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# Thermodynamics

Coverage

 Thermodynamic Properties
 Conservation of Energy
 First Law of Thermodynamics
 Non-Flow Work
 Steady-Flow Work
 Ideal Gas
 Processes
 Second Law of Thermodynamics
 Gas Cycles (Carnot, Otto)
Definitions

##  Thermodynamics- a branch of physical sciences that treats of

various phenomena of energy and the related properties of
matter, especially of the laws of transformation of heat into
other forms of energy and vice versa.
Definitions
1. Fluid - a working substance that exists , or is regarded as existing , as a
continuum characterized by low resistance to flow and the tendency to
assume the shape of its container.

## 2. Pure substance - one that is homogeneous in composition and

homogeneous and invariable in chemical aggregation.

## 3. System- the part of the universe that we choose to study. It is a region

enclosed by specific boundaries, which may be imaginary, either fixed or
moving.

## 4. Surroundings - contain systems, some of which may affect the particular

system under study, such as source of heat.

## 5. Boundary- the surface dividing the system from the surroundings. A

boundary allowing matter to be exchanged is called “permeable.”
Definitions
Systems can be:

 Open: Mass and Energy can transfer between the System and
the Surroundings
 Closed: Energy can transfer between the System and the
Surroundings, but NOT mass
 Isolated: Neither Mass nor Energy can transfer between the
System and the Surroundings
Thermodynamic
Properties
PART ONE
Two classes of properties
 Intensive properties
- independent of the mass
- independent of the size of the system
( ex. Pressure, temp., density)
 Extensive properties
- dependent of upon the mass of the system and are total
values
- depend on the size of the system
(total volume, total internal energy)
 Specific properties
- Per unit mass, and are intensive by definition such as
specific volume
System of Units
Newton’s second law of motion states that
“ the acceleration of a particular body is directly
proportional to the resultant force acting on it and inversely
proportional to its mass.”
Rearranging:

## Now enables us to define a force unit in terms of the mass,

length, and time in any system of units
Systems of units where k is unity but not dimensionless:
 cgs system: 1 dyne force accelerates 1 gm mass at 1 cm/s2
 mks system: 1 newton force accelerates 1 kg forcee at 1 m/s2
 fps system: 1 lb force accelerates 1 slug mass at 1 ft/s2

## Systems of units where k is NOT unity:

If the same word is used for both mass and force in a given system, k
is neither unity nor dimensionless.

##  1 lb force accelerates a lb of mass at 32.174 ft/s2

 1 gm force accelerates a gm of mass at 980.66 cm/s2
 1 kg force accelerates a 1 kg mass at 9.8066 m/s2

## Conversion of kg force to Newtons?

Conversion of slug to lb force?
Mass and Weight
 The mass of a body is the absolute quantity of matter in it.
 The weight of a body means the force of gravity Fg on the body.

##  At or near the surface of the earth, k and g are numerically equal, so

are m and Fg
Variation of g-force with height
Example
1. Two masses, one of 10 kg and the other unknown, are
placed on a scale in a region where g = 9.67 m/sec2. The
combined weight of these two masses is 174.06 N. Find the
unknown mass in kg and lbm.

## 2. Note that the gravity acceleration at equatorial sea level is g

= 32.088 fps2 and that its variation is -0.003 fps2 per 1000 ft
ascent. Find the height in miles above this point for which (a)
the gravity acceleration becomes 30.504 fps2, (b) the weight
of a given man is decreased by 5%. (c) What is the weight if
a 180 lbm man atop the 29,131-ft Mt. Everest in Tibet, relative
to this point?
Density(ρ)
- mass of a substance per unit volume

## Density of Water = 1000 kg/m3

Density of Air (SSLC) = 1.225 kg/m3
= 0.0023769 slugs/ft3
Density of Mercury= 13,534 kg/m3
Specific Volume (v)
- is the volume of a unit mass

## Specific Weight (ϒ)

- the force of gravity of any substance on unit volume
Example
1. Two liquids of different densities (ρ1 = 1500 kg/m3, ρ2 = 500
kg/m3) are poured together into a 100-L tank, filling it. If the
resulting density of the mixture is 800 kg/m3, find the
respective quantities of liquids used. Also, find the weight of
the mixture; local g = 9.675 mps2
Example
1. Two liquids of different densities (ρ1 = 1500 kg/m3, ρ2 = 500
kg/m3) are poured together into a 100-L tank, filling it. If the
resulting density of the mixture is 800 kg/m3, find the
respective quantities of liquids used. Also, find the weight of
the mixture; local g = 9.675 mps2
Ans. 80 kg, 45kg and 35kg, 78.93 kgf
Pressure
 The standard reference atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg , 760
torrs , 101325 Pa, 14.696 psi or 1 atm.
Measuring Pressure
 Manometers
 Absolute pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure

