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RF Engineering

Continuing Education & Training

Introduction to GPRS

Prepared by:
Agilent Technologies
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Class Agenda
• Overview of GSM
• What is GPRS?
• Network Architecture
• Protocol Stack
• Air Interface
• Mobility Management
• Quality of Service
• Optimization and RF Planning
• Traffic Planning
• HSCSD, EDGE and 3G Growth Path
• Conclusions

GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 2

Class Agenda

• Overview of GSM
– Network Architecture
– Air Interface
– Additional Features
• What is GPRS?
• Network Architecture
• Protocol Stack
• Air Interface
• Mobility Management
• Quality of Service
• Optimization and RF Planning

GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 3

PCS1900.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 4 . DCS1800. Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM • Second Generation Technology • Groupe Speciale Mobile • Developed by ETSI • International wireless standard N=4 Frequency Reuse Concept • Based on the cellular concept • Frequency reuse implementation • Over 480 million subscribers • GSM900. R- GSM A n GPRS Slides (Rev A).

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 5 . Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM • All GSM documents are standardized by ETSI • Standards are grouped into 12 series • Allows for easy integration of network elements from different equipment vendors • Significantly reduces the cost of the overall network deployment GPRS Slides (Rev A).

MSS – Network Switching Subsystem .ppt Agilent Restricted Page 6 .BSS – Mobile Station Subsystem .Network Architecture • GSM network can be divided into three main subsystems: – Base Station Subsystem .NSS GSM Network Layout GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM .

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 7 . Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM .Mobile Station • Offered as a phone for voice services • Data services will bring new devices to the market • Two functional parts: C O N T R O L S E C T I O N – HW/SW radio interface – SIM GSM Mobile Architectural Diagram • Two types of SIM – Smart Card – Plug-in GPRS Slides (Rev A).

it can be configured as macrocell. • GSM BTS can host up to 16 TX/RX. omni.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 8 . • Depending on the application.Base Transceiver Station • BTS is a set of transceivers (TX/RX). Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM . etc. microcell. • The main role of TX/RX is to provide conversion between traffic data on the network side and RF communication on the MS side. GPRS Slides (Rev A). • In GSM one TX/RX is shared by 8 users. sectored.

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 9 .Base Station Controller • Provides a small digital exchange with some mobility tasks • Connects to one or several BTS on the Abis Interface • Connects to the MSC on the A Interface • Designed to offload most of the radio link related processes from the MSC • Provides clock distribution to BTS • Communicates with the OMC GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM .

backhaul – 4 users over a single T- 1/E-1 TDMA channel. • TRAU.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 10 . it the user data from 16Kb/sec to provides substantial changes in the standard ISDN rates of 64Kb/sec. Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM .TRAU • TRAU is responsible for transcoding • If it resides on the MSC side. BSC and BTSs form Base Station Subsystem (BSS) GPRS Slides (Rev A). • It can physically reside on either BSC side or MSC side.

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 11 .MSC • Responsible for connecting the • One of the MSC has an added mobile to the landline side functionality for communication with public network – Gateway MSC • GSM MSC is commonly designed (GMSC) as a regular ISDN switch with • All calls from the “outside networks” some added functionality for are routed through GMSC mobility support • GSM Network can have more than one MSC GSM MSC and Gateway MSC GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM .

etc. service subscription information.HLR/AuC • Database for permanent or semi-permanent data associated with the user • Logically. there is only one HLR per network • Typical information stored in HLR: International Mobile Service Identification Number (IMSI). current location of the subscriber.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 12 . Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM . supplementary services. • HLR is usually implemented as an integral part of MSC • AUC is an integral part of HLR responsible for ciphering and encryption. • GSM specifies elaborate encryption schemes. • There are three levels of the encryption: – A5/1 – Used by countries in Europe and USA – A5/2 – Used by countries and the so called COCOM list – No encryption – used by all other countries GPRS Slides (Rev A).

registers on the system its information is copied from HLR to VLR • VLR is usually integrated with the switch • Separation of SIM and mobile opens possibility for market of stolen and fraudulent equipment. – Black list: list of the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) numbers that are barred from service. • EIR maintains three lists of mobile terminals: – White list: is the list of approved mobile types. – Gray List: The list of mobiles that are tracked within the GSM system. When the mobile.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 13 .VLR and EIR • Temporary database that keeps the information about the users within the service area of the MSC • Usually there is one VLR per MSC • The main task of the VLR is to reduce the number of queries to HLR. GPRS Slides (Rev A). • GSM Systems are equipped with Equipment Identity Register (EIR) – responsible for tracking the equipment eligibility for service. Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM .

Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM .ppt Agilent Restricted e Page 14 .Interfaces • GSM defines different interfaces between two system components • Allows for multi-vendor implementation • Promotes more competition • Lower costs • Air interface is limiting in terms of capacity • Air interface is also called Um interface GSM Interfaces GPRS Slides (Rev A).

• Each frequency is divided into AR FC N1 U SER 6 U SER 7 U SER 8 U SER 1 eight timeslots ARFCN 2 • Each channel has a 200 kHz USER 9. AR FCN2 bandwidth U SER 10. U SER 8 ARFCN 1 USER 8. ARFC N2 BTS • Information is sent in bursts GSM as a FDMA/TDMA Interface • Several types of bursts GPRS Slides (Rev A). ...Air Interface • GSM is a FDMA/TDMA based technology USER 1. AR FC N1 • Transmissions are discontinuous U S E R 2. AR FCN2 • Overhead signaling is required for coordination and control U SE R 16. Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM .ppt Agilent Restricted Page 15 . AR FC N1 • Each user is assigned a timeslot US ER 1 U SER 2 .

