Course Overview

DC (Direct current) Circuits Constant voltage Constant current Voltage Current Time Rules:
Ohm¶s law Kirchoff¶s law

AC (Alternating current) Voltage Current

Techniques:
Mesh Analysis Node Analysis Superposition Thevenin/ Norton

Frequency

Phasor Concept

Transient Response
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Why do we need to know circuits?
‡ Electronic devices: Computer, MP3 player, PDA, ‡ Transportation: electric trains ‡ Robots

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SI Base Units
Name meter kilogram second ampere kelvin mole candela
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Symbol m kg s A K mol cd

Quantity length mass time electric current thermodynamic temperature amount of substance luminous intensity
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Questions
‡ What is the fundamental unit of work or energy? 1 joule (J) = 1 kg m2 s-2 ‡ What about the unit of power? Watt (W) = 1 J/s

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SI Prefixes

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Charge (Q or q)
‡ The fundamental unit of charge is coulomb (C). ‡ A single electron has a charge of -1.602x10-19 C (plus sign for proton). ‡ Q represents time-invariant quantities. ‡ q represents time-varying quantities.

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Current (I or i)
‡ Total charges passing thru a cross section in a second or ³charge in motion´. ‡ Unit of current is ampere (A) = C/sec. ‡ Numerical value and direction.

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Representation for the exact same current

Net positive charge of 3 C/s moving to the left; or net negative charge of -3 C/s moving to the right

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Types of current
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Direct current (dc) Sinusoidal current (ac) Exponential current Damped sinusoidal current

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Voltage (V or v)
‡ Measure of the work required to move charge thru the element. ‡ Unit of voltage is volt (V) = J/C ‡ Unlike current, voltage can exist between a pair of terminals whether a current is flowing or not, i.e., battery

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Representation for the exact same voltage

(a, b) Terminal B is 5 V positive with respect to terminal A; (c,d) terminal A is 5 V positive with respect to terminal B.

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Summary for direction and negative sign
+ 2 volts Same as -2 volts +

1A Same as

-1 A

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Ground: Reference Point
Ground has 0 voltage!!!

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Power (P or p)
‡ Rate at which energy is expended ‡ Proportional to number of coulombs transferred per second and energy need to transfer one coulomb thru the element. p = vi ‡ Unit of power is joules per second, or watts
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Absorbed and supplied power
Power is being absorbed by an element; power is being delivered to the element.

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Absorbed and supplied power (cont.)
+ V V + I Supplied power (minus sign) I Absorbed power (plus sign)

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Examples

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Components
‡ Electric sources
± Independent Sources ± voltage, current ± Dependent Sources ± voltage, current

‡ Resistors, inductors, capacitors ‡ Measurement devices
± Ammeters ± Voltmeters

‡ Electric wire
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Independence voltage sources
Independent of the current thru the sources

Symbol for: (a) DC voltage source; (b) battery; (c) ac voltage source.

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Independence current sources
Independent of the voltage thru the sources

Symbol for an independent current source.

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Dependent sources
depends on either voltage or current thru the sources
The four different types of dependent sources: (a) current-controlled current source; (b) voltage-controlled current source; (c) voltage-controlled voltage source; (d) current-controlled voltage source.

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Facts you need to know!!!
‡ Different points on the same wire have the same voltage. ‡ Voltage/current sources always have the same voltage/current across the two ends as the amount they generate. ‡ Ground has zero voltage.

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Examples
In the circuit below ,if v2 is known to be 3 V, find vL .

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Resistance (R) vs. Conductance (G)
‡ Resistance (R) is the measure of friction a component presents to the flow of electrons through it. ‡ Conductance (G) is an inverse of resistance. ‡ Electrons flow with less resistance, or greater conductance. ‡ Unit of resistance is ohm, unit of conductance is siemens (S)

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Resistance

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Direction of Voltage & Current on Resistors

or + +

Current will pass thru a resistance from higher voltage to the lower one.

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Networks vs. Circuits
‡ Interconnection of two or more circuit elements forms an electrical network. ‡ Circuit is composed of a closed path of network.

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Simple DC Circuit
Current

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Short circuit vs. open circuit
‡ Short circuit: resistance of zero ohms, voltage across must be zero, current can be any value. ‡ Open circuit: infinite resistance, current across must be zero, voltage can be anything.
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Ohm¶s law

Question: R=??? v = i R or i =

v R
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Electric Current
1A

1A

1A Every point in the circuit has current = 1A
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Electric Voltage
x + 1 Volts

x Volts

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Ground
1 Volts

0 Volts

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Open circuit
1 Volts 0 Volts

R acts like a short circuit (no current)

0 Volts

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Open circuit (cont.)
1 Volts 1 Volts

R acts like a short circuit (no current)

0 Volts 1 Volts

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Example
2.5mA

DC source generates power = 10V * -2.5mA = - 25mW Resistor absorbs power = 10V * 2.5mA = 25mW Note: Resistors always absorb power but DC source can either generate or absorb power
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