##  Absolute pressure is less than atmospheric pressure

Gage Pressure

Atmospheric Pressure
 A barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure
6. A fluid moves in a steady flow manner between two sections
in a flow line. At section 1: A1 = 10ft2, v1 = 100 fpm, v1 = 4
ft3/lb. At section 2: A2 = 2 ft2, ρ2 = 0.20 lb/ft3. Calculate (a)
the mass flow rate and (b) the speed at section 2.

## 7. A cylindrical drum (2-ft diameter, 3 ft-height) is filled with a

fluid whose density is 40 lb/ft3. Determine (a) the total
volume of fluid, (b) its total mass in pounds and slugs, © its
specific volume, and (d) its spec. weight where g = 31.90
fps2.
6. A fluid moves in a steady flow manner between two sections
in a flow line. At section 1: A1 = 10ft2, v1 = 100 fpm, v1 = 4
ft3/lb. At section 2: A2 = 2 ft2, ρ2 = 0.20 lb/ft3. Calculate (a)
the mass flow rate and (b) the speed at section 2.
Ans. 15000 lb/h, 10.42 fps

## 7. A cylindrical drum (2-ft diameter, 3 ft-height) is filled with a

fluid whose density is 40 lb/ft3. Determine (a) the total
volume of fluid, (b) its total mass in pounds and slugs, © its
specific volume, and (d) its spec. weight where g = 31.90
fps2.
Ans. 9.43 ft3, 377.2 lb, 11.72 slugs,
0.025ft3/lb, 39.66 lb/ft3
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

PART TWO
1. During a steady flow process, the pressure of the
working substance drops from 200 to 20 psia, the
speed increases from 200 to 1000 fps, the internal
energy of the open system decreases 25 Btu/lb, and
the specific volume increases from 1 to 8 ft3/lb. No
heat is transferred. Sketch an energy diagram.
Determine the work per lb. Is it done on or by the
substance? Determine the work in hp for 10 lb per
min. (1 hp = 42.4 Btu/min)
2. During a reversible process executed by a nonflow system,
the pressure increases from 344.74 Kpaa to 1378.96 Kpaa in
accordance with PV= C, and the internal energy increases
22,577 J; the initial volume is V1 = 85l. Find the heat.

## 3. A reciprocating compressor draws in 500 cubic feet per

minute of air whose density is 0.079 lb/cu ft. At the suction, p1
= 15psia; at discharge, p2 = 80psia. The increase in specific
internal energy is 33.8 Btu/lb and the heat transferred from
the air by cooling is 13 Btu/lb. Determine the work on the air
in Btu/min and in hp. Neglect change in kinetic energy.
Ans. 56.25 hp
4. Steam enters a turbine stage with an enthalpy of 3628 kJ/kg
at 70 m/s and leaves the same stage with an enthalpy of
2846 kJ/kg and a velocity of 124 m/s. Calculate the work
done by the steam.
5. A centrifugal pump operating under steady flow conditions
deliver 2270 kg/min of water from an initial pressure of 82740
Pa to a final pressure of 275800 Pa. The diameter of the inlet
pipe to the pump is 15.24 cm and the diameter of the
discharge pipe is 10.16 cm. What is the work?
5. Steam flows through a turbine at the rate of 100 lb/min with
change in K = 0 and Q = 0. At entry, its pressure is 175 psia, its
volume is 3.16 ft3/lb, and its internal energy is 854.6 Btu/lb.
What hp is developed? What if the heat loss from the turbine
is 10 Btu/lb of steam
Ans. 861 hp, 839 hp
IDEAL GAS
LAWS AND PROPERTIES
PART THREE
Ideal Gas
 An ideal gas is ideal only in the sense that it conforms to the
simple perfect gas laws
 Boyle’s Law
If the temperature of a given quantity of gas is held
constant, the volume of the gas varies inversely with the absolute
pressure during a change of state
Ideal Gas
 Charles’ Law
 1. If the pressure on a particular quantity of gas is held constant then,
with any change in state, the volume will vary directly as the absolute
temperature.