Burst Types Normal Burst 3 5 7 • Used to carry information on both control and traffic channels • Mixture of data and overhead • GSM defines 8 training sequences assigned in color code mode • Both on the forward and reverse link T a i l T r a f f i c / S Synchronization Burst 3 3 9 • Facilitates the synchronization of the MS to the network at the base band • Commonly referred to as S-burst • Only on the forward link • The same sync sequence is used in all GSM networks T a i l GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM .ppt S Agilent Restricted y n c h r o n Page 16 .

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 17 . Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM .Burst Types Access Burst • Used when the MS is accessing the system • Shorter in length – burst collision avoidance 8 • GSM mobiles use slotted ALOHA to access the system 4 • Extended synchronization sequence • In the case of collision – a hashing algorithm is provided • Used only on the reverse link T a i l S Dummy Burst y n c • Supports MAHO 3 • Used to ensure constant power level of the broadcast control channel • Only on the forward link T a i l GPRS Slides (Rev A).

the control channel produces spectral peak • The peak in the spectrum allows 67.Burst Types • Sometimes referred to as P o w e r S p e c t r u m D e n s it y the F-burst BW = 200KH z • Provides mobile with precise reference to the frequency of the broadcast control channel fc fc+ 6 7 .7 K H z fre q u e n c y • Inserting the F-bursts on • Spectral characteristics of the control channel. Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM .ppt Agilent Restricted Page 18 .7 KHz above the central for easier MS network acquisition frequency of the carrier • Only on the forward link 3 GPRS Slides (Rev A).

Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM .Physical Channels • A GSM physical channel can carry several different types of logical channels • Can be divided into two categories: traffic and signaling • Signaling channels can be further categorized as: – Broadcast – Common Control – Dedicated Control GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 19 .

Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM .Frame Hierarchy • Different organization on the superframe level for different logical channels 0 1 2 3 GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 20 .

Additional Features • GSM supports additional features that enable a better spectrum utilization and increased capacity: – Timing Advance .MAHO – Dynamic Power Control .DPC – Hierarchical Cell Structure . Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM .TA – Discontinuous Transmission .HCS – Frequency Hopping .DTX – Mobile Assisted Handover .ppt Agilent Restricted Page 21 .FH – Intracell handovers GPRS Slides (Rev A).

Introduction to GPRS Overview of GSM . _______________ – _______________. _______________. _______________ – _______________. _______________.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 22 . _______________ – _______________ GPRS Slides (Rev A). _______________.Quiz! • Name some of the components of the GSM architecture and briefly explain their function • What are the different types of bursts? – _______________ – _______________ – _______________ – _______________ – _______________ • What are the different types of logical channels ? – _______________.

Introduction to GPRS

Class Agenda

• Overview of GSM
• What is GPRS?
• Network Architecture
• Protocol Stack
• Air Interface
• Mobility Management
• Quality of Service
• Optimization and RF Planning
• Traffic Planning
• HSCSD, EDGE, and 3G Growth Path

GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 23

Introduction to GPRS

What is GPRS?
• 2G technologies were designed for mobile
telephony
• Landline services have higher data rates than
wireless counterparts
• Next step: mobile wireless data services
• GPRS: General Packet Radio Service

• GSM has distinctive approach towards 3G
• Intermediate step refers to as 2.5 G
• Allows for smooth transition from voice to data
services
• Maintain upgrade costs to a minimum

GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 24

Introduction to GPRS

What is GPRS?
• In voice networks, RF is the main limiting factor. In data
networks, RF and many other factors will affect the
performance for individual users
• Fixed network infrastructure performance
• Types of applications and service provision
• Number of users active in an area
Source: Ericsson’s Web Site Oct-00
900
Subscribers (M)

600 et
l ular r n
l e
Ce Int
300
l lul ar In ternet
Ce
0
96 98 00 02 03

GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 25

Introduction to GPRS What is GPRS? .Circuit vs Packet Switch • 2G technologies are circuit switched • Dial-up type connections • A single user occupies a channel for the entire transmission • Requires time-oriented billing • GPRS is packet switched technology • GSM transmissions are bursty • More appropriate for data services • Bursty nature favors data services • Continuous flow is not required • Access is based on demand only • Several users can be multiplexed • Billing based on negotiated QoS and usage GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 26 .

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 27 .Types of Data Services • Most popular Internet data applications include: – E-mail – Web browsing – File transfers – Real time audio – Streaming video • Different services have different throughput requirements • GSM evolution is expected to provide services at throughputs similar to their landline counterparts GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS What is GPRS? .

5 G Solution • GPRS is a 2.A 2.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 28 . Introduction to GPRS What is GPRS? .5 G solution implemented over existing GSM network • Theoretical data rates are up to 160 kbps • GPRS makes a more efficient use of the air interface • Supports point-to-point and point-to-multipoint transmissions • GPRS will take over short message service (SMS) from GSM signaling channels • New QoS parameters: – Precedence – Reliability – Delay – Throughput A i I n t e GPRS Slides (Rev A).

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 29 .Important Challenges • There are several hardware and software limitations that will decrease the expected data rates significantly • Mobile data will impose a demand for more IP addresses. The existing version of IP is already reaching saturation • The idea that the market will accept mobile data service with eagerness is still somewhat questionable • The 3G standards are already finalized and implementation will follow shortly after 2.5 G GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS What is GPRS? .

Introduction to GPRS Class Agenda • Overview of GSM • What is GPRS? • Network Architecture – SGSN. PCU – Mobile Station • Protocol Stack • Air Interface • Mobility Management • Quality of Service • Optimization and RF Planning GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 30 . GGSN – GR.

