 / 3 = 1600 baud

A 16-QAM signal has 4 bits per signal unit since log216 = 4. Thus, (1000)(4)

= 4000 bps

Therefore, 72000 / 6 = 12,000 baud

Phone modems

V-series (ITU-T Standards)

V-32.

Uses a combined modulation and encoding technique: Trellis coded

Modulation.

Trellis = QAM + a redundant bit

5 bit (pentabit) = 4 data + 1 calculated from data.

A signal distorted by noise can arrive closer to an adjacent point than the

intended point (extra bit is therefore used to adjust)

Less likely to be misread than a QAM signal.

V-series (cont.)

V-32.bis

First ITU-T standard to support 14,400 bps transmission.

Uses 128-QAM

(7 bits/baud with 1 bit for error control)

at a rate 2400 baud 2400 * 6 = 14,400 bps

Adjustment of the speed upward or downward depending on the quality of the line or

signal

V-34 bis

Bit rate of 28,800 bps with 960-point constellation to 1664-point constellation for a bit

rate of 33,600 bps.

V-series (cont.)

V-90

Traditionally modems have a

limitation on data rate (max. 33.6

Kbps)

V-90 modems can be used (up to

56Kbps) if using digital signaling.

For example, Through an

Internet Service Provider (ISP)

V-90 are asymmetric

Downloading rate (from ISP to

PC) has a 56 Kbps limitation.

Uploading rate (from PC to IST)

has a 33.6 Kbps limitation.

V-90/92 (cont.)

V-90

In uploading, signal still to be

sampled at the switching station.

Limit due to noise sampling.

Phone company samples at 8000

times/sec with 8 bits (including bit

error)

Data rate = 8000 * 7 = 56Kbps

In download, signal is not affected

by sampling.

V-92

Speed adjustment

Upload data at 48Kbps.

Call waiting service

Analog-to-analog modulation

Amplitude modulation

The total bandwidth required for AM can be determined from the bandwidth of the

audio signal: BWt = 2 x BWm.

AM band allocation

minimum bandwidth of 10 KHz.

AM stations are allowed carrier freq between 530 and 1700 KHz.

If One station uses 1100 KHz the next one uses 1110 KHz

Frequency modulation

usually 15 KHz. Therefore, an FM

station needs at least a bandwidth of 150

KHz. The minimum bandwidth is at least

200 KHz (0.2 MHz).

FM band allocation

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