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Presented By: Mitul S. Shah ( CP1809)
Department of Construction Project & Management CEPT University
y Environmental crisis has endangered the planet to a great
extent and hence it is necessary to adopt green technologies.
y Construction industry which is responsible for generation
of approximately 20-25% (CPCB, New Delhi ) of the total pollution on earth.
y General notion of Green Building technologies not being
affordable is not always true and lot of new technologies are being found which are affordable for producing economical green buildings.
y To identify the possible green building technologies for
y To propose an ideal green building model for affordable
housing in Ahmedabad:
y EWS/ MIG Housing, Affordable Green Building Case
Study for Ahmedabad with special emphasis on technologies like Grey-Water Recycling, Hot-Water Plumbing and Rain Water Harvesting etc.
y Venkatraman (2004) states that steel, cement, glass,
aluminum, plastics, bricks, etc. are energy-intensive materials, commonly used for building construction. demand for buildings by adopting only energy efficient traditional materials (like mud, thatch, timber, etc.) and construction methods. resources and raw materials to produce simple, energy efficient, environment friendly and sustainable building alternatives and techniques to satisfy the increasing demand for buildings.
y On the other hand, it is difficult to meet the ever-growing
y There is a need for optimum utilization of available energy
Al(2009): .y Elements of a Rain-Water Harvesting System can be given as below according to Che Ani et.
Typical Installation of a Rain Water Harvesting System in a Building according to Brandt (2003). .
y It has been estimated by Lechte(1992) that water savings in the range of 18%-29% for an average household could be achieved by reusing greywater. According to Shipton (2003).y Schneider (2005) defines Greywater as wastewater having the consistency and strength of residential domestic type wastewater. but does not include toilet or urinal waters. Greywater includes wastewater from sinks. In the Melbourne Urban System this translates to overall savings of roughly 60 giga litres a year. and laundry fixtures. showers. y Greywater reuse in gardens has the potential to replace about 18% of the current domestic water demand. .
Kovalio and Galil(2005) suggested this method for On-Site Grey water recycling Source: Friedler. Kovalio and Galil(2005) .y Friedler.
Kovalio and Galil(2005) after the implementation of previous mentioned system.y Friedler. were able to get the following results: Source: Friedler. Kovalio and Galil(2005) .
y Klien (2005) states that in some homes. Energy is wasted in inefficient systems where hot water is wasted or sits in pipes unused. the design of the plumbing system is such that water is wasted while the user is waiting for hot water to arrive at the end fixture. y Warren (2007) says that hot water delivery in the home has y Emphasis on energy efficiency has led the energy regulatory organizations and utilities to sponsor the study and development of alternative and improved designs for the efficient delivery of hot water in the home . an energy component as well.
The cold water is recycled back to the main inlet water tank and the savings of water are possible. Source: Klien (2005) . by a push button you can start the cycle and wait for a particular time until the water gets hot. we cannot save the cold water that might be going away.Here you can see that in a normal plumbing system. In a closed loop system.
y No provision of an actual model which reduces the cost of the rainwater harvesting system. Their application in a colonial environment of a LIG/MIG housing has not been studied upon. recycling technology making it affordable for the LIG/MIG groups.y Sustainable materials costing has not been studied upon which plays a very important role in their use in Affordable housing. ( Cost Analysis also not done ) y No work done on bringing down the cost of the Grey Water y Hot Water Plumbing is still in the conception stage and a standard model has not been proposed of using it in buildings and their efficiency and costing studies have also not been done .
