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Presented By: B65 - B75
Tea origins ± China (4th century AD). 350 A.D. Kuo P¶o¶ ± described tea as, ³a beverage made from boiled leaves.´ People - interior part of China pressed tea into brick ³currency´ to barter with other tribes. From 350 to 600 A.D., the demand for tea dramatically increased and outstripped the supply of wild tea trees.
Farmers began to grow tea plants in the Szechwan district ± soon spread to whole China. Western world ± tea introduced by Venetian writer Ramusio (16th century). 1st public sale of Tea ± England - Thomas Garway in 1657.
Introduction of Tea to India and beginning of Tea trade
In 1780 ± Tea cultivation experimented in India with seeds from China by Robert Kyd. Robert Bruce(1823) ± discovered wild tea plants growing in Upper Brahmaputra Valley. May 1838 ± Tea from Assam sent to England for public sale for 1st time.
2. . 3.Tea in India 1. Major 3 tea producing regions: Darjeeling (North-Eastern India) Assam (far North-East India) Nilgiri (South India) All 3 differ in style and flavour.
rainfall and sloping hilly terrain ± give the µMuscatel Flavor¶ to the Tea. Grows at altitudes of 600m to 2000m. Called µChampagne of Teas¶ ± finest and most uniquely flavored. .Darjeeling Found in the foothills of Himalayas. Cool moist climate.
100 to 150 inches per year. Assam is the single largest contiguous tea growing area in the world. A bright. strong cup of tea. bright tea liquor.Assam Rainfall . full-bodied. Offer rich. .
The combination of fragrance and briskness makes Nilgiri a truly unique tea in the world. Tea grown at an elevation of 1000m to 2500m. .Nilgiri Blue Mountains of Nilgiri in South India. Rainfall varies from 60 inches to 90 inches annually. elegant flavor and brisk liquor. Fine.
Apart from the above three distinct tea growing regions tea is also grown in: Arunachal Pradesh Kerala Tripura Karnataka Himachal Pradesh Manipur Nagaland Uttaranchal Mizoram & Sikkim Meghalaya Orissa Dooars and Terai of West Bengal Bihar .
using as manure in the tea field. Tea Waste ± Unfit for human consumption and used for: 1. manufacture of caffeine.Indian Tea Tea Act. 2. Tea leaves during manufacturing µMade Tea¶ in factories generate µTea waste¶. Kuntze. manufacture of Instant Tea. .1953 . 3.µTea¶ means the plant Camellia Sinensis (L) O.
Green and Black Tea Made tea or Tea manufactured from green tea leaves is generally classified into two types: 1. Green Tea . Black Tea 2.
CTC Tea (Crushing.Black Tea Two types: 1. Orthodox Tea 2. Tearing & Curling) .
Tearing & Curling. Green tea is different from Black tea since fermentation of green leaves is arrested in manufacturing green tea. CTC machine/Rotervan is used in rolling process in manufacturing CTC teas. Orthodox teas are manufactured with the help of orthodox roller in the process of rolling. CTC stands for Crushing. Orthodox tea and CTC tea. Again black tea is of two types viz. .
Sorting & Grading . Kenya produces mainly CTC teas. Withering 2. Drying 5. Rolling 3. Most of the teas produced in Sri Lanka is of µorthodox¶ variety. The tea processing in any factory in the traditional way comprises the following phases: 1. Fermentation 4.
Instant Tea ³Instant tea´: is also being manufactured in India and in few other tea producing countries of the world like Kenya and Sri Lanka. The raw materials used for manufacturing Instant tea are green tea leaves and/or tea waste. .
Tea Bags Tea. mainly the black tea is also being further processed to manufacture µtea bags¶. ³Filter papers´ is being used as packaging material for manufacture of tea bags. Instant tea and Tea bags are generally known as µconvenience tea¶ since these are convenient for consumers to get the liquor with less hazards. .
Quality of Tea The characteristic of the beverage like tea is determined by the major components of the leaf: polyphenols. 3. The caffeine is known for its stimulating effect. 2. 1. 4. the flavouring constituents and caffeine. the peptic substances. .
strength. colour. 1. 2. 5. 4. 3. briskness and character of infused leaf. . So quality means the summation of the desirable attributes comprising internal and external characters like: aroma/flavour.
Primary Factors affecting Tea Quality The quality of µtea¶ depends primarily on: 1. the growing conditions and 4. the type of bush. the nature and chemical composition of the plucked leaf 2. the kind of plucked leaf like coarseness and fineness etc. 3. .
plucking round and plucking standard are also playing the important role in determining the quality of tea. (i) Tea quality is primarily determined by the genetic properties of the tea planting and those of the tea bush in particular. . shading. rainfall are important in determining quality. genetic. environmental and cultural. (iii) Field operation like pruning. sunshine duration. humidity.Secondary Factors affecting Tea Quality The factors affecting tea quality apart from those involved in processing can be distinguished in 3 groups viz. fertilising. (ii) Both soil and climate are influencing the quality of tea. Climatic condition including temperature.
