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Coverage

Thermodynamic Properties

Conservation of Energy

First Law of Thermodynamics

Non-Flow Work

Steady-Flow Work

Ideal Gas

Processes

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Gas Cycles (Carnot, Otto)

Definitions

various phenomena of energy and the related properties of

matter, especially of the laws of transformation of heat into

other forms of energy and vice versa.

Definitions

1. Fluid - a working substance that exists , or is regarded as existing , as a

continuum characterized by low resistance to flow and the tendency to

assume the shape of its container.

homogeneous and invariable in chemical aggregation.

enclosed by specific boundaries, which may be imaginary, either fixed or

moving.

system under study, such as source of heat.

boundary allowing matter to be exchanged is called “permeable.”

Definitions

Systems can be:

Open: Mass and Energy can transfer between the System and

the Surroundings

Closed: Energy can transfer between the System and the

Surroundings, but NOT mass

Isolated: Neither Mass nor Energy can transfer between the

System and the Surroundings

Thermodynamic

Properties

PART ONE

Two classes of properties

Intensive properties

- independent of the mass

- independent of the size of the system

( ex. Pressure, temp., density)

Extensive properties

- dependent of upon the mass of the system and are total

values

- depend on the size of the system

(total volume, total internal energy)

Specific properties

- Per unit mass, and are intensive by definition such as

specific volume

System of Units

Newton’s second law of motion states that

“ the acceleration of a particular body is directly

proportional to the resultant force acting on it and inversely

proportional to its mass.”

Rearranging:

length, and time in any system of units

Systems of units where k is unity but not dimensionless:

cgs system: 1 dyne force accelerates 1 gm mass at 1 cm/s2

mks system: 1 newton force accelerates 1 kg forcee at 1 m/s2

fps system: 1 lb force accelerates 1 slug mass at 1 ft/s2

If the same word is used for both mass and force in a given system, k

is neither unity nor dimensionless.

1 gm force accelerates a gm of mass at 980.66 cm/s2

1 kg force accelerates a 1 kg mass at 9.8066 m/s2

Conversion of slug to lb force?

Mass and Weight

The mass of a body is the absolute quantity of matter in it.

The weight of a body means the force of gravity Fg on the body.

are m and Fg

Variation of g-force with height

Example

1. Two masses, one of 10 kg and the other unknown, are

placed on a scale in a region where g = 9.67 m/sec2. The

combined weight of these two masses is 174.06 N. Find the

unknown mass in kg and lbm.

= 32.088 fps2 and that its variation is -0.003 fps2 per 1000 ft

ascent. Find the height in miles above this point for which (a)

the gravity acceleration becomes 30.504 fps2, (b) the weight

of a given man is decreased by 5%. (c) What is the weight if

a 180 lbm man atop the 29,131-ft Mt. Everest in Tibet, relative

to this point?

Density(ρ)

- mass of a substance per unit volume

Density of Air (SSLC) = 1.225 kg/m3

= 0.0023769 slugs/ft3

Density of Mercury= 13,534 kg/m3

Specific Volume (v)

- is the volume of a unit mass

- the force of gravity of any substance on unit volume

Example

1. Two liquids of different densities (ρ1 = 1500 kg/m3, ρ2 = 500

kg/m3) are poured together into a 100-L tank, filling it. If the

resulting density of the mixture is 800 kg/m3, find the

respective quantities of liquids used. Also, find the weight of

the mixture; local g = 9.675 mps2

Example

1. Two liquids of different densities (ρ1 = 1500 kg/m3, ρ2 = 500

kg/m3) are poured together into a 100-L tank, filling it. If the

resulting density of the mixture is 800 kg/m3, find the

respective quantities of liquids used. Also, find the weight of

the mixture; local g = 9.675 mps2

Ans. 80 kg, 45kg and 35kg, 78.93 kgf

Pressure

The standard reference atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg , 760

torrs , 101325 Pa, 14.696 psi or 1 atm.

