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   development of economic


life social organization integration
culture gender and socialization public
vs. private  occidentalism vs.
orientalism
      
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Attitudes Toward pultural
Variation
‡ Ethnocentrism ± perceive one¶s culture and
way of life as the norm or superior
üVunctionalist vs. ponflict Perspective

‡ pultural Relativism ± view people¶s behavior


from the perspective of one¶s own culture
üenocentrism ± belief that the products,
styles, or ideas of one¶s society are inferior
pultural phange
‡ Innovation ± process of introducing a new idea or
object to culture
ü-iscovery ± making known or sharing the
existence of an aspect of reality
üInvention ± existing cultural items are
combined into a form that did not previously
exist
‡ -iffusion ± process by which a cultural item is
spread from group to group
‡ Technology, communication
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Values plusters, pontradictions, and
Social phange

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E       
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Œaterial vs. Nonmaterial
pulture
‡ Œaterial pulture ± physical or technological
aspects of daily lives

‡ Nonmaterial pulture ± ways of using material


objects, customs, beliefs, governments, patterns
of communication

‡ pultural Lag ± period of maladjustment when


the nonmaterial culture is still adapting to new
material conditions
Elements of pulture
1. Language
2. Norms
3. Sanction (positive sanction and negative
sanction)
4. Values
Theoretical Perspectives

ü Vunctionalist Perspective
üpultural µcompetency¶ helps an individual
function well in society.
üSocial stability requires consensus.
üSocialization into expected standards of
behavior.
üAll cultures are legitimate: recognize
cultural uniqueness.
üpan this actually be dysfunctional?
Theoretical Perspectives
ü ponflict Perspective
üThe role of power in defining what is
mainstream, and what is deviant: whose
interests are supported?

ü-ominant Ideology ± set of cultural beliefs and


practices that help maintain powerful social,
economic, and political interests
Theoretical Perspectives
ü Symbolic interactionist
üpulture is a set of shared symbols (language,
practices) that reflect basic values and have
been:
üponstructed though social interaction
üAgreed-upon by members of the culture
üŒay be difficult to understand by non-members and
can be used to define cultural boundaries
+         2
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‡ Theory perspectives:
1 Vunctional:
‡ differences fill specialized roles, can exist within.
phange is adaptive.
1 ponflict:
‡ differences due to power imbalances or struggles.
phange represents challenges to the status quo.
1 Interactionist:
‡ new cultural forms are shaped through social
interaction or agreement
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