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gradual wearing and degeneration of articular cartilage PRIMARY OR SECONDARY:e.g., age related or rheumatic jt dz. intra articular fractures Region:-patello femoral :-tibio femoral
patello femoral-ant compartment pain -abnormal q-angle,tilt,rotation -flat feet -knock knees -abnormal tracking of patella Ix:- X-ray skyline view - CT or MRI
med. Compartment -genu varum lat. Compartment -genu valgum Ix:- X-ray- standing WB - 30 degree knee flexion
overuse. misalignment of the patella. and soccer players. common in runners and is also seen in skiers. .Chondromalacia patella softening of the articular cartilage of patella most often in young adults Suprolateral aspect of dorsal surface of patella Injury. cyclists. also feel pain when climbing stairs or when the knee bears weight as it straightens. Symptoms dull pain around or under the kneecap worsens when walking down stairs or hills.
sharp pain. and locking of the joint.Osteochondritis dessecance loss of the blood supply may be due to a slight blockage of a small artery or to an unrecognized injury or tiny fracture that damages the overlying cartilage to an area of bone underneath a joint surface. several family members the disorder is inherited. Symptoms If normal healing doesn t occur. Ix MRI . arises spontaneously in an active adolescent or young adult. cartilage separates from the diseased bone and a fragment breaks loose into the knee joint. causing weakness. affected bone and its covering of cartilage gradually loosen and cause pain. may eventually develop osteoarthritis.
ages of 10 and 15 Symptoms Pain at tibial tuberosity worsens with activity and is relieved by rest.Osgood-Schlatter Disease Repetitive stress or tension on part of the growth area of the upper tibia (the apophysis). few months and may recur until the child s growth is completed. boys . A painful bony bump The motion of the knee is not affected.tendon is stretched so much that it tears away from the tibia and takes a fragment of bone Active young people. Ix X-ray .
Osgood-Schlatter Disease .
cycling. . difficult for a person to bend. or lift the leg against gravity. jumper s knee ( basketball). or jumping. Overuse in dancing.pain during running. extend. hurried walking. In complete inj. or running. After repeated stress.Tendon Injuries range from tendinitis to a ruptured tendon. the tendon may become inflamed or tear. Symptoms tenderness at patellar tendon .
A fatigued muscle cannot relax as easily when its opposing muscle contracts to strains Dx:-------------Ix:MRI . This frequently happens with the hamstring muscles. so the hamstring may become fatigued faster than the quadriceps. the imbalance can lead to a strain. The quadriceps muscles are usually much more powerful.Muscle strain When one muscle group is much stronger than its opposing muscle group.
. Adductor Hamstring .
Ligament injuries ACL :ant translation of tibia PCL :post translation tibia MCL :medial instability LCL :lateral instability .
and the leg may buckle when you try to stand on it.Cruciate ligaments ACL -by a sudden twisting motion when the foot is steady on ground PCL is most often injured by a direct impact. Dx Ant. -in an automobile accident or football tackle. drawer test post drawer test ------Ix MRI . Symptoms You may hear a popping sound.
Symptoms When injury to the medial collateral ligament occurs. Pain and swelling are common. Direct blow from the sides (football or hockey).Collateral ligaments MCL is more easily injured than the LCL. you may feel a pop and the knee may buckle sideways. Ix: MRI . Dx: Valgus-Varus stress test.
minimal swelling. Symptoms .palpable meniscal cyst. .Inner . (dribbling basketball around an opponent Or turning to hit a tennis ball). weakness of quads. middle and outer third tears.Apley s grinding test .Meniscal injuries Rotating the knee while bearing weight. locking and clicking Dx:. tender joint line .Bounce home test .Mac murrey s test .
may radiate up lat.direct injury or long-term overuse(sports training . Dx Ix MRI . .running. normal knee motion. SNAP may be heard during extension. cycling). Symptoms Ache or burning sensation lat side of the knee during activity. Side. No Swelling .Iliotibial Band Syndrome An inflammation of IT band due to its rubing over the lateral condyle of the femure.
rheumatoid arthritis.Bursitis Definition Bursitis is inflammation of the fluid-filled sac (bursa) that lies between a tendon and skin. gout. They assist movement and reduce friction between moving parts. trauma. idiopathic. or between a tendon and bone. Symptoms Joint pain and tenderness Swelling Warmth over the joint Ix MRI . infection. Causes Bursitis can be caused by chronic overuse. Chronic inflammation can occur with repeated injuries or attacks of bursitis.
Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the Tibia Congenital absence of the Tibia & Fibula Congenital dislocation of the Knee Multipartite Patella Congenital angulation of Tibia Congenital hyperlaxity of Joints .
Quadriceps paralysis Ruptures of Quadriceps apparatus Genu varum Genu valgum Genu recurvatum Tibia vara .
Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the Tibia .