Transmitting Water Structural Elements Furniture. Walls. Door Window Frames Roofing Systems Roofing Systems Paints Cost 3. Pipes Doors. 7. 11. Partition Walls Furniture. No 1. 6.Sr. 3. BPC Hyderabad Industries Locally at Site Aerocon Industries Nippon Paints . 4.5 Rs/Piece NA Durability/ Manufacturers Life 50 yrs Locally at Site 25 Yrs 15 yrs 20 Yrs 20 Yrs 25 Yrs 50 Yrs 80 Yrs Local M/S Patel Corp SEWA NA Locally at Site Locally at Site Locally at Site Remarks 1200to 1400/m3 20 Rs per 2x2 piece 20 Rs/Block 27 Rs/Block Reduces Cement Price by 30% 8 Rs/ Block 30 Rs/m 20% Lesser than Normal Concrete 150 Rs for 19mm thick sheet NA 10 Rs/Block 15% Costlier than Normal Paints 9. 10. 8. 15 Yrs 10 Yrs 80 Yrs 25 Yrs 30 Yrs 25 Yrs 5 Yrs Locally at Site NA L&T. 5. 15. 12. 13. Window Frames. Concrete components Flooring Masonry Masonry All Concrete Applications as substitute for Normal Cement Masonry Pipes. 14. Furniture Tiles. 2. Walls. Material Fly-Ash Bricks with Thermocol Pellets Bamboo Recycled Material Plywood Recycled Concrete Industrial Waste Tiles Fine Concrete Blocks Steam Cured Blocks Lime Pozzolana Cement Stabilized Mud Blocks Earthen Pipes Lightweight Concrete Granular PPE Boards Pre-Cast Roofs Aero-Cool Blocks Low VOC Paints Applications Masonry.
Site Layout and positioning of RWH System (Proposed) .y Shrinand Nagar V is located on Vejalpur-Makarba Road. an extra 3" thick (average) layer of brick-bat concrete and terrace tiles in addition to the usual thickness of the slab. Parking + Five floors on stilts with lift. Two/Three bedroom apartments of 980-1510 sq. ft. Fig. y At the terrace level. totaling 7" thick for better thermal insulation and rainwater capture.
First Flush Pipe and Sedimentation Pipe .y First Flush pipe is used to divert the water from first rain due to presence of impurities. impurities. y Sedimentation pipe is used to hold the water to filter out larger Fig.
y Screening jali provided which will filter out larger debris if not filtered by sedimentation pipe (Size: 2mm) Fig.y Gravel and Sand Based filter system for Rainwater.Screen and Filter Details for RWH System .
5.8 4. Ft Remarks Rainwater Harvesting has been tested for this block. Ft 3. 2BHK Apartments Total Terrace Area Value 980 Sq. For Flushing out the First impure rainwater For cleaning of the debris from the rainwater For Water from Bore/Municipal Sources 2.5 3 6. 1. Rainwater Harvesting Done . Amount of Area from which the Rainwater can be harvested.No. Ceramic Terrace tiles with impervious concrete layer. 2 Lakh Litres Water Tank RCC Yes 7.Sr.B. 1750 Sq. Data ShriNandNagar-V Block. 2. Run-Off Coefficient From the type of Tiles Pipe: First Flush Pipe Pipe: Sedimentation Pipe Normal Water Tank 0.
6.25 ft 1. Data Type Rainwater Harvesting Module Type Size of the Module Gravel Layer Depth Sand Layer Depth Capacity of Filtration Capacity of Adjoining Tank Capacity of Main Tank( Proposed) Transportation Mode Submersible Pump Capacity Cost of Submersible Pump Cost of Filtration Module Cost of Pipes Maintenance Period Maintenance Costs Difficulties Encountered Value Gravel-Sand Based 4ft x 5ft x 5ft 2. 7.5 lakh litres By Pipes 7. 11. No. 15. 5.5 HP 7500 Rs/Pump Unit 15000 Rs/Unit 14000-20000 For Block B Remarks Two Stage based Filtration Module For Primary Filtration For Secondary Filtration Capacity wont fully be achieved Tank for only Block B How is RW conserved water. transported Pump to transport it to OH tank Single Unit without Pipes Constructed All Pipes for the System Start of Rainy Season Approximate Sedimentation Pipe choking also observed. 16. 4. 3.Sr. 12 13. 2.25 ft 10000 litres/hr 50000 litres 7. 14. Calculation as mentioned in Analysis stage 1 Year 5500 Rs/Block Frequent Blockages during Rainy Season. 10. 8. Approximate amount of water 75000 Litres Saved . 9. 1.
y Modules filters collected rain water and then pass it for various functions like artificial recharging of bore wells Fig.y Rain water harvesting systems are installed at Nirma Institute.Site Layout of Nirma University .
bituminous layer and Sand Filters.y Rain water harvesting systems are provided by Furaat Systems. y Contains of three layers of Filters which would be gravel. Fig.RWH Modules installed at Nirma University .
Fig.Rainwater Harvesting System Details at Nirma University .
