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Title

Surge Voltage Protection

TRABTECH

1 / Name / 01/08/01
Surge and Lightning Protection
Why, Where, and How?

2 / Name / 01/08/01
What causes power surges?

• contactors
• collapsing inductive loads
• power grid switching
• improper grounding techniques
• component failures
• human error
• lightning
• compressors
• DC drives
• motors
• electronic discharge
• N.E.M.P.
3 / Name / 01/08/01
Explanation of Terms:

• Overvoltages or surge voltages:


Overvoltage is the permanent or temporary voltage
between conducters or between conductor and ground
in systems which can damaging (electrical) equipment

• Transient:
Describes a phenomenon or variable which changes
during what is, in comparison to the time scale being
observed, a short period of time between two consecutive
stationary conditions
...ns...µs... ½ ms

4 / Name / 01/08/01
Explanation of Terms:

• Transients:
These are irregular and relative short positive and / or
negative voltage or current changes between two stationary
states

• Surge Protective Device (SPD):


A device that is intended to limit transient overvoltages and
divert surge currents. It contains at least one nonlinear
component.

5 / Name / 01/08/01
Surge Voltage Superimpose Line Voltage

U
[V]
1500

1000

500

0
t
500
[ms]

1000

1500

TT 566 GB 21.01.99
6 / Name / 01/08/01
Lightning Intensities

<1% * max. Number of


Paramete 90% * exceed 50% * exceed 1% * exceed observed observations
r
Crest Current 2-8 kA 10-25kA 40-60 kA 230 kA 4,150

Current rate
2 kA/us 8 kA/us 25 kA/us 50 kA/us 40
of rise/pulse

Time between
end pulse and 5 to 10 ms 30 to 40 ms 80 to 130 ms 500 ms 525
start of next

Number of
pulses in an
1 to 2 2 to 4 5 to 11 34 500
individual
stroke
Range in values caused by variations in observation
Source: Lightning and Lightning Protection, William C. Hart

7 / Name / 01/08/01
Lightning Intensities Measured and
Documented at Florida University

8 / Name / 01/08/01
Lightning at Lake Lugana, Switzerland

Source: Binz;
Niederrohrdorf/CH
9 / Name / 01/08/01
2432_a 2430 / 20.03.2001
Characteristic Values of Transients

Voltage
Switching Transients
Switching transients are more frequent
with higher voltage intensity. Their
1000kV
duration is very short.

Switching Lightning Transients


Transients Lightning transient’s current intensities
are greater and the long transient
500kV surge is very damaging.

Lightning
Transients
200kV

100ns 500ns 1000ns 1500ns

10 / Name / 01/08/01
Seasonal Lightning Activity

11 / Name / 01/08/01
How far away does lightning have to
strike to cause damage?

 Damaging voltage levels of 70v/m can be present a


mile away from a lightning flash.
 Lightning does not have to strike the ground. Even
cloud to cloud lightning can cause major damage.
 Electromagnetic voltage fields created by lightning
strokes cause high current surges.

 Magnetic fields produce high voltage levels .

12 / Name / 01/08/01
And why are they dangerous?

• Increased equipment sensitivity


• Inductive and capacitive
coupling
• EMC requirements
• Expense of lost production -
down time
• Litigation and insurance
expense

13 / Name / 01/08/01
Lightning Damage
Direct vs. Indirect
1,000,000

24,755

10,000 indirect strokes


931

158 direct strokes 80


100

0
60 65 70 75 80 85 90
Source: Gugenbauer,A./ Activity report, damage statistics,
Linz Fire protection Authority for Upper Austria

14 / Name / 01/08/01
Damaging Energy

Motors/generators

Filter coils

Electronic tubes

Relays

Capacitors

Diodes

Transistors

Computer elements

IC’s

...
Energy (Ws) 10 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7

no damage possible damage certain damage

TT
15 /06
Name
GB 16.04.98
/ 01/08/01
Coupling Methods

Direct Coupling
Inductive Coupling
Capacitive Coupling

16 / Name / 01/08/01
Types of Coupling
galvanic inductive capacitive

i(t) i(t) i(t)


u(t)
R uR(t)
u2(t) er
L uL(t)
CK

TT 1180 GB09.05.00
17 / Name / 01/08/01
Direct Coupling In Action

18 / Name / 01/08/01
Direct Coupling

When the rate of current flow is greater than


the earth’s ability to absorb the current flow,
an alternate path is found.