Congenital absence of the Tibia & Fibula .
Congenital dislocation of the Knee .
Multipartite Patella .
Congenital angulation of Tibia .
Congenital hyperlaxity of Joints .
Quadriceps paralysis Polio myelitis Femoral neuropathy TB spine PIVD .
upper and lower pole .tibial tubercle .Ruptures of Quadriceps apparatus The muscle Tendon Tendo-ossious junction .
Femoral condyle (4) Elongated patellar tendon (5) Deficient vastus medialis (6) External tibial torsion or Lat insertion of patellar tendon (7)Medial capsular laxity (8) Abnormal attachment of IT band on patella.Dislocation of Patella Outward displacement of the Patella is resisted by certain anatomical structures(VMO. retinacula ) (1)Direct trauma (2) Genu valgum (3) Shallow Lat. .capsule. med.
repeated strains at the attachment of the patellar tendon or quadriceps tendon interfere with normal ossification perhaps by limiting blood supply Often associated with Osgood-Schlatter Dz . usually boys(10-14). Unknown cause.Larsen Johanson Dz Osteochondritis of poles of patella adolescents.
Rickets rarely .Epiphyseal injury to medial portion of tibia . .Genu varum Bowlegs is condition of outward angulation of knee deviating longitudinal axis of tibia and femur medially.
Rickets when B/L . . .# dislocation of outer part of epiphyseal plate .Pronated feet .Genu valgum Knock.knee consists of medial angulation of the knee and outward deviation of longitudinal axis of tibia and femure.
. consequently the posterior condyles grow larger in contrast with the anterior portions. Regardless oe the site of deformity Sx correction is confined to the upper end of the tibia. It is also caused by muscle imbalance .Genu recurvatum Backward bowing of knee is most commonly due to injury to ant. as in poliomyelitis and by equinus deformity of foot which throws the in hyperextension. part of lower femoral or upper tibial epiphyseal plate.
Tibia vara Developmental condition characterized by disturbance of the orderly sequence of endochondral ossification at the upper end of tibia affecting the medial portion of the growth plate mainly in its posteromedial aspect. .No hereditary factor . Commonly In infants and children. More evident in Wt bearing. In adolescents it is in milder form and results in longitudinal growth retardation.Idiopathic -Both sexes equally affected -West Indies and West Africa -Appears early and progresses rapidly in blacks. An abrupt angulation develops at metaphysis while the diaphysis remains straight. Etiology:. . pes planovalgus develops secondarily.
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apply ice and an elastic bandage to the knee.Plica Syndrome Plica (pronounced PLI-kah) syndrome occurs when plicae (bands of synovial tissue) are irritated by overuse or injury. and locking and weakness of the knee. A cortisone injection into the plica folds helps about half of those treated. . If treatment fails to relieve symptoms within 3 months. Treatment The goal of treatment for plica syndrome is to reduce inflammation of the synovium and thickening of the plicae. plicae remain as four folds or bands of synovial tissue within the knee. and do strengthening exercises. Diagnosis usually depends on excluding other conditions that cause similar symptoms. Injury. Synovial plicae are the remains of tissue pouches found in the early stages of fetal development. If this process is incomplete. these pouches normally combine to form one large synovial cavity. The doctor usually prescribes medicine such as ibuprofen to reduce inflammation. Symptoms Symptoms of plica syndrome include pain and swelling. or inflammatory conditions are associated with this syndrome. As the fetus develops. plica syndrome is often misdiagnosed. People are also advised to reduce activity. chronic overuse. Diagnosis Because the symptoms are similar to those of some other knee problems. a clicking sensation. the doctor may recommend arthroscopic or open surgery to remove the plicae.
" . have "knock-knees" or osteoarthritis of the knees. Infrapatellar bursitis (clergyman's knee). pain when sleeping on the side if the knees touch each other. a similar condition. and pain that travels to the back and inside of the thigh. or repeated irritation from kneeling. located just below the kneecap. or in those who are overweight. gout. injury. The prepatellar bursa is located beneath the skin and in front of the kneecap. affects the infrapatellar bursa. It can irritated in people who jog. Pes anserinus bursitis This bursa is located just beneath the knee on the inner part of the leg. Redness and/or warmth may occur with infection or gout. It becomes inflamed as a result of infection. Symptoms include swelling in the front of the knee that may be painful. pain while climbing stairs. Symptoms include pain on the inner part of the knee.
Definition Bursitis is inflammation of the fluid-filled sac (bursa) that lies between a tendon and skin. trauma. or between a tendon and bone. idiopathic. gout. rheumatoid arthritis. Chronic inflammation can occur with repeated injuries or attacks of bursitis. Symptoms Joint pain and tenderness Swelling Warmth over the joint . infection. They assist movement and reduce friction between moving parts. Causes Bursitis can be caused by chronic overuse.
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