##  2. If the volume of particular quantity of gas is held constant, then,

with any change of state , the pressure will vary directly as the
absolute temperature
Ideal Gas
 Equation of State
 Combining Boyle’s and Charles’ Law
Ideal Gas
Problems:
1. A drum 6 in. in diameter and 40 in. long contained acetylene
at 250 psia and 90degF. After some of the acetylene was used,
the pressure was 200 psia and the temperature was 85degF.
What proportion of the acetylene was used? What volume
would the used acetylene occupy at 14.7 psia and 80degF? R for
acetylene is 59.35 ft-lb/lb.R
Ideal Gas
Specific Heat
 Is defined as the quantity of heat required to change the
temperature of unit mass through one degree
𝑑𝑄
𝑐= 𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑄 = 𝑚𝑐𝑑𝑇
𝑚𝑑𝑇
2
𝑄 = 𝑚 න 𝑐𝑑𝑇
1
2
𝑄 = 𝑚𝑐 න 𝑑𝑇 = 𝑚𝑐(𝑇2 − 𝑇1 )
1

## (constant specific heat)

Constant Volume Specific Heat
If the volume stays constant, nothing moves and no
work is done.
Ideal Gas
Constant Volume Specific Heat

𝑄 = ∆𝑈 + 𝑊

𝑏𝑢𝑡, 𝑊 = 0

𝑄 = 𝑚𝑐𝑣 (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 )
Constant Pressure Specific Heat
Work done by an expanding gas, constant
pressure:
Ideal Gas
Constant Pressure Specific Heat
𝑄 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝 𝑇2 − 𝑇1
2
𝑄 = ∆𝑈 + 𝑊 = ∆𝑈 + න 𝑝𝑑𝑉
1

𝑄 = ∆𝑈 + 𝑝 𝑉2 − 𝑉1

𝑄 = 𝑈2 − 𝑈1 + 𝑝2 𝑉2 − 𝑝1 𝑉1

𝑄 = 𝐻2 − 𝐻1 = ∆𝐻
Ideal Gas
Ratio of Specific Heats
𝑐𝑝
𝑘= >1
𝑐𝑣
Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas
 Joule states that the change of internal energy of an ideal gas
is a function of only the temperature change
∆𝑈 = 𝑚𝑐𝑣 𝑇2 − 𝑇1
 Whether the volume remains constant or not

## Enthalpy of an Ideal Gas

 The change in enthalpy of an ideal gas is
∆𝐻 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝 𝑇2 − 𝑇1
 Whether the pressure remains constant or not
Ideal Gas
Relation between cp and cv
From h = u + pv and pv = RT
dh = du + RdT
𝑐𝑝 𝑑𝑇 = 𝑐𝑣 𝑑𝑇 + 𝑅𝑑𝑇
𝑐𝑝 = 𝑐𝑣 + 𝑅
𝑅
𝑐𝑣 =
𝑘−1
𝑘𝑅
𝑐𝑝 =
𝑘−1
Ideal Gas
Entropy
 Property which remains constant if no heat enters or leaves
the substance, while it does work or alters its volume
2
𝑑𝑄 𝑑𝑄
𝑑𝑆 = 𝑜𝑟 ∆𝑆 = න
𝑇 1 𝑇
2 2
𝑚𝑐𝑑𝑇 𝑑𝑇
∆𝑆 = න = 𝑚𝑐 න
1 𝑇 1 𝑇
𝑇2
∆𝑆 = 𝑚𝑐 𝑙𝑛
𝑇1
(constant specific heat)
Ideal Gas
TS Coordinates
𝑑𝑄 = 𝑇𝑑𝑆
2
𝑄 = න 𝑇𝑑𝑆
1

The area under the curve of the TS plane represents that quantity
of heat transferred during the process
Ideal Gas
− ‫ 𝑝𝑑𝑉 ׬‬Relation
2
− න 𝑉𝑑𝑝 = 𝑊𝑠 + ∆𝐾
1