7. Mt Remarks Rainwater Harvesting has been tested for this block. Ahmedabad Value Total Blocks from where RW is only the Girls Hostel Blocks 1600 Sq. Data Nirma University. Pipe: First Flush Pipe Pipe: Sedimentation Pipe 3´ 3´ For Flushing out the First impure rainwater For cleaning of the debris from the rainwater 6. 3.Sr. Ceramic Terrace tiles with impervious concrete layer. 5.85 4. Total Terrace Area Amount of Area from which the Rainwater can be harvested.No. 1. Run-Off Coefficient From the type of Tiles 0. 2. Normal Water Tank Rainwater Harvesting Done 5 Lakh Litres Water Tank RCC Yes For Water from Bore/Municipal Sources .
14.3 Nos Made in M30 Concrete For Primary Filtration For Secondary Filtration Capacity wont fully be achieved Tank for only Block B How is RW conserved water. 17. 6.500 Litres Saved Calculation as mentioned in Analysis stage . 9. 8. 3.5 ft 30000 litres/hr 500000 litres By Pipes 55 HP 60000 Rs/Pump Unit 30000 Rs/Unit 20000-25000 Per Block 2 Year 10000 Rs/Module None Remarks Three Stage based Filtration Module.5ft diameter x 6ft depth 2 ft 2. 2. 11. No. 12 13. Data Type Value Rainwater Harvesting Module Furaat Company Prepared Type Module Size of the Module Gravel Layer Depth Sand Layer Depth Capacity of Filtration Capacity of Adjoining Tank Transportation Mode Submersible Pump Capacity Cost of Submersible Pump Cost of Filtration Module Cost of Pipes Maintenance Period Maintenance Costs Difficulties Encountered 2.Sr. 10. 15. 4. 16. transported Pump to transport it to OH tank Single Unit without Pipes Constructed All Pipes for the System Start of Rainy Season Approximate NA TDS Observed 40 TDS Approximate amount of water 8. 1. 5.71.
y The jar is made from a simple brick cylinder. Can be used to combine all such units to divert water to tank . y The cover is made from ferro-cement mortar and a filter basin is used. A tap brings water out at the right height for a jerry can. y Data Capacity Filtration Rate Cost Maintenance Period Remarks Value 750 Litres 100 Litres/hr 2500 Rs/Module 1 Month @ 400 Rs.The brick jar was developed to make use of this common local building material.
y The technology involves using chicken wire sandwiched between layers of cement mortar. A shaped mould is made from sacks and filled with sawdust. Data Capacity Filtration Rate Cost Value 500 Litres 100 Litres/hr 1900 Rs/Module y y Maintenance Period 1 Month @ 500 Rs. . The mould is then plastered with sand/cement paste in a ratio of 3:1. This is then covered with 1/2" chicken wire and given a second coat of mortar. Remarks Can be combined to form a network system .
Grey Water Recycling system was installed for every such block and the details of the following are as follows: Fig.Grey Water Recycling System .Ltd. and are nearby the developing Bhandup area.Mahindra Splendor is a 3-BHK premium green building apartments which are being developed by Mahindra Life-spaces Pvt .
5. 2. 18. Ltd Three Stage based Filtration Module. 15.5ft diameter x 5 ft 5000 Litres 500 litres/hr 5000 litres 350 litres 10mm Screen 2mm main Filter Chlorine Tablet Based Disinfection 45000 Rs. Per Block 15 HP 25000 Rs/Module 1 Year 1.50. 17. 10. Grey Water Recycling System Manufacturer GWR System Type Size Capacity of the GWR System Filtration Rate Capacity of Adjoining Tank Sedimentation Tank Capacity Primary Filter Size & Material Secondary Filter Material and Size Disinfection Module Details Cost of Pipes Submersible Pump Provided Maintenance Costs Maintenance Period Cost Water Amount Generated for GWR Approximate amount of water Saved Hydrochem Industries Pvt. 14. 8. 9.3 Nos 3-Stage Filtration and Disinfection System 2. 12 13. Data Type Value Remarks 1.25.Sr. 4. No. 6. 16.000 Litres Calculation as mentioned in Analysis stage Approximate NA Total System minus Pipes Steel Based System One Module Size Design Handling Rate for GWR System Capacity wont fully be achieved Tank for only Block B GW Held at this tank before filter Debris Removal Removal of 60% impurities Removal of Bacteria All Pipes for the System . 3. 11.000/ System 9600 Litres/Day 18.