GSN. Border Gateway.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 31 . Introduction to GPRS GPRS Network Architecture • GPRS introduces new entities to support data packet transmissions • New entities are PCU. and GPRS register GPRS Network Architecture GPRS Slides (Rev A).

Introduction to GPRS GPRS Network Architecture .SGSN • Serving GPRS support node • Delivers data packets to the mobile stations • Each SGSN is assigned to a B S S specific service area • Allows for very little change in the BTS and BSC • All mobile stations communicate to the SGSN in the area • Provides authentication and ciphering • Handles mobility management • Introduction of the routing area .RA • Also responsible for billing over the air interface GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 32 .

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 33 . Introduction to GPRS GPRS Network Architecture .GGSN • Gateway GPRS support node • Allows the GPRS network to communicate with external PDNs • Routes all packet data units through the corresponding SGSN • Whereas the SGSNs can change during cell reselections. the GGSN remains the same during an ongoing packet transaction • Supports PTP and PTM transmissions • Responsible for billing related to connections with external PDNs GPRS Slides (Rev A).

Introduction to GPRS GPRS Network Architecture .ppt Agilent Restricted Page 34 .GR and PCU • GPRS Register – Database containing information about GPRS subscribers • Packet Control Unit – Manages and controls radio-related operations – Converts frames coming from the SGSN into TRAU frames – Compresses and decompresses frames – PCU allows very few modifications to the BSS GPRS Slides (Rev A).

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 35 . Introduction to GPRS GPRS Network Architecture . the best location for the PCU is at the SGSN • Conceptually. PCU still remains a part of the BSC GPRS Slides (Rev A).PCU Locations • Possibilities for location are similar to the TRAU • From the resource utilization perspective.

Introduction to GPRS GPRS Network Architecture - Border Gateway • Risk from hackers in external PLMNs • Protect subscribers from security break-ins • Border Gateway is implemented to provide a maximum level of security • Acts as a firewall to the GPRS network • No guidelines for protection at the Gi interface • Gi security is left open to equipment manufacturers GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 36 .

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 37 . Introduction to GPRS GPRS • GPRS standard defines three mobile station classes • Class A supports simultaneous circuit and packet switched communications • Class B supports packet and circuit switched sequentially – Currently only Class B mobiles being developed • Class C does not support parallel operation • Operates in either packet or circuit mode only • Low cost unit available for mass market deployment GPRS Slides (Rev A).

ppt Agilent Restricted B T S Page 38 . Introduction to GPRS GPRS Network Architecture .GSM and GPRS A i r I n t e r f a c e GPRS Slides (Rev A).

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 39 .Quiz! • Name some of the components of the GPRS architecture and briefly explain their function • What are two types of GSNs? – _______________ – _______________ • What are the different types of mobile classes ? – _______________ – _______________ – _______________ • Which component allows for few changes at the BSS? – _______________ GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS GPRS Network Architecture .

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 40 . Introduction to GPRS Class Agenda • What is GPRS? • Network Architecture • Protocol Stack – OSI/ISO Model – GPRS Protocol Stack – GTP – SNDCP and BSSGP – RLC/MAC and LLC • Air Interface • Mobility Management • Quality of Service • Optimization and RF Planning GPRS Slides (Rev A).

ppt Agilent Restricted P r e s e Page 41 .ISO/OSI Model • International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and International Standardization Organization (ISO) developed Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) • Allows for compatibility between different equipment manufacturers A p p l i c 7 L a y e GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS GPRS Protocol Stack .

layer 1 corresponds to the air interface • GPRS layers fall between OSI layers 2 and 3 GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS GPRS Protocol Stack .ISO/OSI Model • Each layer adds its own header to the message • Same layer at destination node removes its corresponding header • Physical layer delivers message from one node to the next • In GSM.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 42 7 .

Introduction to GPRS GPRS Protocol Stack N e t w o L a y e r S I O L a y e r GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted 3 Page 43 .

QoS parameters. and tunnel identifier (TID) – TID differentiates PTP from PTM transactions N e t w o r k GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 44 .GTP • GPRS Tunneling protocol – Allows communication between the GGSN and SGSN – Data transfer is done via encapsulation and tunneling – GTP header includes such as PDU type. Introduction to GPRS GPRS Protocol Stack .

Introduction to GPRS GPRS Protocol Stack .SNDCP & BSSGP • Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol – Makes GPRS network transparent to the common subscriber regardless of what application is running – Responsible for converting network packet data units into GPRS suitable format – Multiplexing of SN packet data units over the LLC layer – Segmentation and Desegmentation of SN packets into LLC packets – Compression of the IP header information • Base Station Subsystem GPRS Protocol – Routing between SGSN and PCU – Provide radio related info for RLC/MAC – Routing goes via Network Relay – Transparent transfer of LLC frames – Convey QoS information T C P GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted H e a Page 45 .

LLC • Logical Link Control – Provides a logical reliable link between MS and SGSN – Designed as independent as possible from the radio interface layers – Encapsulation of SNDCP packet data units – Ciphering procedures between MS and SGSN – Detection and recovery of lost LLC packet data units – Responsible for acknowledged/unacknowledged operation S N D C P GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS GPRS Protocol Stack .ppt Agilent Restricted Page 46 .

RLC / MAC • RLC sublayer – Transmission of data blocks across the air interface – Retransmission of error data blocks using ARQ L L C L a y • MAC sublayer – Provides access to a given transmission medium F r a m e – Controls access signaling.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 47 . medium sharing by multiple users R – Release operations over the radio channel H e a d e r – Access is based on slotted ALOHA a d i o B – Performs mapping of RLC blocks onto the GSM physical channels GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS GPRS Protocol Stack .

the higher the throughput • The higher the throughput.1H • The higher the coding scheme. the lower protection against errors GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 48 . Introduction to GPRS GPRS Coding Schemes • GPRS defines four coding schemes • Only CS-1 is mandatory for the BTS • All coding schemes are mandatory for R the MS C S .

