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CONFLICT Vs.

COLLABORATION
AGENDA
Introduction to Conflict
Definition of Conflict
Nature of Conflict
Views on Conflict
Types of Conflict
Aspects of Conflict
Relationship b/w org. performance and conflict
Positive and Negative Conflict
Process of Conflict
Levels of Conflict
Conflict Resolution in Groups and different
problem solving strategies.
Understandi
ng Conflict
 The condition in which people’s
concerns—the things they care
about—appear to be incompatible.

 Conflict does not always equate to


fighting, arguing, blaming, and
name-calling.
Definition of Conflict
• According to Follett, “ Conflict is the
appearance of difference , difference of
opinions, of interests.”

• It is a process that begins when one party


perceives that another party has negatively
affected, or is about to negatively affect
something that the first party cares about.

• Conflict is a psychological state of mind when


people are in a dilemma whether to do or not to
do a thing, is a state of conflict.
Common Causes of Con
1. Competition over needs or perceived needs.
2. Difference in methods or process
understandings;
3. Personality and behavioral style
4. Communication style, tone and body
language
5. Competition over resources
6. Differences of opinions
Others:
Nature of
Conflict
• Conflict occurs when individuals are not able to
choose among the available alternative courses of
action.
• Conflict between two individuals implies that they
have conflicting perception, values and goals.
• Conflict is a dynamic process as it indicates a
series of events.
• Conflict must be perceived by the parties to it. If
no one is aware of a conflict, then it is generally
agree that no conflict exists.
Views of
Conflict
Traditional view of conflict
The belief that all conflict is harmful must be avoided.

Human relations view of conflict


The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable
outcome in any group.

Intergrationalist view of conflict


The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a
group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to
perform effectively.
Types of Conflict
1. Functional conflict- works toward the goal of an
organization or group.
2. Dysfunctional conflicts- blocks an organization or
group from reaching its goal.
3. Functional conflict-
– Task conflict- content goals of the work
– Relationship Conflict : Interpersonal Relationship
– Process Conflict
Levels of Conflict
Levels of conflict Types of conflict

Organization Intra & Inter-Organization


Conflict

Group Intra & Inter Group Conflict

Interpersonal &
Individual Intrapersonal Conflict
Levels of Conflict

Individual level Group level Organizational


Conflict Conflict level Conflict

Intra Inter Inter Intra


Individual Individual Organizational Organizational
Conflict Conflict conflict Conflict

Inter Intra
Group Group
Conflict Conflict
Conflict
Process
Perceived
Conflict
Sources of Manifest Conflict
Conflict Conflict Outcomes
Felt
Conflict
Conflict
Model
Conflict Resolution
I WANT YOU TO

I WANT TO
WIN LOSE

WIN WIN-WIN WIN-LOSE

LOSE LOSE-WIN LOSE-LOSE


Conflict Management
 Conflict management is defined as “the
opportunity to improve situations and
strengthen relationships” (BCS, 2004).
–proactive conflict management
–collaborative conflict management
Blake and Mouton’s
Conflict Grid

Source: Reproduced from Robert R. Blake and Jane Syngley Mouton. “The Fifth Achievement.” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 6(4), 1970.
Blake and Mouton’s
Conflict Grid
 Blake and Mouton (1970) proposed a grid that
shows various conflict approaches.
 The 1,1 style is the hands-off approach, also called
avoidance.
 The 1,9 position, also called accommodation, is
excessively person-oriented.
 The 5,5 position represents a willingness to
compromise.
 The 9,1 is the bullheaded approach, also called
competing.
 The optimum style for reducing conflict is the 9,9
approach, also called collaboration
Five Conflict
Handling Styles

High
Concern for Others
Sharing Accommodative

Collaborative
Low

Competitive Avoiding

High Low
Concern for Self
Collaborative Techniques
for Diffusing Conflict
Understanding the dimensions

Assertive
Non-Assertive
Cooperative
Uncooperative
Handling Intentions –
Thomas Kilman Conflict
Mode Instrument
Competing (‘the
Player): Win - Lose
Highly Assertive

Aggressive and Uncooperative

Do not have a concern for another’s


point-of-view

Power Based

Appropriate in short term needs.


Accommodating
(The Peacemaker):
Lose - Win
Unassertive

Cooperative & Maintain Harmony

Yielding to another’s point-of-view

Self-sacrificing

Obeying without agreeing


Avoiding (The
Escapist) : Lose-Lose
Unassertive

Uncooperative

Sidestepping the issue

Withdraws from the situation

Delays responding to conflict & tries to


remain neutral
Collaborating (The
Problem Solver) : Win-Win
Assertive & Cooperative

Objectively evaluates differing views

Finding an agreeable solution for


both parties

Often leads to creativity and new ideas


Compromising (The
Trader): No Win-No Lose
Intermediate assertiveness

Seldom confronts Conflict

Intermediate cooperativeness

Middle of the Road solution

All parties are partially satisfied


Dual Concern
Theory High Other’s
Concern

Take Me Win-Win

High Self
Low Self
Concern

Concern
Apathy, It’s all
Avoidance about me

Low Other’s
Concern
Conflict Response
Categories
Source: (Conflict Dynamics Profile)
Constructive Destructive

Perspective Taking Winning at All Costs


Creating Solutions
Active

Displaying Anger
Expressing Demeaning Others
Emotions
Reaching Out Retaliating
Avoiding
Reflective Thinking
Yielding
Passive

Delay Responding
Hiding Emotions
Adapting
Self Criticizing
Conflict
resolution
 Confrontation and problems solving
 Constructive handling of criticism
 Negotiation and bargaining
Alternative Dispute
Resolution(ADR)
Techniques
• Facilities- third party gets disputants to deal directly
and constructively with each other.

• Conciliation- neutral third party acts as


communication link between disputes.

• Peer review- impartial co-workers hear both sides and


render decisions that may or may not be binding.
• Ombudsman- respected and trusted members of the
organization hears grievances confidently.

• Mediation- trained third party guides disputes toward


their own solution.
• Arbitration- neutral third party hears both sides in a
court like setting and renders a binding decision.
Negotiatio
n
• Negotiation- “a give and take
decision making process involving
interdependent parties with different
preference”

• Distributive negotiation- single


issue; fixed pie; win-lose.

• Integrative negotiation- more than


one issue; win-win
Approaches to
Conflict Resolution
Focus on Improve
Larger Goals Communications

Bring Parties
Clarify Job
Together to Foster Reduced
Responsibilities
Understanding and Conflict
Cooperation
Develop
Separate
Employees’
Conflicting Use Third
Negotiating Skills
Parties Parties as
Mediators
Conclusion:
• Addressing conflict is a mission-critical component of
increasing organizational effectiveness and productivity.

• The ability to effectively manage and resolve conflict in


organizations will improve the financial “bottom line”.

• Chronic patterns of unresolved conflict are costly and lead


to a dysfunctional organization.

• Conflict represents the largest reducible cost in many


businesses, yet it remains largely unrecognized (Dana 1999,
Slaikev and Hasson 1998).
THANK YOU