Surge current
seeks an alternate
path Equipment
Damage

High

Rate of Rate of
Current Flow
I1 I2 Current Flow

Anytime current flows through a resistance (earth ground, impedance)


a voltage is generated.
19 / Name / 01/08/01
50% /50% lightning current distribution

50%
services entering
the structure

50%

20 / Name / 01/08/01
Lightning Protection / Surge Protection

SE

F1

PAS
50%
50%

21 / Name / 01/08/01
Galvanic coupling

improvement !
iB

iB2 ‘

iB2 iB2 ‘‘ iB2


iB1
RE1 UE = RE1 x iB1 potential equalization iB2
& RE2
surge voltage protection

22 / Name / 01/08/01
Step Voltage

• Lightning remains at
the earth’s surface
(skin affect).
• Potential voltages
between front and back
hooves kills the animal.

Solution:
Genetically engineer
livestock to stand
on one foot!
10kV 30kV

23 / Name / 01/08/01
Lightning Strikes!

Lightning killed 22 cows when it


struck the large tree shown with
the bark stripped off. Even though
some of the cows were a
considerable distance away from
the tree, the voltage spread over
the ground caused electrocuting
shock between the animal’s feet.

Lightning killed 504 sheep


when a stroke hit the ground
in this rocky pasture in Utah.
A stroke to high-resistance
soil can produce exceptionally
high voltage in the ground
and spread over an unusually
large area.

24 / Name / 01/08/01
Lightning Protection / Surge Protection

SE

F1

PAS

25 / Name / 01/08/01
Lightning Protection / Surge Protection

SE

F1

PAS

26 / Name / 01/08/01
Electromagnetic Influences

27 / Name / 01/08/01
Inductive (Magnetic) Coupling

• Magnetic flux line’s (MFL) intensities are greatest near stroke.


• Greater (MFL) frequencies create higher voltages.
• As (MFL) crosses circuit area, damaging voltages are generated.

Surge current
seeks an alternate
path Equipment
Damage
High

Rate of Rate of
Current Flow
I1 I2 Current Flow

Anytime current flows through a resistance (earth ground, impedance)


a voltage is generated.

28 / Name / 01/08/01
Inductive Coupling from Nearby
Conductors

Transient Conductor
6”
Secondary
Produces Magnetic Field
Transient Induced in
adjacent Conductor

A 500A, 1.2x50 millisecond


Transient Induces »30V in a 6 inch
piece of adjacent cable

29 / Name / 01/08/01
Surges caused by switching actions

L N PE 24V

I> I> I>

zur PAS

30 / Name / 01/08/01
Limiting Inductive Coupling

Magnetic Flux Lines generate damaging voltages as they


pass through a circuit.

Twisted Pairs/Cast Iron Conduit

Cast iron pipe is the only effective shield protection


against magnetic flux line disturbances.
The most economical solution is twisted conductor pairs.
Twisting effectively reduces the circuit area to zero.

31 / Name / 01/08/01
Capacitive Coupling

• A lightning stroke creates strong local voltage fields.


• Highly charged electrons are attracted or repelled to electrical
circuits.
• High inrush or outrush currents are formed which can damage
electrical circuits.

Equipment
Damage

High

Rate of Rate of
Current Flow
I1 I2 Current Flow

32 / Name / 01/08/01
Three types of damage caused by surges

•Destructive
•Dissipative
•Disruptive

33 / Name / 01/08/01
Destructive: SYMPTOMS: Very visible damage: burnt boards,
traces and components. Some components literally
blown off the board. Wire insulation melted and
metallic parts deformed.
Destructive effects are generally associated with
severe impulse (lightning activity). These effects are
rare depending upon geographic location and
environmental conditions.