Introduction to GPRS GPRS Radio Block Structure • A packet transmission is referred to as a temporary block flow (TBF) • Each TBF is assigned a temporary flow identity (TFI) • The TFI is located inside the LLC header information • The TFI allows for multiplexing several users N e t w o r over the same timeslot • The TFI also allows to assign priority classes a p p r o x 1 GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 49 .

Quiz! • Mention the seven different layers of the ISO/OSI reference model: – _______________. _______________ – _______________ • The GPRS protocol stack consists of the following protocols – _______________. _______________ – _______________. _______________. Introduction to GPRS Protocol Stack .ppt Agilent Restricted Page 50 . _______________ • The maximum throughput achieved using CS-2 and two timeslots is: – _______________ • Different packet transactions from different users can be identified via the – _______________ GPRS Slides (Rev A). _______________ – _______________. _______________. _______________.

and 3G Growth Path GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS Class Agenda • Network Architecture • Protocol Stack • Air Interface – GPRS Logical Channels – The Master Slave Concept – The 52-Multiframe – Timing Advance – Power Control • Mobility Management • Quality of Service • Optimization and RF Planning • HSCSD. EDGE.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 51 .

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 52 . Introduction to GPRS GPRS Air Interface • Air interface continues to be limiting factor in terms of capacity R L • GPRS shares the same interface with GSM • Recall GSM has 200 kHz and eight TS • GPRS utilizes multiplexing and M A dynamic channel allocation to use the air interface more efficiently • Some channels can be configured for data traffic and others for voice traffic • Channels are reconfigured accordingly based on demand R GPRS Air Interface F GPRS Slides (Rev A).

Introduction to GPRS GPRS Logical Channels • Signaling and traffic channels are also required for GPRS • A new family of packet data channels PDCHs has been defined • Some of the existing GSM signaling channels can still be used for GPRS • The GPRS mobile still requires to listen to the GSM broadcast channel for GPRS channel information GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 53 .

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 54 . Introduction to GPRS GPRS 52-Multiframe • Each radio block is transmitted over 4 TDMA frames • Resource allocation is done in terms of blocks for both uplink and downlink • A 52-Multiframe consists of: – twelve blocks for PDCHs signaling and traffic – two timing advance frames – two idle frames (for neighbor list and power control) – 12 x 4 +2 + 2 = 52 frames 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 GPRS Slides (Rev A).

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 55 . Introduction to GPRS GPRS 52-Multiframe • The PDCHs are mapped and organized into a 52-Multiframe 0 1 2 3 4 GPRS Slides (Rev A).

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 56 . GPRS will rely on GSM signaling channels • As demand for voice increases. Introduction to GPRS GPRS Master-Slave Concept • One physical channel (frequency and timeslot) can be used for signaling and control T S • Remaining channels are used for GPRS traffic channels . slave channels can be released • If Master PDCH is released.PDTCHs • If no master channels are used. mobiles must retune to GSM broadcast channel 0 B C C H Master Slave Concept GPRS Slides (Rev A).

92 s • Active mobile stations will transmit one access burst with TA=0 to the BTS once per eight 52-multiframes within their subchannel • Based on the PTCCH/U message.Uplink • The PTCCH/U is divided into 16 subchannels with eight 52- multiframes • The 16 subchannels can be assigned to 16 different active mobile stations • Every PTCCH/U has a cycle of 1. Introduction to GPRS GPRS Timing Advance . the BTS can recalculate the timing advance value GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 57 .

Introduction to GPRS GPRS Timing Advance . it is carried within four consecutive TA frames 0 GPRS Slides (Rev A).Downlink • Each mobile is assigned a timing advance index (TAI) value via the PTCCH/D • The TA message sent on the downlink can convey timing advance information for up to 16 mobile stations • The timing advance message contains the TAI values associated with each mobile station • Since the message requires 4 frames.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 58 .

The total file size is 80 kilobits and is transmitted using CS-1.Example • Example: An uplink temporary block flow (TBF) is initiated between a mobile station and a serving base station. The base station assigns the mobile station a timing advance index (TAI = 3). – 1 frame = – 1 block = – A 52-multiframe = – Time between identical TAIs = – Total transmission time = – Number of timing advances = GPRS Slides (Rev A). Assuming a constant data rate and no block retransmissions. Introduction to GPRS GPRS Timing Advance . how many timing advance messages are required from the mobile during this transmission.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 59 .

Introduction to GPRS GPRS Power Control .ppt Agilent Restricted Page 60 .MS Power Classes • Power control is used to minimize the transmit power and still maintain a reliable link • GSM power control is done by the BTS based on RXLEV and RXQUAL • GPRS power control is performed by the mobile based on several parameters including: Mobile Station Power Class GSM 900 – Maximum allowed Tx power – Received Signal Level .RSL – Mobile station power class • Several mobile station power Mobile Station Power Class DCS 1800 classes have been defined for GSM 900 and DCS 1800 respectively GPRS Slides (Rev A).

Its default value is broadcast on the PBCCH. At any time during a packet transfer.Power Control Calculation • The formula for power control calculation as defined by ETSI (GSM 03. the network can send new Γ CH values to the mobile on the downlink PACCH α ∈ [0. the mobile and channel specific values can be sent to the mobile together with Γ CH C = received signal level at the mobile Pmax = maximum allowed transmit power in the cell GPRS Slides (Rev A).64 version 8. Furthermore.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 61 .50) Pch = min(Γ − ΓCH − α × (C + 48). P max) 0 Γ 0 = 39 dBm for GSM 900 and 36 dBm for DCS 1800 Γ CH = mobile and channel specific power control parameter. The values range from 0 to 62 dB in 2 dB increments based on interference measurements of the BTS. Introduction to GPRS GPRS Power Control .1] = is a system parameter. It is sent to the mobile in any resource assignment message.

