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4

m

4-1: Why ¬ ¬s the Same in All Parts of a Series Circuit

4-2: Total Equals the Sum of All Series Resistances

4-3: Series ¬ Voltage Drops

4-4: Kirchhoff¶s Voltage Law (KVL)

4-5: Polarity of ¬ Voltage Drops

¦

4-6: Total Power in a Series Circuit

4-7: Series-Aiding and Series-Opposing Voltages

4-8: Analyzing Series Circuits with Random Unknowns

4-9: Ground Connections in Electrical and Electronic

Systems

4-10: Troubleshooting: Opens and Shorts in Series

Circuits

¦

¬¬ m

m

Characteristics of a Series Circuit

The current is the same everywhere in a series circuit.

The total resistance is equal to the sum of the individual

resistance values.

The total voltage is equal to the sum of the ¬ voltage

drops across the individual resistances.

The total power is equal to the sum of the power

dissipated by each resistance.

¬¬ m

m

Current is the movement of electric charge between two

points, produced by the applied voltage.

The free electrons moving away from one point are

continuously replaced by free electrons flowing from an

adjacent point in the series circuit.

All electrons have the same speed as those leaving the

voltage source.

Therefore, ¬ is the same in all parts of a series circuit.

¬¬ m

m

[ig. 4-2: There is only one current through , and in series. () Electron drift is the

same in all parts of a series circuit. () Current ¬ is the same at all points in a series circuit.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, ¬nc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

¬¬ m

m

Series Current [ormulas

Total current is the same as the individual currents in

the series string:

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ u u

Total current is equal to total voltage divided by total

resistance:

¬

MM m

m

When a series circuit is connected across a voltage

source, the free electrons must drift through all the

series resistances.

path, the total resistance across the voltage source is

the sum of all the resistances.

MM m

m

[ig. 4-4: Series resistances are added for the total . () alone is 3 ȍ. () and in

series together total 5 ȍ. ( ) The of 5 ȍ is the same as one resistance of 5 ȍ between

points A and B.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, ¬nc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

MM m

m

Series Resistance [ormulas

The total resistance is the sum of the individual

resistances.

M M

M

M M

MM m

m

Series Resistance [ormulas

Total resistance is equal to total voltage divided by the

circuit current:

¬

MM m

m

Determining the Total Resistance

M å Må

M å

Må M å

m ¬M

By Ohm¶s Law, the voltage across a resistance equals

¬

is called an ¬ ? or p? , because it

reduces the potential difference available for the

remaining resistances in the circuit.

m ¬M

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, ¬nc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

!"# !$

© ©

© ©

© ©

©

!"# !$

(KVL).

å å

u

å

½

å å

u

u

% ¬M

¬M

When current flows through a resistor, a voltage equal

to ¬ is dropped across the resistor. The polarity of this

¬ voltage drop is:

egative at the end where the electrons enter the

resistor.

Positive at the end where the electrons leave the

resistor.

% ¬M

¬M

The rule is reversed when considering conventional

current: positive charges move into the positive side of

the ¬ voltage.

whether we consider electron flow or conventional

current.

% ¬M

¬M

[ig. 4-8: Polarity of ¬ voltage drops. () Electrons flow into the negative side of

across . () Same polarity of with positive charges into the positive side.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, ¬nc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

& "

m

produce current in

each series resistor is

used up in the form of

heat.

The total power used

in the circuit is equal to

the sum of the

individual powers

dissipated in each part

of the circuit.

[ig. 4-10: The sum of the individual powers

Total power can also and used in each resistance equals the

be calculated as ¬ total power produced by the source.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, ¬nc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

& "

m

å å

å

u ½

å å

u

u

¬ u Î u

'm

m

(

Series-aiding voltages are connected with polarities that

allow current in the same direction:

negative terminal of the next.

'm

m

(

Series-opposing voltages are the opposite: They are

connected to produce opposing directions of current

flow.

positive terminal of another.

from the larger.

voltage of zero.

'm

m

(

[ig. 4-11: Example of voltage sources and in series. () ote the connections for series-

aiding polarities. Here 8 V + 6 V = 14 V for the total . () Connections for series-opposing

polarities. ow 8 V ± 6 V = 2 V for .

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, ¬nc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

)

*

m "

+

,

"

When trying to analyze a series circuit, keep the

following principles in mind:

1. ¬f ¬ is known for one component, use this value in all

components. The current is the same in all parts of a

series circuit.

2. ¬f ¬ is unknown, it may be calculated in one of two

ways:

Divide by

Divide an individual ¬ drop by its .

Remember not to mix a total value for an entire

circuit with an individual value for part of the circuit.

)

*

m "

+

,

"

3. ¬f all individual voltage drops are known, add them to

determine the applied

find a remaining voltage drop.

-.

m

¬n most electrical and electronic systems, one side of

the voltage source is connected to ground.

electric shock.

-.

m

[igure 4-16 shows several schematic ground symbols:

regardless of the schematic symbol shown.

These symbols are sometimes used inconsistently with

their definitions. However, these symbols always

represent a common return path for current in a given

circuit.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, ¬nc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

-.

m

Voltages Measured with Respect to Ground

measure the voltages with respect to this ground.

-.

m

[ig. 4-18: An example of how to calculate dc voltages measured with respect to ground. ()

egative side of grounded to make all voltages positive with respect to ground. () Positive

side of grounded, all voltages are negative to ground.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, ¬nc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

/ 0

(

m

m

The Effect of an Open in a Series Circuit

An open circuit is a circuit with a break in the current

path. When a series circuit is open, the current is zero

in all parts of the circuit.

The total resistance of an open circuit is infinite ohms.

When a series circuit is open, the applied voltage

appears across the open points.

/ 0

(

m

m

The Effect of an Open in a Series Circuit

[ig. 4-19: Effect of an open in a series circuit. () Open path between points and results

in zero current in all parts of the circuit.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, ¬nc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

/ 0

(

m

m

Applied voltage is still present, even with zero

current.

The voltage source still has its same potential difference

across its positive and negative terminals.

Example: The 120-V potential difference is always

available from the terminals of a wall outlet.

¬f an appliance is connected, current will flow.

¬f you touch the metal terminals when nothing else is

connected, you will receive a shock.

/ 0

(

m

m

The Effect of a Short in a Series Circuit

When part of a series circuit is shorted, the current flow

increases.

When part of a series circuit is shorted, the voltage

drops across the non-shorted elements increase.

The voltage drop across the shorted component drops

to 0 V.

/ 0

(

m

m

The Effect of a Short in a Series Circuit

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, ¬nc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

/ 0

(

m

m

When troubleshooting a series circuit containing three

or more resistors, remember:

The component whose voltage changes in the

opposite direction of the other components is the

defective component.

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