34 / Name / 01/08/01
Dissipative: SYMPTOMS: Little or no visible damage, but
components will not function properly. “Bad ICs” is
usually the diagnosis.
Dissipative effects are the cumulative result of
electronic stress usually caused by internally
generated, lower energy, but are constantly present.
Destructive: SYMPTOMS: Very visible damage: burnt boards,
traces and components. Some components literally
blown off the board. Wire insulation melted and
metallic parts deformed.
Destructive effects are generally associated with
severe impulse (lightning activity). These effects are
rare depending upon geographic location and
environmental conditions.

35 / Name / 01/08/01
Disruptive: SYMPTOMS: Confused logic, lost files, data stream
disruption and/or corruption, system lock-up.
Disruptive effects are common place to most computer
users but are generally blamed on software or
hardware problems.
Dissipative: SYMPTOMS: Little or no visible damage, but
components will not function properly. “Bad ICs” is
usually the diagnosis.
Dissipative effects are the cumulative result of
electronic stress usually caused by internally
generated, lower energy, but are constantly present.
Destructive: SYMPTOMS: Very visible damage: burnt boards,
traces and components. Some components literally
blown off the board. Wire insulation melted and
metallic parts deformed.
Destructive effects are generally associated with
severe impulse (lightning activity). These effects are
rare depending upon geographic location and
environmental conditions.

36 / Name / 01/08/01
Transients

• Very short duration: < 20 microseconds Oscillatory Ringwave

• Damaging to microprocessor equipment


• Occur constantly
• Caused by current or voltage changes Unipolar Spike (impulse)

• Bundles of energy

Symptoms: Data Disruption


CPU Reboot Mode: Normal and/or

Logic Scramble Common


System Lock Up Amplitude: High
Component Failure Energy: High
Solution: Transient Absorption Technology Frequency: High

37 / Name / 01/08/01
Reasons Semiconductors Fail

Environment
Overstress 30%
65%
Parts
5%
65% - External Electrical Overstress
1) Transients
2) Lightning
3) ESD (Electro Static Discharge)
30% - Environmental Conditions
1) Excessive Temperature
2) Moisture / High Humidity
5% - Parts Manufacturing (shows up < 30 days of
operation)

38 / Name / 01/08/01
What about isolation transformers?

• Isolation transformers de-couple neutral to ground surges if


properly installed.

• However, they do not isolate line to line or line to neutral surges.

• IEEEC 62.41-1991; Martzloff 1993

39 / Name / 01/08/01
What technologies exist to combat
power surges?

S1
B

S2 S3
The perfect surge arrestor

40 / Name / 01/08/01
TRABTECH
Transient Absorption Technology

Types of Protection: Coarse

Medium

Fine

41 / Name / 01/08/01
What technologies exist to combat
power surges?

Spark Gaps Gas Tubes

Suppressor Diodes Metal Oxide Varistors

42 / Name / 01/08/01
What technologies exist to combat
power surges?

Arc Chopping Spark Gap


• Tremendous energy handling
capability
• Self-extinguishing
• Dissipates energy as plasma
discharge instead of heat
• Can handle multiple direct strike
events without damage

60,000 Amp of protection

43 / Name / 01/08/01
Function of the arc chopping spark gap

3
6 6
4
5 5

1. Ignition at response voltage


2. Arc bridges the distance between electrodes
3. Arc is pushed outwards
4. Arc is chopped against basic crash plate
5. Design of partial arc
6. Break down and extinguishing of partial arcs

TT 21 GB 05.09.97
44 / Name / 01/08/01
What technologies exist to combat
power surges?

Gas Tube Technology


• Crowbar device
• Slow response
• High energy handling capability
• Unpredictable ignition voltage
• Commonly used in
telecommunications

10,000 Amp of protection

45 / Name / 01/08/01
Components: Gasfilled surge arrestor

Electrode
Ceramic isolator

Ignition area
Gas ignition area
Activate material

Electrode

46 / Name / 01/08/01
What technologies exist to combat
power surges?

Metal Oxide Varistors

• Voltage dependent resistor

• Predictable overvoltage
protection response
• Wide range of voltage
protection levels

• Leakage current and


40,000Amps of protection
eventual stress failure

47 / Name / 01/08/01
What technologies exist to combat
power surges?

