Electrostatic precipitator modeling and simulation

Kejie Fang Longhua Ma Institute of Industrial Control Zhejiang University


Introduction Research and design in ESP Simulation results and analysis Conclusion

1. Background
Nowadays, the environment protection has become a crucial problem and the authorities are requested to set increasingly more stringent limits , one of which is the emissions from the industrial plants of solid particulate and other gaseous pollutants.

‡ Introduction 2. ABOUT ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR 2. .1 What is ESP Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is a widely used device in so many different domains to remove the pollutant particulates. especially in industrial plants.

transport and collection.1 Main process of ESP Generally. the processes of electrostatic precipitator are known as three main stages: particle charging.‡ Introduction 2.2. .2 HOW ESP WORKS 2.

.‡ Introduction These are stages interacted that originated from the complexity of the processes of precipitator. To characterize all these stages determines to take a great number of basic phenomena into account from a physical point of view when they occurred.

‡ Introduction Schematic of wire-plate ESP Fig.1 Schematic of wire-plate electrostatic precipitator .

‡ Introduction Mechanism of ESP Fig. 2 Mechanism of electrostatic precipitator .

2 PROCESS OF Particle charging Particle charging is the first and foremost beginning in processes. the space inside divided into ionization region and drift region.2.‡ Introduction 2. As the voltage applied on precipitator reach threshold value. .

the positive ions move towards the corona. while the negative ions and electrons towards the collecting plates. Under the influence of electric field. .‡ Introduction The electric field magnitude around the negative electrode is so strong that the electrons escape from molecule.

negative ions cohere and charge the particles.2 shows.3 Particle transport In the moving way. make the particles be forced towards collecting-plate as well as Fig.‡ Introduction 2. .2. under the influence of electric field.

they will be neutralized and packed by the succeeded ones subsequently. . as a result. The continuous process happens.4 Particle collection As soon as the particles reach the plate.‡ Introduction 2. particles are collected on the collecting plate.2.

migration and collection of fly ash. .‡ Research and design in ESP modeling The numerical model describes in time and space the relevant processes that are involved in transport. charging. the model is therefore structured into several modules. To represent the complete processes.

particle collection .The model here is organized into the following three sections: 1. particle charging 3. electric field and discharge processes 2.

3. .1 electric field and discharge processes The particle collection in electrostatic precipitators is largely dominated by the distribution of the electric field in the interelectrodic space.

neglecting the transport gas velocity and by assuming that the magnetic field due to the corona current is negligibly small.In the absence of particles. Electronical conditions are described by next three equations : .

Ve “V ! I0 2 (1) (2) (3) V e ! I 0 (“ ™“V e ) p 2 E ! “ Here V is the electric potential. . V e is the spacecharge density. I 0 is the permittivity of free space and E is the electric field.

we adopt equations (4) (5) (6) to describe the electric field distribution with the initial and boundary conditions. g V ( x .Here. y ) ! V0 m ! g § ln{cosh[T ( y  2mS cosh[T ( y  2mS y ) / 2 S x ]  cos(Tx / 2 S x ) y ) / 2 S x ]  cos(Tx / 2 S x ) g cosh(TmS y / S x )  cos(Ta / 2 S x ) § ln{cosh(TmS / S )  cos(Ta / 2S )} m ! g y x x } .

.V( x. y) means the electric potential of the position (x. y means the coordinates direction. Sy is half length of the two nearest wires . when x. shown as Fig.a is the radius of particle. Sx is distance between collecting plate and wire. y).3. V0 is the initial potential on the wire.

3 Sketch of precipitator geometry and computed grid .Fig.

3 shown. V .(V0 (V0 (V0 (V0 V1  V3 V4  V2 V ! I0 (   E0y ) ! I0 (E0x ) (x (x (y (y 2dx 2dy 2 0 (5) V0 ! d (V4  V2 )  d (V1  V3 )  d d V 0 / I 0 2( d  d ) 2 x 2 y 2 y 2 x 2 x 2 y (6) and V0 mean the charge density and electric potential at the position as Fig.

2 particle charging The field charging refers to the local distorsion caused near the particle surface by the difference in dielectric constants. which produces an electric field on particle surface equal and opposite to the external field. This process continues until the particle goes up to the saturation charge. .3.

.Equation (7) is chosen to describe the model of particle charging : Ir (7) qs ! 12TI 0 R E0 Ir  2 Where I r is the relative dielectric constant 2 and E0 is the external field. qs and R are the particle charge and radius.

we choose equation (8) to describe particle collection .3 particle collection This module simulates in detail the boundary layer near the collecting plates and the interchange that take place.3. Here. .

f is area of ESP cross section. .a w™ y C ! C 0 ™ exp( (  x)) f v (8) C is the particle density. when w means particle velocity towards plate and v is the velocity moving to outlet. a is the unit collecting area in the flow way. C0 is the entry density of particle.

4 Simulation results and analysis According the above analysis of the mechanism and modeling of ESP. . we design a simple ESP simulation platform which is based on Scilab .

Fig.4 Simulation Platform .

5 Input Interface .Fig.

6 Distribution of electric field Ex .Simulation of electric field Fig.

when at the connecting way of two wires. Ex is decreased regularly from the wire at the coordinate line x. but larger when close to the collecting plate. . nearly zero. The cause of this distribution is the potential.we can find that around the wires. Ex is no more than zero. Ex get a largest value. at the connecting way of wires.

7 Distribution of electric field Ey .Simulation of electric field Fig.

Simulation of particles density distribution Fig.8 Particle density distribution in ESP .

From Fig. The density reaches the largest value at the entry of the ESP under the influence of electric wind.8. The value of density gets smallest near the wire at the direction to collecting plate. we see the particles density distribution obviously. .

9 Distribution of deposit density .Simulation of deposit density Fig.

along the collecting plate deposit density is decreased definitely. the particle is collected by the plate continuously.9 shows us the deposit density. and reasonable. the deposit density is lower.Fig. So at the later part. since as time go on. .

The simulation results of these processes are according with laboratory experimental tests to obtain physical information and useful validations. .‡ CONCLUSION we construct a numerical model of electrostatic precipitator and design base on Scilab.

The End Thanks .

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