Tea therefore shall conform to the following specifications as indicated in the PFA Act.Tea Definition In order to prevent tea from any possible adulteration.0 to 8.0 percent . 1954.0 percent by weight on dry basis Not less than 32.0 percent by weight Not less than 40.0 percent of total ash Not more than 1. a) Total ash determined on tea dried to a constant weight at 100° C b) Total ash soluble in boiling distilled water c) Ash insoluble in HCL d) Extract obtained by boiling dry tea (dried to constant weight at 100° C) with 100 parts of distilled water for one hour under reflux 4. the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act. 1954 is in existence.
It shall not contain any added colouring matter or added flavouring matter.0 percent and not more than 2. Provided further that the tea used in the manufacture of flavoured tea shall conform to the standards of tea.2 percent expressed as K2O on dry basis Not more than 17.0 percent f) Crude fibre determined on tea dried to constant weight at 100° C Note:1. 3. Provided that tea for export may contain added flavour under proper label declaration. 2.e) Alkalinity of soluble ash Not less than 1. .
Tea Tasting The made tea of an estate. . is tested by the commercial tasters (generally known as broker) for determining the quality and its value. Tea tasting is aimed at describing and evaluating teas in the form of individual grades or as blended product.
briskness. During tasting the various characteristics that make up a tea liquor viz. strength. colour. of the infused leaf and of the infusion obtained by brewing the tea with boiling water. body. etc. quality and aroma or flavour. The description and evaluation include the appearance of the dry tea. are assessed individually. the taste characteristics of the infusion. commonly called the liquor. .
The type of different grade and its description is indicated below : BLACK TEA GRADES [ORTHODOX TEA] Kind of Tea Whole Leaf Broken Grade Name FP FTGF OP TG OP TGF OP 1 GF OP Nomenclature Flowery Pekoe Fine Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe . different grades are maintained.Tea Grades On the basis of the physical appearance of the made tea.
.FOP OP Broken BOP 1 GF BOP BPS GBOP Flowery Orange Pekoe Orange Pekoe Broken Orange Pekoe one Golden Flowery Broken Orange Pekoe Broken Pekoe Souchong Golden Broken Orange Pekoe These are just some of the grades and nomenclatures. Similar grading and nomenclature is done for all tea types.
iv) µEx-garden¶ sales. ii) Sales through overseas auction by sending teas on consignment basis. iii) Sales as µdirect export¶ to the importer of importing countries.Marketing of Tea Primary marketing Teas grown in the tea estates reaches to the traders of either domestic or of importing countries. The tea planter has the following four options to dispose the output through sale: i) Sales through Indian auction. .
b) Export after further processing as tea bags and/or packaging in consumer packs.Secondary marketing (with reference to India) Teas from the traders reaches to consumers of either domestic or overseas. . Indian Traders who purchase tea through Indian auctions or directly from the tea planters have the following options: a) Export in bulk packages in original form and/or export in bulk packages in blended form. d) Sale to Wholesaler/Retailer in packet form after packaging in consumer packs to reach Indian consumers. c) Sale to Wholesaler/Retailer in loose form to reach Indian consumers.
World Production 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 C a a Sr La ka e a Qua M. s. 2004 2005 2006 .
Tanzania 1% Malawi 1% Bangladesh 2% Vietnam 4% Indonesia 4% Turkey 4% World Production (2006) Others 11% Chi C ina 28% I i i I i l Malawi i h Kenya 9% Sri Lanka 9% anzania India 27% Others .
150 100 50 0 Sr L n n Ch n nd 2004 2005 2006 . g .World Export 350 300 250 200 Qu n .
World Export (2006) Tanzania 2% Zimbabwe 1% Others 7% Sri Lanka 19% Argentina 4% Malawi 3% Indonesia 6% Vietnam 7% Kenya 20% India 13% China 18% Sri Lanka Kenya China India Vietnam Indonesia Argentina Malawi Tanzania Zimbabwe Others .
Production of Tea in India 800 980 960 700 940 600 920 900 880 400 860 300 840 820 800 100 780 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 760 500 South India 200 ¡ Tota orth India .
Consumption of Tea in India opu ation i ions omesti Consumption s e Capita Consumption ams pe ead Years .
Tea Exports from India 250 200 Quan i gs 150 100 50 0 N rh ou h All India 2004 2005 2006 .
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