Metal Oxide Varistors

• Voltage dependent resistor

• Predictable overvoltage
protection response
• Wide range of voltage
protection levels
Nanosecond
• Performance decays with use response
to spikes
• Undesirable high frequency
characteristics
48 / Name / 01/08/01
What technologies exist to combat
power surges?

Surge Suppressor Diodes


• Also called SADs, Silicon Avalanche
Diodes, and Transorbs
• Very fast response Pico second response to spikes
• Silicon device that acts like back to
back Zeners
• Low Energy Handling
• Originally developed during
• the cold war

500 Amps of protection

49 / Name / 01/08/01
Characteristic curve of a Suppressor Diode

Current
(A)

UC UB UR Voltage
(V)
UR UB UC

50 / Name / 01/08/01
Relative Power Capacity of Surge Elements

200kA
(*) Greater than 200kA

Note: (*) Maximum surge discharge current is


100kA 8 x 20 microseconds estimated

40kA
10kA
.5kA
FlashTrab Metal Gas Suppressor
Spark Gap Oxide Discharge Diode
Varistor Tube
60kA 40kA 10kA .5kA
10x350 8x20 8x20 8x20
1,000 V 5 V - 600 V 90 V 5 V - 300 V
rise time
nanoseconds microseconds picoseconds
dependent
time

51 / Name / 01/08/01
Multiple Stage Arresters

response
velocity

discharge
capability

52 / Name / 01/08/01
Multiple Stage Arresters

Incoming
Line Transient

Suppressor
Diode

Grounding
System

53 / Name / 01/08/01
Multiple Stage Arresters

Incoming
Line Transient

Inductor
First Stage

Metal Suppressor
Oxide Diode
Varistor

Grounding
System

54 / Name / 01/08/01
Multiple Stage Arresters

Inductor
Incoming Second Stage
Line Transient

Inductor
Gas
Discharge First Stage
Arrestor

Metal Suppressor
Oxide Diode
Varistor

Grounding
System

55 / Name / 01/08/01
Multiple Stage Arresters

DU

IN UG US OUT

56 / Name / 01/08/01
How can I evaluate performance of a
Transient Voltage Surge Suppression
(TVSS) Device?

57 / Name / 01/08/01
How can I evaluate performance of a
Transient Voltage Surge Suppression
(TVSS) Device?

ANSI / IEEE C62.41


8x20 µS Waveform
• Impulse waveform measures
circuit low impedance
response to current flow
• Considered by ANSI / IEEE
as maximum energy
waveform test
• Representative of utility
heavy load switching event
58 / Name / 01/08/01
Discharge Current

Nominal discharge current 8/20 IN

The arrester must handle this surge current at least 20 times (connected to
the power mains) without significant change in protection level

Maximum discharge current 8/20 Imax

The arrester must handle 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100 % of this surge
current at one time without significant change in protection level

59 / Name / 01/08/01
How can I evaluate performance of a
Transient Voltage Surge Suppression
(TVSS) Device?

IEC 10x350µS
Waveform
• Lightning test waveform
• Greater energy that ANSI /
IEEE standards
• Current impulse event

8/20 Waveform energy


comparison
60 / Name / 01/08/01
Peakpulse test curve

isn
%

100

10/350 µs (IEC 61024-1)

50

8/20 µs (IEC 60-1/


ANSI / IEEE 62.41)

8l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l
t
10 20 100 200 300 350 µs

61 / Name / 01/08/01
How can I evaluate performance of a
Transient Voltage Surge Suppression
(TVSS) Device?

ANSI / IEEE C62.41


1.2 x 50 µS Waveform
• International test
standard for high
impedance circuits
• Voltage impulse decays
to half value in 50 µS

62 / Name / 01/08/01
How can I evaluate performance of a
Transient Voltage Surge Suppression
(TVSS) Device?