70. 8.000/ System 15000 Litres/Day 25. Germany 2-Stage Filtration and Disinfection System 2ft diameter x 5 ft 300 Litres equivalent to 6000 Litres 75 litres/hr 7500 litres NA 20 Micron Screen NA Chlorination Tank Based Treatment NA 30 HP 40000 Rs/System 2 Year 3. 6.50. 11. 12 13. No. 14. 4. 10.Sr. 16. 15. 2. 3. 5. 17. 9. 1. Data Type Grey Water Recycling System Manufacturer GWR System Type Size Capacity of the GWR System Filtration Rate Capacity of Adjoining Tank Sedimentation Tank Capacity Primary Filter Size & Material Secondary Filter Material and Size Disinfection Module Details Cost of Pipes Submersible Pump Provided Maintenance Costs Maintenance Period Cost Water Amount Generated for GWR Approximate amount of water Saved Value BRAC Systems.000 Litres Remarks Two Stage Filtration System-20 Nos HDPE Polymer Based System One Module Size Design Handling Rate for GWR System Capacity wont fully be achieved Storage Tank Removal of Impurities Removal of Bacteria All Pipes for the System Approximate NA Total System minus Pipes Treated Water will be 6000 Litres Calculation as mentioned in Analysis stage . 18.
y Decision Matrix has then been applied for selecting which material will be suitable for a particular component.y Various factors have been identified. . y A Factor Comparison matrix has been selected to identify which material would be suitable for the Enclosure of Space i. Masonry which would include the internal. by us which would be the determining criteria for the selection of a particular green material for the affordable housing.e. non-load bearing partition walls as well.
5. No.Sr. 1. 8. 4. 6. 2. 2. Difference Major Difference Medium Difference Points 3 2 Table: Point Allocation Table Table: Factors Identified for Consideration . 10. 3. No 1. 9. Factor Cost Safety ( Earthquakes) Safety ( Access) Durability Strength Thermal Performance Maintenance Ease of Construction Time of Construction Availability of Material Quality as Green Material Code A B C D E F G H I J K 3. 7. 11. 4. Minor Difference No Difference 1 0 Sr.
B A A0 B C A0 B0 C D A1 B1 C1 D E A2 B1 C1 E1 E F A2 B2 C2 F1 E2 F G A3 B2 C2 D2 E2 F1 G H A3 B2 C2 D2 E3 F2 G1 H I A2 B2 C3 D1 E3 F2 G1 I1 I J A2 B2 C2 D1 E2 F3 G2 H2 I3 J K A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F0 G2 H0 I2 J1 K Total 16 13 14 7 14 9 6 2 6 1 0 Fig.Factor Comparison Matrix for Green Materials .
6. 9.Sr. 8. 11. 3. 5. 4. 1. 2. 7. Factor Cost Safety ( Earthquakes) Safety ( Access) Durability Strength Thermal Performance Maintenance Ease of Construction Time of Construction Availability of Material Quality as Green Material Code A B C D E F G H I J K Points 16 13 14 7 14 9 6 2 6 1 1 Rank 1 4 2 6 3 5 7 9 8 10 11 . No. 10.
Pt. Scale Excellent 5 Cost Safety (EQ) Safety (Access) Durability Strength Thermal Performance Mainte nance Ease of Construction Time of Constructi on Availabilit y Quality as Green Material Total Score Very Good 4 Good Fair Poor Proposal for Masonry 3 2 1 Weightage for Criteria A 16 B 13 C 14 D 7 E 14 F 9 G 6 H 2 I 6 J 5 K 5 Fly-Ash Bricks w/ Pellets 3 48 4 52 4 52 5 65 3 39 4 52 4 52 4 56 3 42 4 56 2 28 3 42 3 42 3 21 3 21 4 28 2 14 4 28 3 21 4 56 4 42 5 70 3 42 4 56 3 42 3 27 3 27 2 18 5 45 3 27 3 27 3 18 4 24 4 24 2 12 4 24 4 24 4 8 3 12 2 8 2 8 3 12 4 16 3 18 2 12 2 12 2 12 3 18 4 24 4 20 3 15 3 15 3 15 2 10 2 10 5 25 4 20 3 15 5 25 2 10 3 15 350 Fine Concrete Blocks 3 48 315 Steam Cured Blocks 1 16 327 Stabilized Mud Blocks 4 64 304 Lime Cement Concrete Blocks 2 32 312 Lightweight Concrete 2 32 305 .