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 62 . What is the transmit power Pch ? Pch = min(Γ − ΓCH − α × (C + 48).5.Example • A GSM-1800 Class 3 mobile station is engaged in power control. The network parameters are α =0. and Γ CH = 4. P max) 0 GPRS Slides (Rev A). The mobile reported C is – 85dBm. Introduction to GPRS GPRS Power Control .

In GPRS. _______________ • GPRS packet data channels are mapped onto a new structure called ________________ • The Uplink PTCCH is divided into _____ subchannels • One timing advance message on the downlink is transmitted over _____ normal bursts and contains a timing advance index for up to _____ users • In GSM. power control is done at the ____________. Introduction to GPRS Air Interface . power control is done at the _____________. _______________. GPRS Slides (Rev A).Quiz! • What are the different types of GPRS logical channels ? – _______________ – _______________. _______________.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 63 . _______________ – _______________.

and 3G Growth Path GPRS Slides (Rev A). EDGE.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 64 . Introduction to GPRS Class Agenda • Network Architecture • Protocol Stack • Air Interface • Mobility Management – Mobility Management States – GPRS Attach – Mobile Originated Transfer – Mobile Terminated Transfer – Cell Selection/Reselection • Quality of Service • Optimization and RF Planning • HSCSD.

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 65 . • Ready: The mobile is currently engaged in packet transfer or recently terminated a packet transfer. No need to page a mobile in Ready state GPRS Mobility Management States for MS GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS GPRS Mobility Management States • Mobility management states apply for both the mobile and the SGSN • Idle: Mobile is powered on but not attached to GPRS • Standby: Mobile is powered on and attached to GPRS. No packet transfer is in progress. Routing area updates are sent as needed. The Ready state is determined by a timer.

LA – Power class mark – Type of registration (GSM. Introduction to GPRS GPRS Attach Process • Process of registration of the mobile into the GPRS network • Occurs when mobile is first powered on and can occur afterwards based on network settings • Mobile registers directly with the SGSN • Information Exchanged – IMSI or P-TMSI – TLLI – RA. GPRS) – Authentication A i r – Ciphering GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 66 .

ppt I n t e r f a c e Agilent Restricted Page 67 . Introduction to GPRS GPRS PDP Context Activation • The mobile need to activate a packet data protocol context before it can transmit or receive information A i r GPRS Slides (Rev A).

Mobile sends a more detailed packet resource request.ppt Agilent Restricted M S Page 68 . Introduction to GPRS GPRS Mobile Originated Transfer • A mobile initiates a transfer on the random access channel RACH or PRACH • One phase access: Network provides immediate packet channel assignment message with reserved PDTCHs for uplink • Two phase access: Network provides immediate packet channel assignment message with only one single radio block reservation. Network responds with message that contains reserved resources GPRS Slides (Rev A).

USF and CV • Temporary flow identity (TFI) and uplink state flag (USF) allow for multiplexing of several users on downlink and uplink directions respectively • TFI is a 5-bit header that uniquely identifies a packet data transfer (TBF) • The same TFI can be assigned to different PDCHs on the uplink and downlink • USF is a 3-bit value (000 to 111).TFI.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 69 . Introduction to GPRS GPRS . where 000 indicates “FREE” • Each mobile listens to its assigned USF on the downlink and will transmit one or up to four blocks on the uplink depending on the amount of reserved blocks • Uplink also contains a countdown value (CV) to indicate blocks remaining GPRS Slides (Rev A).

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 70 . Introduction to GPRS GPRS Acknowledged/Unacknowledged Mode • RLC layer can be set to mode of operation • Unacknowledged mode offers no means for error detection • Acknowledged mode uses ARQ for error detection • Message type ACK/NACK contains a bitmap of received blocks (UL/DL) • Recipient sends ACK/NACK message after receiving a packet transfer Block # Bitmap 1 2 3 4 Status 1 1 0 1 • Correct blocks are “1”. incorrect blocks are “0” • Erroneous blocks are retransmitted GPRS Mobility Management States M S GPRS Slides (Rev A).

NC1 and NC2 GPRS Slides (Rev A). cell reselections are performed when mobile is in idle mode – GSM uses C1 and C2 algorithms for cell reselection – GPRS Cell reselections can be network or mobile controlled – GPRS uses C31 and C32 algorithms for cell reselection – C31 is based on selecting the best GPRS server in the area – C32 allows for cell ranking when HCS is implemented – C31 and C32 allow for a more efficient cell planning of GPRS networks – There are three modes of operation for cell reselection: NC0. mobile performs cell reselection – In GSM. Introduction to GPRS GPRS Mobile Terminated Transfer/Cell • Mobile terminated transfer Reselection – The Countdown Value is used on the uplink to determine the end of a TBF – The Final Block Indicator is used in the downlink to indicate the end of a TBF • Cell reselection – There are no handovers in GPRS.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 71 .

the ________ is used • Errors in transmitted blocks are notified to the transmitting party via the _____ GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 72 . _______________ • In order to register to the GPRS network. the ________ is used • For uplink multiplexing. the mobile station must perform a ________________ • The two options for mobile originated transfer are: – __________________ – __________________ • For downlink multiplexing. _______________.Quiz! • What are the different mobility management states ? – _______________. Introduction to GPRS Mobility Management . the mobile station must perform a ________________ • In order to engage in a packet transfer.

