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Chapter

4
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Topics Covered in Chapter 4


4-1: Why ¬ ¬s the Same in All Parts of a Series Circuit
4-2: Total  Equals the Sum of All Series Resistances
4-3: Series ¬ Voltage Drops
4-4: Kirchhoff¶s Voltage Law (KVL)
4-5: Polarity of ¬ Voltage Drops
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Π4-6: Total Power in a Series Circuit
Π4-7: Series-Aiding and Series-Opposing Voltages
Π4-8: Analyzing Series Circuits with Random Unknowns
Π4-9: Ground Connections in Electrical and Electronic
Systems
Π4-10: Troubleshooting: Opens and Shorts in Series
Circuits


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ΠCharacteristics of a Series Circuit
ΠThe current is the same everywhere in a series circuit.
ΠThe total resistance is equal to the sum of the individual
resistance values.
ΠThe total voltage is equal to the sum of the  voltage
drops across the individual resistances.
ΠThe total power is equal to the sum of the power
dissipated by each resistance.
 
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ΠCurrent is the movement of electric charge between two
points, produced by the applied voltage.
ΠThe free electrons moving away from one point are
continuously replaced by free electrons flowing from an
adjacent point in the series circuit.
ΠAll electrons have the same speed as those leaving the
voltage source.
ΠTherefore,  is the same in all parts of a series circuit.
 
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[ig. 4-2: There is only one current through  , and  in series. () Electron drift is the
same in all parts of a series circuit. () Current ¬ is the same at all points in a series circuit.
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ΠSeries Current [ormulas
ΠTotal current is the same as the individual currents in
the series string:
¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ u  u 
ΠTotal current is equal to total voltage divided by total
resistance:


¬  

  
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ΠWhen a series circuit is connected across a voltage
source, the free electrons must drift through all the
series resistances.

ΠThere is only one path for free electrons to follow.

Œ ¬f there are two or more resistances in the same current


path, the total resistance across the voltage source is
the sum of all the resistances.
  
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[ig. 4-4: Series resistances are added for the total . ()  alone is 3 ȍ. ()  and  in
series together total 5 ȍ. ( ) The  of 5 ȍ is the same as one resistance of 5 ȍ between
points A and B.

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ΠSeries Resistance [ormulas
ΠThe total resistance is the sum of the individual
resistances.

M M
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M M

    
  
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ΠSeries Resistance [ormulas
ΠTotal resistance is equal to total voltage divided by the
circuit current:


  
¬
  
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ΠDetermining the Total Resistance
M  å Må

M å

Må M å

M M M M M M

M  å å  å  å å  å


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Œ By Ohm¶s Law, the voltage across a resistance equals
¬  

Œ ¬n a series circuit, the ¬ voltage across each resistance


is called an ¬ ?  or p? , because it
reduces the potential difference available for the
remaining resistances in the circuit.
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[ig. 4-5: An example of ¬ voltage drops  and  in a series circuit.


Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, ¬nc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
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© ©

© ©
     

    


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The ¬ drops must add to equal the applied voltage


(KVL).
 å  å

 
 u 
 å 
½ 

å  å




     

 ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬

 u          


       

 u    
 
 u 
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ΠWhen current flows through a resistor, a voltage equal
to ¬ is dropped across the resistor. The polarity of this
¬ voltage drop is:
Πegative at the end where the electrons enter the
resistor.
ΠPositive at the end where the electrons leave the
resistor.
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ΠThe rule is reversed when considering conventional
current: positive charges move into the positive side of
the ¬ voltage.

ΠThe polarity of the  drop is the same, regardless of


whether we consider electron flow or conventional
current.
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[ig. 4-8: Polarity of ¬ voltage drops. () Electrons flow into the negative side of 
across . () Same polarity of  with positive charges into the positive side.
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ΠThe power needed to


produce current in
each series resistor is
used up in the form of
heat.
ΠThe total power used
in the circuit is equal to
the sum of the
individual powers
dissipated in each part
of the circuit.
[ig. 4-10: The sum of the individual powers 
ΠTotal power can also and  used in each resistance equals the
be calculated as   ¬ total power  produced by the source.