Poor Aesthetics Good Quality Sr. 5.Table s etc. Components 1. 2 6 4 5 6. Paints 3. Results can be formulated as below: Material Fly-Ash Bricks With Pellets Fine Concrete Blocks Steam Cured Concrete Blocks Stabilized Mud Blocks Lime-Cement Concrete Lightweight Concrete Points Obtained 350 315 327 304 312 305 Ranking 1 3 2. Structural Components Material to be Used Lime-Cement Concrete Remarks Instead of Normal Cement Sr. 5. y Additionally we can also select by adopting similar method for the furniture. No. paints. 6. flooring and other components of an Affordable House. 4. Flooring Recycled Concrete Tiles Nippon Paints Tables: Results and Discussion from Decision Matrix for Green Materials . the Fly-Ash bricks with Thermocol pellets are the most suitable material for using as masonry in the affordable housing projects.y Thus we can see that from the decision matrix we obtain that from all the criteria. 2. No. Doors/Windows Masonry Furniture PPE Board Plywood Fly-Ash Bricks Bamboo As Stated Chairs. 4. 3. 1.
Rs. 5000/year 4. Sr. 15000/ 20 Years Operation Cost Rs. 5.Government Provides Subsidy. 2. No 1. 15000/ 20 Years 5. Maintenance Costs Operation Cost Replacement Cost Rs. 25000 Table: LCC components for Furaat Based System Table: LCC components for Brick-Jar System . No 1. 30000 Rs. 3500/year Allied Construction Costs Maintenance Costs Rs. Replacement Cost Rs. 4000/year Sr. Cost Component Initial Cost Cost Rs. CSR Criteria by various companies. Initial costing might be high but it can be supported by giving the RWH Systems EMI Basis (Where the Tenants pay the cost gradually). 4500/year Rs. 4. Support from NGO s. 3. 25000 2. 3. PSU Bank Loans/Schemes. 15000 Rs. Cost Component Initial Cost Allied Construction Costs Cost Rs.Most effective and the method which would give the most realistic result would be the Life Cycle Costing of the system.
10.Ft Cost/Yr/Sq.20) Cheaper RWH System 40000 + 7500(P/A.10.20) Remarks Value Total Sq.76 Rs/Yr/Sq.000 + 9500(P/A.20 = 8.76 Rs P/A. Ferro-cement Jar method which would give a costing of 5.10.55 Rs 1.Ft house for an EWS family would only be 1150 Rs.5136 Thus we can see that there is apparent difference in the initial cost.Data Formula Quality RWH System 55./Yr which will amount to 100 Rs/month.5 Rs 5.852 1500 69.Ft to an user which is very less and can be easily manageable by residents of an Affordable housing scheme or an EWS housing scheme. .60 Rs 7. as well as in the maintenance costs of the two systems.35.03.Ft LC Cost/Sq. 1500 90.904 Rs.Ft 1. The costs can be elucidated by considering that the total cost for a 150 Sq.
000+80.62.000+35000+40000 y = 1.Calculation for Costs y (Initial Costs + Allied Construction costs (A/P.40.1175)+40.750+1.000+27.000 1. 20)) + Maintenance Costs + Replacement Costs + Operational Costs y = 4.20.098 y = 3.R= Present Worth of All Benefits y Present Worth of all Costs y = 2.000 Rs.000 .000 (0.250 y = 3.C.00. y y Benefit Cost Ratio y B.000 Rs.62.40. 10.11. y y Calculation of Benefits y Benefits due to Direct Water Saving + Benefits due to Treatment Costs Saving + Benefits Due to Flood Savings + Benefits Due to GW Recharge y = 1.
y Salvage value would be zero for this case as the systems would not be usable and cannot be salvaged. y It is assumed that the life cycle costing or the economic life of the project is 20 years and the interest rate would be 10%.y Components to be considered or the factors that are needed to calculate the particular LCC for the GWR System are given below. .