## (reversible steady flow, ∆𝑃 = 0)

The area behind the curve of the pV plane represents
the work of a steady flow process when ∆𝐾 = 0, or
it represents ∆𝐾 when 𝑊𝑠 = 0.
Ideal Gas
Problems:
 1. For a certain ideal gas, R = 0.277 KJ/kg-K and K= 1.384. a)
what are the values of cp and cv? b) what mass of this gas
would occupy a volume of 0.425 m3 at 517.11Kpa and 26.7
0C? If 31.65 KJ are transferred to this gas at constant volume in
b) what are the resulting temperature and pressure?
 2. The temperature of an ideal gas remains constant while the
absolute pressure changes from 103.4 Kpaa to 827.2 Kpaa. a)
If the initial volume is 80 l, what is the final volume? For 160g of
the gas determine the change of density expressed as a
percentage of the initial density.
Ideal Gas
Problems:
 3. A 10-ft3 tank contains gas at a pressure of 500 psia,
temperature of 85degF and a weight of 25 pounds. A part of
the gas was discharged and the temperature and pressure
changed to 70degF and 300 psia. Heat was applied and the
temperature was back to 85 deg F. Find the final weight,
volume , and pressure of the gas.
Ans. 15.43 lb, 10 ft3, 308.5 psia
IDEAL GAS
PROCESSES
PART FOUR
The Ideal Gas
 Isochoric Processes
The Ideal Gas
 Isobaric Processes
The Ideal Gas
 Isothermal Processes
The Ideal Gas
 Isothermal Processes
Ideal Gas
Problems:
 1. Ten cu feet of air at 10 psia and 400 F is cooled to 140 F at
constant volume. What are (a) the final pressure, (b) the work,
(c ) the change of internal energy, (d) the transferred heat,
(e) the change of enthalpy, and (f) change in entropy?
Ideal Gas
Problems:
 2. A perfect gas has a value of R = 319.2 J/kg-K and k = 1.26. If
120 kJ are added to 2.27 kg of this gas at constant pressure
when the initial temperature is 32.2 C, find (a) T2, (b) change
in enthalpy, (c ) change in internal energy, (d) and work for a
nonflow process
Ideal Gas
Problems:
 3. During a reversible process there are abstracted 317 kJ/s
from 1.134 kg/s of a certain gas while the temperature remains
constant at 26.7 C. For this gas, Cp = 2.232 and Cv = 1.713
kJ/kg-K. The initial pressure is 586 kPa. For a nonflow, determine
(a) V1, V2, and p2, (b) the work and Q, (c ) change in entropy
and enthalpy.
Ideal Gas
Problems:
 1. During an isentropic process of 1.36 kg/s of air, the
temperature increases from 4.44 C to 115.6 C. For a nonflow
process, find (a ) change in internal energy, (b) work, (c )
change in enthalpy and entropy, and (d) Q.
Ideal Gas
Problems:
 2. From a state defined by 300 psia, 100 cu ft., and 240 F,
helium undergoes an isentropic process to 0.3 psig. Find (a) V2
and t2, (b) change in internal energy and enthalpy, (c )
nonflow work, (d) Q and change in entropy, what is the work if
the process is steady flow with change in K = 10 Btu?
GAS CYCLES
HEAT ENGINES
PART FIVE
Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle
A heat engine is a device that converts heat
into work. A classic example is the steam
engine. Fuel heats the water; the vapor
expands and does work against the piston; the
vapor
condenses back
into water again
and the cycle
repeats.
Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle

## All heat engines have:

• a high-temperature
reservoir
• a low-temperature
reservoir
• a cyclical engine
These are illustrated
schematically here.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
An amount of heat Qh is supplied from the hot
reservoir to the engine during each cycle. Of
that heat, some appears as work, and the rest,
Qc, is given off as waste heat to the cold
reservoir.

## The efficiency is the fraction of the heat

supplied to the engine that appears as work.
Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle
The efficiency can also be written:

## In order for the engine to run, there must

be a temperature difference; otherwise
heat will not be transferred.
Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle

## The maximum-efficiency heat engine is

described in Carnot’s theorem:
If an engine operating between two constant-
temperature reservoirs is to have maximum efficiency, it
must be an engine in which all processes are reversible.
In addition, all reversible engines operating between the
same two temperatures, Tc and Th, have the same
efficiency.
This is an idealization; no real engine can be
perfectly reversible.
Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle

## If the efficiency depends only on the two

temperatures, the ratio of the temperatures
must be the same as the ratio of the transferred
heats. Therefore, the maximum efficiency of a
heat engine can be written:
Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle
The maximum work a heat engine can do is
then:

## If the two reservoirs are at the same

temperature, the efficiency is zero; the
smaller the ratio of the cold temperature to
the hot temperature, the closer the
efficiency will be to 1.
The Third Law of Thermodynamics
Absolute zero is a temperature that an object
can get arbitrarily close to, but never attain.
Temperatures as low as 2.0 x 10-8 K have been
achieved in the laboratory, but absolute zero
will remain ever elusive – there is simply
nowhere to “put” that last little bit of energy.
This is the third law of thermodynamics:
It is impossible to lower the temperature of an object to
absolute zero in a finite number of steps.
The Carnot Cycle
• Idealized thermodynamic cycle consisting of four reversible processes
(any substance):
 Reversible isothermal expansion (1-2, TH=constant)
 Reversible adiabatic expansion (2-3, Q=0, THTL)
 Reversible isothermal compression (3-4, TL=constant)
 Reversible adiabatic compression (4-1, Q=0, TLTH)

## 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-1

The Carnot Cycle-2
Work done by gas = PdV, area under
the process curve 1-2-3.

PdV>0
2

## Work done on gas = PdV, area under

the process curve 3-4-1
subtract
1
Net work 1 Since dV<0
2 PdV<0

2
4 3 3
 Analysis of the Carnot Cycle
𝑄𝐴 = 𝑇1 𝑆2 − 𝑆1
𝑄𝑅 = 𝑇3 (𝑆4 − 𝑆3 )
𝑄𝑅 = −𝑇3 𝑆3 − 𝑆4 = −𝑇3 𝑆2 − 𝑆1

𝑊 = 𝑄𝐴 − 𝑄𝑟 = 𝑇1 𝑆2 − 𝑆1 − 𝑇3 𝑆2 − 𝑆1

𝑊 (𝑇1 − 𝑇3 )(𝑆2 − 𝑆1 )
𝑒= =
𝑄𝐴 𝑇1 (𝑆2 − 𝑆1 )

(𝑇1 − 𝑇3 )
𝑒=
𝑇1
Example
Let us analyze an ideal gas undergoing a Carnot cycle between two
temperatures TH and TL.

##  1 to 2, isothermal expansion, DU12 = 0

QH = Q12 = W12 = PdV = mRTHln(V2/V1)

##  2 to 3, adiabatic expansion, Q23 = 0

(TL/TH) = (V2/V3)k-1  (1)

##  3 to 4, isothermal compression, DU34 = 0

QL = Q34 = W34 = - mRTLln(V4/V3)

##  4 to 1, adiabatic compression, Q41 = 0

(TL/TH) = (V1/V4)k-1  (2)

## From (1) & (2), (V2/V3) = (V1/V4) and (V2/V1) = (V3/V4)

th = 1-(QL/QH )= 1-(TL/TH) since ln(V2/V1) = ln(V4/V3)

It has been proven that th = 1-(QL/QH )= 1-(TL/TH) for all Carnot engines
since the Carnot efficiency is independent of the working substance.
Carnot Efficiency
A Carnot heat engine operating between a high-temperature source
at 900 K and reject heat to a low-temperature reservoir at 300 K. (a)
Determine the thermal efficiency of the engine. (b) If the temperature
of the high-temperature source is decreased incrementally, how is the
thermal efficiency changes with the temperature.
1

T 300 Lower TH
  1 L
1  0.667  66.7% 0.8

Efficiency
th
TH
900 0.6
Th( T )
Fixed T  300( K ) and lowering T
L H
0.4

0.2
300
 (T )  1 
th H 0
T H
200 400 600 800 1000
T
The higher the temperature, the higher the "quality" Temperature (TH)
1
of the energy: More work can be done
0.8 Increase TL
Efficiency 0.6
Fixed T  900( K ) and increasing T
H L
TH( TL )
0.4

T
 (T )  1  L
0.2
th H
900 0
200 400 600 800 1000
TL
Temperature (TL)
Mean Effective Pressure
𝑊
𝑝𝑚 =
𝑉𝐷
𝑉𝐷 = displacement volume, the volume swept by the piston in one
stroke
MEP is the average constant pressure that, acting through one
stroke, will do on the piston the net work of a single cycle
𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛
Expansion ratio =
𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑏𝑒𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛

Compression ratio =
𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑉4
Isentropic compression ratio, 𝑟𝑘 =
𝑉1