ANSI / IEEE C62.41


Oscillatory Ringwave

• Representative of
typical internally
generated switching
transient
• Could be effects of
contactor switching
• Low energy event
63 / Name / 01/08/01
Surge Protection
Strategies & Techniques

• Grounding
• Shielding - IEEE Std. 518-1977
• Surge Arrestor Characteristics

64 / Name / 01/08/01
Grounding

65 / Name / 01/08/01
Grounding Systems

• Grounding of Structures
• User Safety Grounds
All require separate • Instrument Grounds
grounding techniques

66 / Name / 01/08/01
What does effective grounding
accomplish?

P = Power handling capacity of surge arrestor


2 2
P=I R I = Surge Current
R = Ground Circuit Resistance

• Lower ground circuit resistance allows better surge


suppressor performance levels (higher current levels).
• Lower ground circuit resistance increases surge suppressor
usable life span due to reduced heating.

67 / Name / 01/08/01
How effective is your ground?

Surge Current
Grounding Rod

Resistance
Dissipation
Shell

68 / Name / 01/08/01
Instrument Grounding Loops

Problem
• Instrument Loop Grounds are not suitable for conducting high
current transients.
• Instrument Loops provide a path for damaging transients.
• Instrument Loop Grounding Lead Wires are run long distances
and are usually small gauge.

Precaution
Proper Low Impedance Earth Grounding Techniques must be
employed when dealing with transients.

69 / Name / 01/08/01
Shielding

70 / Name / 01/08/01
Multiple Noise Reduction Techniques

• Grounding
• Twisted Pair Wire
• Shielding
• Transient Protection
• Cast Iron Pipe

71 / Name / 01/08/01
How can I evaluate performance of a
Transient Voltage Surge Suppression
(TVSS) Device?
A
Outlets and long branch circuits
All outlets at more than 30 feet from
A B C Category B
All outlets at more than 60 feet from
Category C

B
Feeders and short branch circuits
Distribution panel devices
Bus and feeder industrial plants
Heavy appliance outlets with “short”
connections to service entrance
Lighting systems in large buildings

C
Outside and service entrance
Service drop from pole to building
Run between meter and panel
Low Medium High Overhead line to detached building
Energy Energy Energy Underground line to well pump

72 / Name / 01/08/01
How can I evaluate performance of a
Transient Voltage Surge Suppression
(TVSS) Device?

Location Open Circuit Short Circuit


Category Waveform Voltage Current
A
Long Branch 0.5s - 100kHz
Circuits and Ring Waveform 6,000V 200A
Outlets, Test
Data Wall
Outlets
B 0.5s-100kHz 6,000V 500A
Major Feeders Ring Waveform
and Short Test
Branch Circuits, 1.2 x 50s High 6,000V
(Distribution Impedance Test
Panels) 8 x 20 s Current 3,000A
Impulse Test
C
Outdoor 8 x 20 S Current 10,000A
Overhead Impulse Test
Lines, Service
Entrance

73 / Name / 01/08/01
Zone Protection

Zone

A
IEEE C62.41 ANSI/IEEE
TYPES OF CIRCUITS PROTECTED
Service Entrance Sub-distribution Analog/Low Data Lines RF/COAX/TWINAX
LOCATION ZONES Power Mains Circuits Voltage Digital RS-232/422/485 TELECOM
120V - 480V 240V-120V 5V-60V TOKEN RING
10 BASE T
Transformer isolated or MAINS PLUGTRAB TERMITRAB DATATRAB D-UFB- COMTRAB CT...24DC
separated circuits inside UAK 2 - PE/S... TT-UKK5... 485S
cabinets or enclosures TT-UK5... COAXTRAB C-UFB
MAINS MODUTRAB TT-SLKK5... DATATRAB
• Expected surge levels MT2(4)...Series DUFB-TTY-1 TWINAXTRAB - A1
to 200A MODUTRAB MT DUFB-V11
• Normal Mode
(Transverse) Circuits, TOKENTRAB
Line to Line
• Low Power Fast DATAMODUTRAB
Response (1 Picosec.) MT V...
• 1.8 Maximum Allowable
Circuit Surge Current
Protection
• Final Stage of
Protection