The costs can be elucidated by considering that the total cost for a 150 Sq.10./Yr which will amount to 500 Rs/month .00 Rs.Ft house for an EWS family would only be 5400 Rs.Data Formula Site-1 GWR System 1. 1500 433.10.000 1500 500 Rs 42 Rs P/A.000 + 65000(P/A.Ft LC Cost/Sq.20 = 8.e.50.4 Rs 36 Rs 7.Ft to an user which is a bit on the higher side and cannot be easily managed by residents of an Affordable housing scheme or an EWS housing scheme.50.Ft Cost/Yr/Sq. the system provided by Hydrochem Industries which would give a costing of 36 Rs/Yr/Sq.50.5136 If we select the method which has lesser initial costs i.20) Remarks Value Total Sq.20) Site-2 GWR System 3.10.Ft 6.50.000 + 50000(P/A.
From that we could conclude that the total cost for implementing a Brick-Jar method of RWH system would only come out to Rs. rainwater harvesting and grey water recycling are the technologies which can be successfully applied to the Affordable housing projects. 2) 3) 4) . Innovative green materials. maintenance costs. 100/month for the occupants. Factor Comparison matrix and Decision Matrix along with LCC and Social Benefit cost analysis were applied to find out the relevant technology. initial costs and operational costs were studied to find out the appropriate technology to be used in the project. Analysis for the Ground Water Recycling was done and it is found that the total cost of implementing a GW recycling system comes out to be 500Rs/month/unit which is very high.1) Various technologies for Affordable green buildings were identified and from that we can conclude that. Factor Comparison method and Decision Matrix system were also applied to find out the relevant green materials to be implemented in an affordable housing project and it was found that Fly Ash Bricks with Pellets along with other materials for various components should be applied to produce an affordable green building. Data was collected from two sites for Grey water recycling and Rainwater harvesting and efficiency.
y To find out the economics of bulk production of various y To rate the model on a green building rating scale with y Hot Water Plumbing Applications in affordable housing . provisions related to India such as IGBC Green Rating scale and TERI. technologies on the cost aspect of the products and how it can be made affordable by bulk purchasing. can be evaluated.GRIHA rating scale.y To convert or modify the present costly technologies of Green Buildings into possible applications for Affordable green building housing.
Lechte P. pp 1-9 Chung K. Vol. (2005). Robert Andoh. Kovalio R. 15. pp 1-36 y y y y y y . On-Site Grey Water Recycling in multistory building . and Shari N. (1999). Rainwater Harvesting as a future supply method . 12. Installation and Evaluation of Domestic Grey Water Recycling Systems . 34. Vol. (2008). and Patterson R. Affordable Rainwater Harvesting Techniques: A collaborative research effort . pp 132-140 Friedler E.. pp 10-18 Brennan J. (2005). Victoria University Journals.. (2007). 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage.L.. Proceedings.I. 25. BC Green Building Code: Lighthouse SGBC. Economic Analysis of Grey Water Recycling . Proceedings. Water Science and Technology Journal. CRP 3840:Green Cities.y Amos Kabo-Bah.A. Samuel Nii Odai and Kwabena Osei (2008). and White P. Vol. Greywater Recycling: Background Research . and Galil N. pp 187-194 Johnson P.I. DOCE. 1st International Conference: Wastewater treatment technologies. European Journal of Scientific Research. Shipton R. pp 25-57 Che Ani A. pp 1-20 Christoph-Boal D. Grey Water Recycling: Understanding Grey water recycling systems in present and future urban contexts . Vol. (2004).A.
3. Proceedings. (2009). Special Section. and Karunakaran K.. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. pp 1-9 y Reddy Venkatramana. pp 25-31 .2 . pp 1-16 y Sayana V. Greywater Reuse: Impact of Chemicals on Households . Innovation and Technology for On-site Systems Conference. India: a case study in an educational institution campus . No. (2004). y Schneider L.5.A. Vol. Sustainable Building Technologies: Application to Rural Areas S&T Application Journal. Vol. Rule Development Committee Research Issue.V. pp 15-22 y Weissenbacher P.. Müllegger T.B. Groundwater responses to artificial recharge of rainwater in Chennai. Greywater Reuse in Washington state .. Ravichandran S.y Patterson R. (2005).. NASPA Research Journals. Mahesh Kumar L. Arunbabu E. 3 No. B.M. pp 5-15. (2006). Combined greywater reuse and rainwater harvesting in an office building in Austria: analyses of practical operation .
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