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ELECTRICAL CONTROL

FOR ASYNCHRONOUS
MOTOR
Introduction
 Asynchronous Motor
 Principle of operation
 The rotating magnetic field
 Motor starters
Motor construction

 A three-phase asynchronous motor


comprises two main parts,
I. the stator and
II. the rotor.
Motor construction
Starting current

 Up to 8 x full-load current (FLC).


 Starting currents need to be reduced,
 Require suitable starter
Starters

 Direct-on-line (DOL) starters


 Star-delta starters
 Primary resistance starters
 Auto-transformer starters
 Rotor resistance starters
 Electronic soft starters
Starters (1/6):
Direct-on-line (DOL) starters
DOL STARTER
 Advantages
 Simplicity
 Low cost
 High starting torque

 Application limited to:


 Low power motor (<2hp), low starting current.
 High starting torque requirement (under full
mechanical load)
 Equipped driven equipped with gear box to
prevent mechanical shock to the user
DOL starter is not suitable
when:
Starters (2/6):

Star-delta starters
Star-delta starters
 Applicable for 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor
 Starting current (star) between 1.5 – 2.6 FLC
 Starting torque is between 0.2 – 0.5 nominal torque
 After 75%-80% rated speed, star contactor de-
energised and delta contactor energised
 Timer is adjusted (0-30s) during commissioning.
 Suitable for normally start off-load
 Large motor: high transient current during transition.
Starters (3/6):

Primary resistance starters


Primary resistance starters

 Start at reduced voltage


 Resistor bank in series with motor winding
 Resistor bank shorted when the motor run-up
has stabilised (motor is direct connected)
 Starting current about 4.5 FLC
 Starting torque is between 0.7 nominal torque
 High starting current can be reduced by
increase the resistance but lower torque
Starters (4/6):
Auto-transformer starters

Auto-trans current/speed Auto-trans starting torque/ speed


characteristics characteristics
Auto-transformer starters
 Start at reduced voltage from auto-trans
 The reduced voltage depends on the tapping
 completely shunts the transformer when the motor
run-up has stabilised (motor is direct connected)
 Starting current is between1.7 to 4 FLC
 Starting torque is between 0.5 to 0.85 nominal
torque
 Auto-transformer starting is particularly used for
large motors (above 100kW) but expensive.
Starters (5/6):

Rotor resistance starters

Rotor resistance current/speed Rotor resistance torque/speed


characteristics characteristics
Rotor resistance starters
 Can only be used with a wound rotor motor to
which external connections can be made,
usually via slip rings.
 The motor is started with maximum
resistance connected in series with rotor
winding.
 Various section of resistance bank shorted
progressively until normal running. (0Ω)
 The rotor winding finally is star-connected
Rotor resistance starters
 Starting current about 2 FLC
 Starting torque is double than DOL
 Ideal for high-inertia load – started under-load
 Allow the slip-ring motor to operate at high
torque regardless of speed.
Starters (6/6):
Electronic soft starters

Electronics soft-starter Electronics soft-starter


current/speed characteristics Torque/speed characteristics
Electronic soft starters
 Operate by gradually increased the voltage
 Eliminate sudden changes in voltage also
current and torque.
 By varying firing angle of 3-pairs of thyristors
in each phase the voltage can be varies
Electronic soft starters
 The peak starting current may be adjusted
between 2 and 5 times FLC,
 corresponding to a range of starting torques
from 0.1 to 0.7 times the starting torque
which would be produced if the motor were
started with a DOL starter.
Electronic soft starters
Selecting a starter

 The power rating of the machine


 Peak starting current
 Adequate starting torque
 Acceptable voltage drops when the peak
current is taken
 Economical solution
Controlling speed

 The most popular method - variable


frequency (inverter) drive.
 vary both the voltage and frequency
 wide range of control over speed,
 without loss of torque
 At low frequency, cooling provided by the motor's
built-in fan is likely to be insufficient,
Speed regulation of
asynchronous motors

 conventional
 components such as contactors and resistors
(obsolete)
 Use multi speed motor – dahlender or 2-separate
winding.
 introduction of frequency inverters
 speeds of standard motors to be accurately
controlled over a wide range.
The frequency inverter drive

 mainly for use with three-phase squirrel cage


motors.
 pulse-width modulation (PWM) to synthesise
a sinusoidal waveform
 varying frequency of the supply to the motor
 waveform is very close to sinusoidal
Inverter drive operation
Inverter drive operation
 Main circuit of a frequency inverter
Inverter drive operation
 PWM Waveform
Magnetic Motor
Starter
A Brief Guide In Designing and
Constructing Magnetic Motor
Starter
Introduction
 List of equipment
 Symbols
 Protection
 Testing
Guidelines 1/7
 The current paths are drawn in horizontally
between the vertically drawn bus bars.
RIGHT

WRONG
Guidelines 2/7
 Switching appliances, switch gears and
initiating equipment must be drawn at right
angles to the current path.

RIGHT

WRONG
Guidelines 3/7
 The direction of the current flow should be
always from left to right of the circuit.
I
L N N I L

RIGHT WRONG
Guidelines 4/7
 Crossover of lines should be avoided.

L N L N

RIGHT WRONG
Guidelines 5/7
 Apparatus and equipment must be
represented in zero volt condition (off)
L L N
N
ON
ON

RIGHT WRONG
Guidelines 6/7
 Control equipment (e.g. coils, signal lamps)
must be connected directly to the neutral
L
conductor N
L N
ON

RIGHT WRONG
Guidelines 7/7
 Current paths must be numbered
consequently and circuit elements must be
placed from left to right, depending on the
sequence of the operation
F1 F2 F3

Q1 Q2 Q3

M1 M2 M3
Types Of Control
 Direct control  Indirect control
Designing
 Protection (O/C, O/L, E/L)
 Cabling
 Initiating element (switches, push buttons)
 Holding contact
 Contact interlock
 Sequential switching
 Interchange switching
 Reset function
 Delay switching / auto-mode
 Forward-Reverse
Constructing Motor Starter
Circuit
i. Terminal numbering and tagging
ii. Start with control circuit before main circuit
iii. Looping neutral to all final control elements
iv. Connect circuit rung by rung starting from
the first rung then another consecutively
v. Mark on the diagram for each of the
completed termination
vi. Connect the main circuit just after
completed the control circuit.
Basic Components

 Initiating elements
 Final control element
 Indicator
 Protection devices
Push Buttons
Magnetic contactor
 COIL TERMINAL
 A1 & A2 –COIL

 AUXILIARY CONTACT
 43/44 – NO
 31/32 – NC

 MAIN CONTACT
 L1,L2,L3/ T1,T2,T3
Time delay relay
Relay and socket base

RELAY PIN

SOCKET BASE

TERMINAL

RELAY TERMINAL
DIAGRAM
Step resistor
Auto-transformer
Moulded case circuit breaker
Miniature Circuit Breaker

1-POLE MCB

3-POLE MCB
Residual current device

1PN RCD

TPN RCD
Thermal overload relay

MAIN CONTACT
RESET BUTTON
TRIP-CURRENT
RATING

AUXILIARY
CONTACT

TEST TRIP BUTTON