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[inding Total Power


 å  å

 

 å
 u  ½  

å  å



     

 ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬

 u     
   
u 
   ¬ u  Î   u 
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ΠSeries-aiding voltages are connected with polarities that
allow current in the same direction:

ΠThe positive terminal of one is connected to the


negative terminal of the next.

ΠThey can be added for the total voltage.


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ΠSeries-opposing voltages are the opposite: They are
connected to produce opposing directions of current
flow.

ΠThe positive terminal of one is connected to the


positive terminal of another.

ΠTo obtain the total voltage, subtract the smaller voltage


from the larger.

ΠTwo equal series-opposing voltage sources have a net


voltage of zero.
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[ig. 4-11: Example of voltage sources  and  in series. () ote the connections for series-
aiding polarities. Here 8 V + 6 V = 14 V for the total . () Connections for series-opposing
polarities. ow 8 V ± 6 V = 2 V for .
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)
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+
,
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ΠWhen trying to analyze a series circuit, keep the
following principles in mind:
1. ¬f ¬ is known for one component, use this value in all
components. The current is the same in all parts of a
series circuit.
2. ¬f ¬ is unknown, it may be calculated in one of two
ways:
ΠDivide  by 
ΠDivide an individual  drop by its .
ΠRemember not to mix a total value for an entire
circuit with an individual value for part of the circuit.
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3. ¬f all individual voltage drops are known, add them to
determine the applied 

ΠA known voltage drop may be subtracted from  to


find a remaining voltage drop.
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Œ ¬n most electrical and electronic systems, one side of
the voltage source is connected to ground.

ΠThe reason for doing this is to reduce the possibility of


electric shock.
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Π[igure 4-16 shows several schematic ground symbols:

ΠGround is assumed to have a potential of 0 V


regardless of the schematic symbol shown.
ΠThese symbols are sometimes used inconsistently with
their definitions. However, these symbols always
represent a common return path for current in a given
circuit.
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ΠVoltages Measured with Respect to Ground

ΠWhen a circuit has a ground as a common return,


measure the voltages with respect to this ground.
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[ig. 4-18: An example of how to calculate dc voltages measured with respect to ground. ()
egative side of  grounded to make all voltages positive with respect to ground. () Positive
side of  grounded, all voltages are negative to ground.
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ΠThe Effect of an Open in a Series Circuit
ΠAn open circuit is a circuit with a break in the current
path. When a series circuit is open, the current is zero
in all parts of the circuit.
ΠThe total resistance of an open circuit is infinite ohms.
ΠWhen a series circuit is open, the applied voltage
appears across the open points.
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ΠThe Effect of an Open in a Series Circuit

[ig. 4-19: Effect of an open in a series circuit. () Open path between points  and  results
in zero current in all parts of the circuit.
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ΠApplied voltage  is still present, even with zero
current.
ΠThe voltage source still has its same potential difference
across its positive and negative terminals.
ΠExample: The 120-V potential difference is always
available from the terminals of a wall outlet.
Œ ¬f an appliance is connected, current will flow.
Œ ¬f you touch the metal terminals when nothing else is
connected, you will receive a shock.
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ΠThe Effect of a Short in a Series Circuit
ΠWhen part of a series circuit is shorted, the current flow
increases.
ΠWhen part of a series circuit is shorted, the voltage
drops across the non-shorted elements increase.
ΠThe voltage drop across the shorted component drops
to 0 V.
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ΠThe Effect of a Short in a Series Circuit

[ig. 4-21: Series circuit of [ig. 4-18 with  shorted.


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ΠWhen troubleshooting a series circuit containing three
or more resistors, remember:
ΠThe component whose voltage changes in the
opposite direction of the other components is the
defective component.