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 73 . Introduction to GPRS Class Agenda • Network Architecture • Protocol Stack • Air Interface • Mobility Management • Quality of Service – Precedence Class – Throughput – Delay Class – Reliability Class • Optimization and RF Planning • Traffic Planning GPRS Slides (Rev A).

• During network congestion. all users have equal access.Precedence Class • Under normal network conditions.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 74 . Introduction to GPRS Quality of Service . users with a higher priority level shall be served before users with a lower priority • A user with lower priority will suffer higher delay times and packet losses • Three precedence class are defined GPRS Slides (Rev A).

Peak Throughput • Peak throughput refers to the maximum data rate for packets to be transferred across the network • There is no guarantee that this maximum data rate can be achieved or sustained for any time period • Peak throughput is measured in octets per second • Values are shown in bits per second for easier clarification • Network may limit the subscriber to the negotiated peak throughput regardless of additional capacity GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS Quality of Service .ppt Agilent Restricted Page 75 .

Mean Throughput • Average rate at which data is expected to be transferred across the GPRS network • Measured in octets per hour • Displayed in bits per second for easier clarification • GPRS network may limit the subscriber to the mean throughput regardless of additional capacity • A best effort throughput can be negotiated based on need and availability GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 76 . Introduction to GPRS Quality of Service .

Delay • ETSI has defined the maximum values for mean delay and 95 percentile delay that a packet may encounter while transferred over the GPRS network • Delay class does not include delays caused by networks outside the PLMN • Delay is defined based on the transfer of a service data unit (SDU) • Two SDU sizes are specified: 128 octets and 1024 octets GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS Quality of Service .ppt Agilent Restricted Page 77 .

Introduction to GPRS

Quality of Service - Reliability

GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 78

Introduction to GPRS

Quality of Service - Reliability

• Reliability class defines the probability of:
– Loss packets
– Out of sequence packets
– Duplicate packets
– Corrupted packets

GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 79

Introduction to GPRS

Class Agenda
• Air Interface
• Mobility Management
• Quality of Service

• Optimization and RF Planning
– GSM Metrics
– GPRS Metrics
– Measurement Model
– RF Performance, Signal Quality, Data Performance
• Traffic Planning
• HSCSD, EDGE, and 3G Growth Path
• Conclusions

GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 80

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 81 . Introduction to GPRS Network Optimization Process • Identify RF and fixed network parameters that impact network performance RxLev BCH Pwr Data Data EE BLER RxQual C/I Problem Problem vv aa AA ll cc Drive Problem Problem uu tt Drive ii Test Test ID ID aa oo tt nn ii ss Throughput DNS Lookup RF RF oo Packet Problem nn Packet Delay Failure Re-Connects Problem GPRS Slides (Rev A).

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 82 . MAX RXLEV = -47 • Downlink measurements for both serving cell and up to 32 neighbors • Up to 6 strongest neighbors are reported back to BTS through SACHH • Only on the serving channel • Reported as a quantized value RXQUAL • For a good quality call RXQUAL < 3 • Measurements are averaged before the handover processing • If DTX is active. Introduction to GPRS GSM Metrics . the measurements are performed over the subset of SACCH that guarantees transmission GPRS Slides (Rev A).RXLEV and RXQUAL • Reported as a quantized value RXLEV: RXLEV = RSL[dBm] + 110 • Minimum RXLEV: -110.

Neighbor Lists and Call Stats • Co-channel: Undesirable signal attributed to reuse of the same frequency • Adjacent: Undesirable signal attributed to bleed over from frequency components • Neighbor lists: Assigned based on strongest signals for handover purposes • Call Statistics: – Dropped Calls – Blocked Calls     PR _ Serving _ Cell  [ dB] C / I = 10 log N    ∑ PR _ i   i =1  GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS GSM Metrics .ppt Agilent Restricted Page 83 .C/I.

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 84 .Throughput • Rate at which data is transferred in either uplink or downlink (kbps) • Can be measured as raw or effective • Different applications require different throughputs 16 14 12 Throughput (kbps) 10 8 6 4 2 0 Time TX Throughput RX Throughput GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS GPRS Metrics .

Throughput Example • A downlink TBF has been negotiated using CS-2.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 85 . Refer to Section for the reliability classes. Also calculate the raw throughput if the negotiated reliability class is Class 4 (no error protection). RTX = [1 − p(ReTX )]R0 GPRS Slides (Rev A). Calculate the effective throughput if the negotiated reliability is Class 1. assuming that the probability of retransmitted blocks is 40%. Introduction to GPRS GPRS Metrics .

Introduction to GPRS GPRS Metrics .ppt Agilent Restricted Page 86 .Reliability • ETSI reliability classes allow the engineer to benchmark performance against different types of applications • Optimizing the RF link is first step towards correcting packets • Duplicate packets are usually due to problems in the IP network GPRS Slides (Rev A).

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 87 . Introduction to GPRS GPRS Metrics .Reliability • Drive test measurement equipment can easily compute the probability of blocks in error (BLER) received by a mobile 0 100 -10 90 -20 80 -30 70 -40 60 C Value BLER -50 50 -60 40 -70 30 -80 20 -90 10 -100 0 Time C Value Rx BLER GPRS Slides (Rev A).

Delay • Delay is specified for two SDU sizes: 128 octets and 1024 octets • Smaller SDUs travel faster and with less delay than larger SDUs • A good method to measure delay is by configuring a test server at the Gi interface and timestamp each SDU with GPS measurements • Delay can also be computed from any other node inside or outside the PLMN GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 88 . Introduction to GPRS GPRS Metrics .