74 / Name / 01/08/01
Zone Protection

Zone

B
IEEE C62.41 ANSI/IEEE
TYPES OF CIRCUITS PROTECTED
Service Entrance Sub-distribution Analog/Low Data Lines RF/COAX/TWINAX
LOCATION ZONES Power Mains Circuits Voltage Digital RS-232/422/485 TELECOM
120V - 480V 240V-120V 5V-60V TOKEN RING
10 BASE T
Distribution Power VALVETRAB VALVETRAB MINITRAB M-UFB... DATATRAB RF-TRAB 200 Watt
Circuits VAL-MS... VAL-MS Servive D-UFB-485S Max
COMTRAB CT (RS485) Transmission power
MAINS PLUGTRAB 10-18S D-UFB-TTY-1
• Expected surge levels UAKk-2-PE/S (TTY) COAXTRAB C-UFB
to 3kA D-UFB-V24
• Ground Referenced MAINS MODUTRAB (RS232) TWINAXTRAB-A1
Circuits (Common Mode) MT 2(4)...Series
• High Current Protection DATA MODUTRAB COMTRAB CT...5,
• Nanosecond Response MT-V... 12, 24, 48, 60, 110DC
Times
• 1.8 Maximum Surge
Voltage (115V x1.8=207
Example of Maximum
Circuit Voltage
• 2nd Stage Protection

75 / Name / 01/08/01
Zone Protection

Zone

C
IEEE C62.41 ANSI/IEEE
TYPES OF CIRCUITS PROTECTED
Service Entrance Sub-distribution Analog/Low Data Lines RF/COAX/TWINAX
LOCATION ZONES Power Mains Circuits Voltage Digital RS-232/422/485 TELECOM
120V - 480V 240V-120V 5V-60V TOKEN RING
10 BASE T
Areas where direct strike FLASHTRAB VALVETRAB SURGETRAB PLUGTRAB TELETRAB
potential exists FLT 60, FLT 25 VAL-MS Serive UBK 2-PE(2/2)... UFBK 2/2...HF
COMTRAB
POWERTRAB PLUGTRAB DATAMODUTRAB
• Expected surge levels > UFBK 2/2 MT V... RF-TRAB
10 kA VALVETRAB (2-PE)...
• Common Mode Circuits VAL-MS...
• Surge Current Transient LINETRAB UFB 2
Voltage Suppression (2-PE)...
• 1st Stage Protection
• High Power, Slow Note: Can be used
Response (>1 in Zone A & B
Nanosecond)

76 / Name / 01/08/01
Wires that can get Surges!

Data
Communications Sensor/Actuator
and Telemetry Lines

Equipment

Utility Power
Comprehensive Surge
Voltage Protection Concept

• Can only be achieved by protecting ALL electrical circuits


entering the Protection Circle with proper protectors.

• A symbolic circle around all equipment to be protected.

• Inside area of the circle is designed to eliminate external


coupling.

• Including power supplies, data lines and all electrical circuits.

78 / Name / 01/08/01
Effective protection circle
Antenna

MCR-Lines

Data- and
Telecommunication-
lines
(Ethernet, Bus, RS232..)
4 .. 20mA / IOs

Power supply
24V / 230V / 400V / 690V

79 / Name / 01/08/01
Protect here … and here …
Antenna

MCR-Lines

Data- and
Telecommunication-
lines
(Ethernet, Bus, RS232..)
4 .. 20mA / IOs

Power supply
24V / 230V / 400V / 690V

80 / Name / 01/08/01
Effective protection circle
Antenna

MCR-Lines

Data- and
Telecommunication-
lines
(Ethernet, Bus, RS232..)
4 .. 20mA / IOs

Power supply
24V / 230V / 400V / 690V

81 / Name / 01/08/01
Lightning Protection Compressor and Gate
Stations
Utility Power Lines - Use an Arc Gap
Equipment to Protect:

Metering Stations and


Flow Computers
Equipment to Protect:

Variable Speed Motor Drive and


attached Motors
Equipment to Protect:

PLC input cards reading the flow signal

85 / Name / 01/08/01
Lightning and Surge Protection at Pumping
Station

86 / Name / 01/08/01
Lightning and Surge Protection at Pumping
Station

87 / Name / 01/08/01
Lightning and Surge Protection at Pumping
Station

88 / Name / 01/08/01