Measuring Pressure

Manometers

Absolute pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure

Gage Pressure

Atmospheric Pressure

A barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure

6. A fluid moves in a steady flow manner between two sections

in a flow line. At section 1: A1 = 10ft2, v1 = 100 fpm, v1 = 4

ft3/lb. At section 2: A2 = 2 ft2, ρ2 = 0.20 lb/ft3. Calculate (a)

the mass flow rate and (b) the speed at section 2.

fluid whose density is 40 lb/ft3. Determine (a) the total

volume of fluid, (b) its total mass in pounds and slugs, © its

specific volume, and (d) its spec. weight where g = 31.90

fps2.

6. A fluid moves in a steady flow manner between two sections

in a flow line. At section 1: A1 = 10ft2, v1 = 100 fpm, v1 = 4

ft3/lb. At section 2: A2 = 2 ft2, ρ2 = 0.20 lb/ft3. Calculate (a)

the mass flow rate and (b) the speed at section 2.

Ans. 15000 lb/h, 10.42 fps

fluid whose density is 40 lb/ft3. Determine (a) the total

volume of fluid, (b) its total mass in pounds and slugs, © its

specific volume, and (d) its spec. weight where g = 31.90

fps2.

Ans. 9.43 ft3, 377.2 lb, 11.72 slugs,

0.025ft3/lb, 39.66 lb/ft3

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

PART TWO

1. During a steady flow process, the pressure of the

working substance drops from 200 to 20 psia, the

speed increases from 200 to 1000 fps, the internal

energy of the open system decreases 25 Btu/lb, and

the specific volume increases from 1 to 8 ft3/lb. No

heat is transferred. Sketch an energy diagram.

Determine the work per lb. Is it done on or by the

substance? Determine the work in hp for 10 lb per

min. (1 hp = 42.4 Btu/min)

2. During a reversible process executed by a nonflow system,

the pressure increases from 344.74 Kpaa to 1378.96 Kpaa in

accordance with PV= C, and the internal energy increases

22,577 J; the initial volume is V1 = 85l. Find the heat.

minute of air whose density is 0.079 lb/cu ft. At the suction, p1

= 15psia; at discharge, p2 = 80psia. The increase in specific

internal energy is 33.8 Btu/lb and the heat transferred from

the air by cooling is 13 Btu/lb. Determine the work on the air

in Btu/min and in hp. Neglect change in kinetic energy.

Ans. 56.25 hp

4. Steam enters a turbine stage with an enthalpy of 3628 kJ/kg

at 70 m/s and leaves the same stage with an enthalpy of

2846 kJ/kg and a velocity of 124 m/s. Calculate the work

done by the steam.

5. A centrifugal pump operating under steady flow conditions

deliver 2270 kg/min of water from an initial pressure of 82740

Pa to a final pressure of 275800 Pa. The diameter of the inlet

pipe to the pump is 15.24 cm and the diameter of the

discharge pipe is 10.16 cm. What is the work?

5. Steam flows through a turbine at the rate of 100 lb/min with

change in K = 0 and Q = 0. At entry, its pressure is 175 psia, its

volume is 3.16 ft3/lb, and its internal energy is 854.6 Btu/lb.

What hp is developed? What if the heat loss from the turbine

is 10 Btu/lb of steam

Ans. 861 hp, 839 hp

IDEAL GAS

LAWS AND PROPERTIES

PART THREE

Ideal Gas

An ideal gas is ideal only in the sense that it conforms to the

simple perfect gas laws

Boyle’s Law

If the temperature of a given quantity of gas is held

constant, the volume of the gas varies inversely with the absolute

pressure during a change of state

Ideal Gas

Charles’ Law

1. If the pressure on a particular quantity of gas is held constant then,

with any change in state, the volume will vary directly as the absolute

temperature.

with any change of state , the pressure will vary directly as the

absolute temperature

Ideal Gas

Equation of State

Combining Boyle’s and Charles’ Law

Ideal Gas

Problems:

1. A drum 6 in. in diameter and 40 in. long contained acetylene

at 250 psia and 90degF. After some of the acetylene was used,

the pressure was 200 psia and the temperature was 85degF.