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 89 . Introduction to GPRS GPRS Measurement Model • Data Performance: – Application layer end-to-end tests – GPRS Layers information collected by the phone • Signal Quality: Phone reported parameters • RF Performance: Scanning Receiver GPRS Slides (Rev A).

Introduction to GPRS GPRS Measurement Model • Hierarchical layer diagram based on ISO/OSI reference model A p p L a y GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 90 .

Introduction to GPRS GPRS Measurement Model • Collected measured data can be post-process and analyzed with commercial tools Shows uplink & downlink application layer throughput along with coding schemes in use for each link Agilent OPAS 32 Post-processing and analysis tool GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 91 .

01 0.001 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 C/I GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS GPRS Measurements .BLER versus C/I • Block Error Rate (BLER) can be directly tied to the quality of the RF link. typically measured in terms of C/I 1 CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 0.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 92 .1 BLER 0.

Introduction to GPRS GPRS Measurements .ppt Agilent Restricted Page 93 .BLER Example • Calculate the effective Rx throughput for a mobile station that operates under C/I of 10dB and uses coding scheme CS-1. How long will it take to download a 150Kb data file? RRX = [1 − p ( BLER )]R0 • Total Download Time = GPRS Slides (Rev A).

etc.Signal Quality • Phone reported measurements include Layer 1. Introduction to GPRS GPRS Measurements . Compression inactive. TLLI BSIC MAIO SAPI Timeslots values Routing Area RXQUAL HSN MS Output Power Ciphering Info Identifier SM state Header RXLEV MA List Ack/Unack Mode (PDP active. Standby.) Timing Data Coding Scheme Advance Compression Tx Power TFI number Neighbors TBF status GPRS Slides (Rev A). Mode Ready) Number of P-TMSI.ARFCN Multislot Class (Idle. Layer 2 and Layer 3 parameters • Provide valuable information about the performance of the network Radio RLC / MAC LLC / SNDCP GMM / SM Layer 1 Resource Layer Layers Information (RR Info) Service State Ack/Unack BCCH TCH .ppt Agilent Restricted Page 94 .

Introduction to GPRS GPRS Measurements .ppt Agilent Restricted Page 95 .Drive Test Tool • Commercial GPRS tools can collect most GPRS related information Agilent E7475 GPRS Drive Test Software GPRS Slides (Rev A).

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 96 . Introduction to GPRS GPRS Measurements .Data Performance • GPRS measurements provide information below the application layer and allows the engineer to detect the cause of problems that are hidden to the user • Application layer measurements describe the performance that the user perceives depending on the application being tested • Real-time applications can be simulated and tested Type of service Conversational Streaming Interactive Background Delay Tolerance Low High Medium High Jitter Tolerance Low Low Medium High Data rate Small to large High Low to medium Low requirement Data symmetry Symmetrical Asymmetrical Asymmetrical Asymmetrical Reliability High High Low Low Tolerance Typical Circuit switched Audio-video E-commerce File transfer Applications telephony broadcasting and WWW and e-mail GPRS Slides (Rev A).

the mobile sends packets over the GPRS network. Introduction to GPRS GPRS Measurements .ppt Agilent Restricted Page 97 . A test server measures the performance and reports results back to the mobile • On the downlink.Server configuration • On the uplink. the test server sends packets over the GPRS network. The test mobile measures performance and stores the results GPRS Slides (Rev A).End-to-End Process • End-to-end test process is best approach towards measuring performance at the application layer • Client .

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 98 . Introduction to GPRS GPRS Network Optimization Challenges • GPRS deployment is still in its beginning stages • Many questions regarding the performance metrics are yet to be answered • As networks grow and more solutions arise a more defined methodology will be developed • As of today. GPRS radios are not capable of frequency hopping • Many GSM networks are already suffering congestion problems with voice traffic. GPRS Sagem OT 96MGPRS will add more to the problem • Today only Class B mobiles are available commercially • Only coding schemes 1 and 2 are being implemented in trials Motorola GPRS Timeport GPRS Slides (Rev A).

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 99 . Introduction to GPRS Network Optimization . _______________.Quiz! • What are some GSM performance metrics ? – _______________.________________.________________ • Packets in error can be – ______________ – ______________ – ______________ – ______________ • The GPRS measurement model tests for – ______________ – ______________ – ______________ GPRS Slides (Rev A). _______________ • What are some GPRS performance metrics? – ______________.

EDGE. and 3G Growth Path • Conclusions GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS Class Agenda • Protocol Stack • Air Interface • Mobility Management • Quality of Service • Optimization and RF Planning • Traffic Planning – Estimation of GPRS Data Capacity • HSCSD.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 100 .

Introduction to GPRS Traffic Planning in GPRS • GPRS over GSM creates a mixture of traffic types .voice & data • Peak combined traffic does not necessarily coincide with either voice or data busy hour T r a f f i GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 101 .

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 102 . Introduction to GPRS Traffic Planning in GPRS • Proper dimensioning of GPRS over GSM requires: – Peak circuit switched traffic in erlangs – Peak data traffic in Kb/sec – Circuit switched traffic load during total peak – Packet switched traffic load during total peak • Coding scheme usage depends on quality of radio channel • The lower the coding scheme the higher the protection • Traffic dimensioning assumes high loading and high interference. therefore CS-1 is used for estimates GPRS Slides (Rev A).

Assume that 50% of users with the cell site's coverage area operate under favorable RF conditions that allow them to use coding scheme CS-2. • The aggregate throughput can be calculated as: Ragg = _________ [ Kb/sec] GPRS Slides (Rev A).Example • Consider a GSM/GPRS base station designed to support the aggregate data throughput of 40Kb/sec using coding scheme CS-1.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 103 .Traffic Planning in GPRS . Estimate the aggregate throughput that can be supported by the base station.

