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Synthetic and Biological Polymers

Polymers: Macromolecules formed by the covalent
attachment of a set of small molecules termed monomers.

Polymers are classified as:
(1) Man-made or synthetic polymers that are
synthesized in the laboratory;
(2) Biological polymer that are found in nature.

Synthetic polymers: nylon, poly-ethylene, poly-styrene

Biological polymers: DNA, proteins, carbohydrates

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Methods for making polymers

Addition polymerization and condensation polymerization

Addition polymerization: monomers react to form a
polymer without net loss of atoms.

Most common form: free radical chain reaction of
ethylenes

n monomers one polymer molecule
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Example of addition polymers 4 .

Free-Radical AdditionPolymerization of Ethylene H2C CH2 200 °C O2 2000 atm peroxides CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 polyethylene .

Free-Radical Polymerization of Propene H2C CHCH3 CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 polypropylene .

. . • Mechanism H2C CHCH3 .. RO .

RO: Mechanism H2C CHCH3 • .. .

RO: Mechanism H2C CHCH3 • H2C CHCH3 .. .

.. RO: Mechanism H2C CHCH3 H2C CHCH3 • .

RO: Mechanism H2C CHCH3 H2C CHCH3 • H2C CHCH3 .. .

RO: Mechanism H2C CHCH3 H2C CHCH3 H2C CHCH3 • .. .

. RO: Mechanism H2C CHCH3 H2C CHCH3 H2C CHCH3 • H2C CHCH3 ..

.. Likewise. •H2C=CHCl polyvinyl chloride •H2C=CHC6H5 polystyrene •F2C=CF2 Teflon .

Important constitutions for synthetic polymers 15 .

Supramolecular structure of polymers 16 .

Structural properties of linear polymers: conformationa l flexibility and strength 17 .

Cross linking adds tensile strength 18 .

Condensation polymerization Condensation polymerization: the polymer grows from monomers by splitting off a small molecule such as water or carbon dioxide. Example: formation of amide links and loss of water Monomers First unit of polymer + H2O 19 .

"The Graduate”. a smug Los Angeles businessman takes aside the baby-faced Dustin Hoffman and declares.just one word -.'plastics. "I just want to say one word to you -. Polymers in the movies In the 1967 movie.' " In 2005 we can replace ‘plastics’ with another word: ‘synthetic polymers’ 20 .

O OH O OH Q uickTim e™ and a Phot o . They're nylons. Benjamin. adipic acid + NH2 H2N hexamethylene diamine nylon 21 .JPEG decom pr essor ar e needed t o see t his pict ur e.Rembember from GChem? Nylon is a condensation polymer made of the monomers adipic acid and hexamethylene diamine.

Hydrogen bonds between chains Supramolecular Structure of nylon Intermolecular hydrogen bonds give nylon enormous tensile strength 22 .

Biopolymers Nucleic acid polymers (DNA. RNA) Amino acids polymers (Proteins) Sugar polymers (Carbohydrates) Genetic information for the cell: DNA Structural strength and catalysis: Proteins Energy source: Carbohydrates 23 .

Proteins: amino acid monomers The basic structure of an amino acid monomer HO NH2 H O R The difference between amino acids is the R group .

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Proteins: condensation polymers Formed by condensation polymerization of amino acids Monomers: 20 essential amino acids NH2 General structure of an amino acid H R CO2H R is the only variable group Glycine (R = H) + Glycine First step toward poly(glycine) 26 .

Representation of the constitution of a protein 27 .

Three D representation of the structure of a protein 28 .

DNA .

Thymine (T) The monomers: Adenine (A) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) Phosphate- Sugar (backbone) of DNA 30 .

Phosphate- sugar backbone holds the DNA macromolecule together 31 .

A and T 32 . G.One strand unwinds to duplicate its complement via a polymerization of the monomers C.

Carbohydrates .

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