What proportion of the acetylene was used? What volume

would the used acetylene occupy at 14.7 psia and 80degF? R for

acetylene is 59.35 ft-lb/lb.R

Ideal Gas

Specific Heat

Is defined as the quantity of heat required to change the

temperature of unit mass through one degree

𝑑𝑄

𝑐= 𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑄 = 𝑚𝑐𝑑𝑇

𝑚𝑑𝑇

2

𝑄 = 𝑚 න 𝑐𝑑𝑇

1

2

𝑄 = 𝑚𝑐 න 𝑑𝑇 = 𝑚𝑐(𝑇2 − 𝑇1 )

1

Constant Volume Specific Heat

If the volume stays constant, nothing moves and no

work is done.

Ideal Gas

Constant Volume Specific Heat

𝑄 = ∆𝑈 + 𝑊

𝑏𝑢𝑡, 𝑊 = 0

𝑄 = 𝑚𝑐𝑣 (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 )

Constant Pressure Specific Heat

Work done by an expanding gas, constant

pressure:

Ideal Gas

Constant Pressure Specific Heat

𝑄 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝 𝑇2 − 𝑇1

2

𝑄 = ∆𝑈 + 𝑊 = ∆𝑈 + න 𝑝𝑑𝑉

1

𝑄 = ∆𝑈 + 𝑝 𝑉2 − 𝑉1

𝑄 = 𝑈2 − 𝑈1 + 𝑝2 𝑉2 − 𝑝1 𝑉1

𝑄 = 𝐻2 − 𝐻1 = ∆𝐻

Ideal Gas

Ratio of Specific Heats

𝑐𝑝

𝑘= >1

𝑐𝑣

Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas

Joule states that the change of internal energy of an ideal gas

is a function of only the temperature change

∆𝑈 = 𝑚𝑐𝑣 𝑇2 − 𝑇1

Whether the volume remains constant or not

The change in enthalpy of an ideal gas is

∆𝐻 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝 𝑇2 − 𝑇1

Whether the pressure remains constant or not

Ideal Gas

Relation between cp and cv

From h = u + pv and pv = RT

dh = du + RdT

𝑐𝑝 𝑑𝑇 = 𝑐𝑣 𝑑𝑇 + 𝑅𝑑𝑇

𝑐𝑝 = 𝑐𝑣 + 𝑅

𝑅

𝑐𝑣 =

𝑘−1

𝑘𝑅

𝑐𝑝 =

𝑘−1

Ideal Gas

Entropy

Property which remains constant if no heat enters or leaves

the substance, while it does work or alters its volume

2

𝑑𝑄 𝑑𝑄

𝑑𝑆 = 𝑜𝑟 ∆𝑆 = න

𝑇 1 𝑇

2 2

𝑚𝑐𝑑𝑇 𝑑𝑇

∆𝑆 = න = 𝑚𝑐 න

1 𝑇 1 𝑇

𝑇2

∆𝑆 = 𝑚𝑐 𝑙𝑛

𝑇1

(constant specific heat)

Ideal Gas

TS Coordinates

𝑑𝑄 = 𝑇𝑑𝑆

2

𝑄 = න 𝑇𝑑𝑆

1

The area under the curve of the TS plane represents that quantity

of heat transferred during the process

Ideal Gas

− 𝑝𝑑𝑉 Relation

2

− න 𝑉𝑑𝑝 = 𝑊𝑠 + ∆𝐾

1

The area behind the curve of the pV plane represents

the work of a steady flow process when ∆𝐾 = 0, or

it represents ∆𝐾 when 𝑊𝑠 = 0.

Ideal Gas

Problems:

1. For a certain ideal gas, R = 0.277 KJ/kg-K and K= 1.384. a)

what are the values of cp and cv? b) what mass of this gas

would occupy a volume of 0.425 m3 at 517.11Kpa and 26.7

0C? If 31.65 KJ are transferred to this gas at constant volume in

b) what are the resulting temperature and pressure?