90 4 30 20.93 GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt Agilent Restricted Page 104 . the amount of traffic loading can be calculated using the traditional Erlang B traffic model Number of Number of time Voice capacity at Voice capacity at transceivers slots available for GOS of 1% [E] GOS of 2% [E] traffic 1 6 1.20 3 22 13.91 2.65 14.34 21.35 8.28 2 14 7.Traffic Planning in GPRS • A GSM radio can hold eight timeslots • Some of the timeslots are dedicated for signaling • One trunk in GSM is defined as one timeslot on the radio transceiver • Based on number of trunks and required Grade of Service (GOS).

Introduction to GPRS Traffic Planning in GPRS • To estimate the maximum aggregate data traffic that can be supported per GSM/GPRS sector.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 105 . the following is assumed: – Coding scheme is CS-1 – Threshold throughput per time slot is 5Kb/sec – Dominant type of data service is WWW browsing with Pareto distribution • Average throughput per timeslot can be calculated as Ts R0 Rav = R0 = Ts + Tq 1 + Tq Ts • Where – Rav = Threshold throughput – R0 = Data rate of coding scheme – Ts = Service time – Tq = Waiting time in queue GPRS Slides (Rev A).

a D ] – = Erlang C delay formula GPRS Slides (Rev A). a D ] ( n − 1)   x0   1 − ( x0 xm ) 2 n n−2 R0 = 1+ ⋅ ⋅ 1 −    ⋅ Rav  [ 0 m ] 2( C D − a D ) n( n − 2 )   xm   1 − ( x x ) n −1 2 • Where – n = shape parameter for the Pareto distribution – = minimum message length – xm = maximum message length – = average data traffic load in erlangs – C D = average number of time slots available for GPRS service. we can estimate the erlang data capacity of a GPRS site EC [ C D . Introduction to GPRS Traffic Planning in GPRS • Using Allen-Cunneen’s formula and the Pareto characteristics of different data traffic types.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 106 . EC [ C D .

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 107 . consider the following set of parameters GPRS Slides (Rev A).Traffic Planning for GPRS • Typical values of the Pareto distribution shape parameter • To illustrate the traffic dimensioning concept.

Traffic Planning for GPRS 240 220 • Using the previous equation Aggregate GPRS throughput [Kb/sec] 200 and the information from the 180 160 previous tables.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 108 . the following 140 information can be 120 GOS of 1% GOS of 2% computed 100 80 • The information from the 60 table below generates the 40 20 curves shown to the right 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Circuit switched traffic [erlang] 1 TX (6 TS) 2 TX (14 TS) 3 TX (22 TS) 4 TX (30 TS) GPRS Slides (Rev A).

ppt Agilent Restricted Page 109 .5 erlangs of voice traffic at 2% GOS and an aggregate CS-1 packet data throughput of 80Kb/sec.Example • Determine the number of GSM radios at the GSM/GPRS site required to support at least 7.5 E. 80 Kb/sec) 80 Ragg = _________ [ Kb/sec] 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Circuit switched traffic [erlang] 1 TX (7 TS) 2 TX (14 TS) 3 TX (22 TS) GPRS Slides (Rev A). what is the available aggregate throughput? 240 220 Aggregate GPRS throughput [Kb/sec] 200 180 • The aggregate throughput can be 160 calculated as: 140 120 (7. 95 Kb/sec) 100 (9. Introduction to GPRS Traffic Planning in GPRS . If 50% of the users are in area of C/I that allows for CS-2 coding.7 E.

Case Study • Consider a GSM provider trying to role out the GPRS service within urban core area. We will assume that the traffic is following a fairly uniform geographical distribution and that the most dominant traffic type is WWW browsing. Other relevant data is given below: • Determine the following: – Number of sites necessary for handling the circuit switched voice at 2% GOS – Aggregate GPRS capacity per site (for CS-1 coding scheme) – If the system is to provide aggregate capacity of 2.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 110 . Introduction to GPRS Traffic Planning in GPRS . how many sites need to be installed? GPRS Slides (Rev A).5Mb/sec while serving the peak voice traffic load.

95 Av 60 Ragg = 40 N CELL ⋅ av ≥ 20 GPRS Throughput Curve for 2TX N CELL ⋅ RD ≥ 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Circuit switched traffic [erlang] RD ≤ av N CELL = Ragg = GPRS Slides (Rev A). Introduction to GPRS Traffic Planning in GPRS .Case Study • Analysis: 120 N ARFCN = 100 Aggregate GPRS throughput [Kb/sec] N CELL = 80 RD = 5.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 111 .

EDGE.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 112 . Introduction to GPRS Class Agenda • What is GPRS? • Network Architecture • Protocol Stack • Air Interface • Mobility Management • Quality of Service • Optimization and RF Planning • Traffic Planning • HSCSD. and 3G Growth Path • Conclusions GPRS Slides (Rev A).

Introduction to GPRS HSCSD.6Kbit/s) HSCSD GPRS EDGE UMTS Technology 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Bandwidth 2 Mbit/s 384 kbit/s 171.2 kbit/s 60 kbit/s 9. Data (9.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 1 1 3 . EDGE and 3G Growth Path SMS.6 kbit/s GPRS Slides (Rev A).

FDD – 3G solution for GSM – Up to 2Mbps data rates D a t a R a t e s GPRS Slides (Rev A). EDGE and 3G Growth Path • High Speed Circuit Switch Data – Existing GSM structure – Combines multiple TS – Software upgrade at BTS • Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution – Uses 8PSK modulation – Provides higher data rates than GPRS – Major changes to GSM • UMTS . Introduction to GPRS HSCSD.ppt Agilent Restricted Page 114 .