2. The temperature of an ideal gas remains constant while the

absolute pressure changes from 103.4 Kpaa to 827.2 Kpaa. a)

If the initial volume is 80 l, what is the final volume? For 160g of

the gas determine the change of density expressed as a

percentage of the initial density.

Ideal Gas

Problems:

3. A 10-ft3 tank contains gas at a pressure of 500 psia,

temperature of 85degF and a weight of 25 pounds. A part of

the gas was discharged and the temperature and pressure

changed to 70degF and 300 psia. Heat was applied and the

temperature was back to 85 deg F. Find the final weight,

volume , and pressure of the gas.

Ans. 15.43 lb, 10 ft3, 308.5 psia

IDEAL GAS

PROCESSES

PART FOUR

The Ideal Gas

Isochoric Processes

The Ideal Gas

Isobaric Processes

The Ideal Gas

Isothermal Processes

The Ideal Gas

Isothermal Processes

Ideal Gas

Problems:

1. Ten cu feet of air at 10 psia and 400 F is cooled to 140 F at

constant volume. What are (a) the final pressure, (b) the work,

(c ) the change of internal energy, (d) the transferred heat,

(e) the change of enthalpy, and (f) change in entropy?

Ideal Gas

Problems:

2. A perfect gas has a value of R = 319.2 J/kg-K and k = 1.26. If

120 kJ are added to 2.27 kg of this gas at constant pressure

when the initial temperature is 32.2 C, find (a) T2, (b) change

in enthalpy, (c ) change in internal energy, (d) and work for a

nonflow process

Ideal Gas

Problems:

3. During a reversible process there are abstracted 317 kJ/s

from 1.134 kg/s of a certain gas while the temperature remains

constant at 26.7 C. For this gas, Cp = 2.232 and Cv = 1.713

kJ/kg-K. The initial pressure is 586 kPa. For a nonflow, determine

(a) V1, V2, and p2, (b) the work and Q, (c ) change in entropy

and enthalpy.

Ideal Gas

Problems:

1. During an isentropic process of 1.36 kg/s of air, the

temperature increases from 4.44 C to 115.6 C. For a nonflow

process, find (a ) change in internal energy, (b) work, (c )

change in enthalpy and entropy, and (d) Q.

Ideal Gas

Problems:

2. From a state defined by 300 psia, 100 cu ft., and 240 F,

helium undergoes an isentropic process to 0.3 psig. Find (a) V2

and t2, (b) change in internal energy and enthalpy, (c )

nonflow work, (d) Q and change in entropy, what is the work if

the process is steady flow with change in K = 10 Btu?

GAS CYCLES

HEAT ENGINES

PART FIVE

Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle

A heat engine is a device that converts heat

into work. A classic example is the steam

engine. Fuel heats the water; the vapor

expands and does work against the piston; the

vapor

condenses back

into water again

and the cycle

repeats.

Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle

• a high-temperature

reservoir

• a low-temperature

reservoir

• a cyclical engine

These are illustrated

schematically here.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

An amount of heat Qh is supplied from the hot

reservoir to the engine during each cycle. Of

that heat, some appears as work, and the rest,

Qc, is given off as waste heat to the cold

reservoir.

supplied to the engine that appears as work.

Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle

The efficiency can also be written:

be a temperature difference; otherwise

heat will not be transferred.

Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle

described in Carnot’s theorem:

If an engine operating between two constant-

temperature reservoirs is to have maximum efficiency, it

must be an engine in which all processes are reversible.

In addition, all reversible engines operating between the

same two temperatures, Tc and Th, have the same

efficiency.

This is an idealization; no real engine can be

perfectly reversible.

Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle

temperatures, the ratio of the temperatures

must be the same as the ratio of the transferred

heats. Therefore, the maximum efficiency of a

heat engine can be written:

Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle

The maximum work a heat engine can do is

then:

temperature, the efficiency is zero; the

smaller the ratio of the cold temperature to

the hot temperature, the closer the

efficiency will be to 1.

The Third Law of Thermodynamics

Absolute zero is a temperature that an object

can get arbitrarily close to, but never attain.

Temperatures as low as 2.0 x 10-8 K have been

achieved in the laboratory, but absolute zero

will remain ever elusive – there is simply

nowhere to “put” that last little bit of energy.

This is the third law of thermodynamics:

It is impossible to lower the temperature of an object to

absolute zero in a finite number of steps.

The Carnot Cycle

• Idealized thermodynamic cycle consisting of four reversible processes

(any substance):

Reversible isothermal expansion (1-2, TH=constant)

Reversible adiabatic expansion (2-3, Q=0, THTL)

Reversible isothermal compression (3-4, TL=constant)

Reversible adiabatic compression (4-1, Q=0, TLTH)

The Carnot Cycle-2

Work done by gas = PdV, area under

the process curve 1-2-3.

PdV>0

2

the process curve 3-4-1

subtract

1

Net work 1 Since dV<0

2 PdV<0

2

4 3 3

Analysis of the Carnot Cycle

𝑄𝐴 = 𝑇1 𝑆2 − 𝑆1

𝑄𝑅 = 𝑇3 (𝑆4 − 𝑆3 )

𝑄𝑅 = −𝑇3 𝑆3 − 𝑆4 = −𝑇3 𝑆2 − 𝑆1

𝑊 = 𝑄𝐴 − 𝑄𝑟 = 𝑇1 𝑆2 − 𝑆1 − 𝑇3 𝑆2 − 𝑆1

𝑊 (𝑇1 − 𝑇3 )(𝑆2 − 𝑆1 )

𝑒= =

𝑄𝐴 𝑇1 (𝑆2 − 𝑆1 )

(𝑇1 − 𝑇3 )

𝑒=

𝑇1

Example

Let us analyze an ideal gas undergoing a Carnot cycle between two

temperatures TH and TL.

QH = Q12 = W12 = PdV = mRTHln(V2/V1)

(TL/TH) = (V2/V3)k-1 (1)

QL = Q34 = W34 = - mRTLln(V4/V3)

(TL/TH) = (V1/V4)k-1 (2)

th = 1-(QL/QH )= 1-(TL/TH) since ln(V2/V1) = ln(V4/V3)

It has been proven that th = 1-(QL/QH )= 1-(TL/TH) for all Carnot engines

since the Carnot efficiency is independent of the working substance.

Carnot Efficiency

A Carnot heat engine operating between a high-temperature source

at 900 K and reject heat to a low-temperature reservoir at 300 K. (a)

Determine the thermal efficiency of the engine. (b) If the temperature

of the high-temperature source is decreased incrementally, how is the

thermal efficiency changes with the temperature.

1

T 300 Lower TH

1 L

1 0.667 66.7% 0.8

Efficiency

th

TH

900 0.6

Th( T )

Fixed T 300( K ) and lowering T

L H

0.4

0.2

300

(T ) 1

th H 0

T H

200 400 600 800 1000

T

The higher the temperature, the higher the "quality" Temperature (TH)

1

of the energy: More work can be done

0.8 Increase TL

Efficiency 0.6

Fixed T 900( K ) and increasing T

H L

TH( TL )

0.4

T

(T ) 1 L

0.2

th H

900 0

200 400 600 800 1000

TL

Temperature (TL)

Mean Effective Pressure

𝑊

𝑝𝑚 =

𝑉𝐷

𝑉𝐷 = displacement volume, the volume swept by the piston in one

stroke

MEP is the average constant pressure that, acting through one

stroke, will do on the piston the net work of a single cycle

𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛

Expansion ratio =

𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑏𝑒𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛

Compression ratio =

𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑉4

Isentropic compression ratio, 𝑟𝑘 =

𝑉1

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