# Momentum

Momentum
• From Newton’s laws: force must be present to change an object’s velocity (speed and/or direction)  Wish to consider effects of collisions and corresponding change in velocity
Golf ball initially at rest, so some of the KE of club transferred to provide motion of golf ball and its change in velocity

 Method to describe is to use concept of linear momentum Linear momentum = product of mass ×
scalar

velocity
vector

Ek = mv
1 2

2

dEk = mv dv

∫ mvdv =

1 2

mv − mv
2 b 1 2

2 a

Momentum
p = mv
• Vector quantity, the direction of the momentum is the same as the velocity’s • Applies to two-dimensional motion as well

p x = mv x and p y = mv y
Size of momentum: depends upon mass depends upon velocity

Impulse
• In order to change the momentum of an object (say, golf ball), a force must be applied • The time rate of change of momentum of an object is equal to the net force acting on it

F net

∆ p m(v f − v i ) = = = ma or : ∆ p = F net ∆t ∆t ∆t

– Gives an alternative statement of Newton’s second law – (F Δt) is defined as the impulse – Impulse is a vector quantity, the direction is the same as the direction of the force

Graphical Interpretation of Impulse
• Usually force is not constant, but time-dependent
∆ti

impulse = ∑ Fi ∆ti = area under F (t ) curve

• •

If the force is not constant, use the average force applied The average force can be thought of as the constant force that would give the same impulse to the object in the time interval as the actual time-varying force gives in the interval

If force is constant: impulse = F ∆ t

Example: Impulse Applied to Auto Collisions
• The most important factor is the collision time or the time it takes the person to come to a rest
– This will reduce the chance of dying in a car crash

• Ways to increase the time
– Seat belts – Air bags

The air bag increases the time of the collision and absorbs some of the energy from the body

ConcepTest
Suppose a ping-pong ball and a bowling ball are rolling toward you. Both have the same momentum, and you exert the same force to stop each. How do the time intervals to stop them compare? 1. It takes less time to stop the ping-pong ball. 2. Both take the same time. 3. It takes more time to stop the ping-pong ball.

Suppose a ping-pong ball and a bowling ball are rolling toward you. Both have the same momentum, and you exert the same force to stop each. How do the time intervals to stop them compare? 1. It takes less time to stop the ping-pong ball. 2. Both take the same time.  3. It takes more time to stop the ping-pong ball.

Note: Because force equals the time rate of change of momentum, the two balls loose momentum at the same rate. If both balls initially had the same momenta, it takes the same amount of time to stop them.

Problem: Teeing Off

A 50-g golf ball at rest is hit by “Big Bertha” club with 500-g mass. After the collision, golf leaves with velocity of 50 m/s. a) Find impulse imparted to ball b) Assuming club in contact with ball for 0.5 ms, find average force acting on golf ball

Problem: teeing off
1. Use impulse-momentum relation: Given: mass: m=50 g = 0.050 kg velocity: v=50 m/s Find: impulse=? Faverage =?

impulse = ∆p = mv f − mvi

= ( 0.050 kg )( 50 m s ) − 0 = 2.50 kg ⋅ m s

2. Having found impulse, find the average force from the definition of impulse:

∆p = F ⋅ ∆t , thus F =

∆p 2.50 kg ⋅ m s = ∆t 0.5 ×10 −3 s = 5.00 ×103 N

Note: according to Newton’s 3rd law, that is also a reaction force to club hitting the ball:

F ⋅ ∆t = − F R ⋅ ∆t , or

of club

mv f − mv i = − M V f − M V i , or mv f + M V f = mv i + M V i
CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

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Conservation of Momentum
• Definition: an isolated system is the one that has no external forces acting on it Momentum in an isolated system in which a collision occurs is conserved (regardless of the nature of the forces between the – A collision may be the result of physical contact between two objects)

objects – “Contact” may also arise from the electrostatic interactions of the electrons in the surface atoms of the bodies

Conservation of Momentum
The principle of conservation of momentum states when no external forces act on a system consisting of two objects that collide with each other, the total momentum of the system before the collision is equal to the total momentum of the system after the collision

Conservation of Momentum
• Mathematically:

m1 v1i + m2 v 2i = m1 v1 f + m2 v 2 f

– Momentum is conserved for the system of objects – The system includes all the objects interacting with each other – Assumes only internal forces are acting during the collision – Can be generalized to any number of objects

Problem: Teeing Off (cont.)
Let’s go back to our golf ball and club problem:
Ball : ∆p = 2.50 kg ⋅ m s , m = 50 gramm ∆v = 50 m s Club : m v f − v i = −2.50 kg ⋅ m s , so − 2.50 kg ⋅ m s v f − vi = = −5m s 0.5 kg

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)

factor of 10 times smaller

ConcepTest
Suppose a person jumps on the surface of Earth. The Earth 1. will not move at all 2. will recoil in the opposite direction with tiny velocity 3. might recoil, but there is not enough information provided to see if that could happened

ConcepTest
Suppose a person jumps on the surface of Earth. The Earth 1. will not move at all 2. will recoil in the opposite direction with tiny velocity  3. might recoil, but there is not enough information provided to see if that could happened
Note: momentum is conserved. Let’s estimate Earth’s velocity after
a jump by a 80-kg person. Suppose that initial speed of the jump is 4 m/s, then:

Person : ∆p = 320 kg ⋅ m s Earth : ∆p = M Earth VEarth = −320 kg ⋅ m s , so VEarth = − 320 kg ⋅ m s = − 5.3 ×10 −23 m s 24 6 ×10 kg
tiny negligible velocity, in opposite direction

Types of Collisions
• Momentum is conserved in any collision what about kinetic energy? • Inelastic collisions
– Kinetic energy is not conserved
KE i = KE f + lost energy

• Some of the kinetic energy is converted into other types of energy such as heat, sound, work to permanently deform an object

– Perfectly inelastic collisions occur when the objects stick together
• Not all of the KE is necessarily lost

Perfectly Inelastic Collisions:
• When two objects stick together after the collision, they have undergone a perfectly inelastic collision Suppose, for example, v2i=0. Conservation of momentum becomes

m1v1i + m2 v2i = (m1 + m2 )v f
m1v1i + 0 = (m1 + m2 )v f
E.g., if m1 = 1000 kg , m2 = 1500 kg : (1000kg )(50 m s ) + 0 = (2500kg )v f , 5 ×10 4 kg ⋅ m s vf = = 20 m s. 3 2.5 ×10 kg

Perfectly Inelastic Collisions:
• What amount of KE lost during collision?
KEbefore = 1 1 2 m1v12i + m2 v2i 2 2 1 = (1000 kg )(50 m s ) 2 = 1.25 ×10 6 J 2

KEafter =

1 (m1 + m2 )v 2 f 2 1 = (2500 kg )(20 m s ) 2 = 0.50 ×10 6 J 2

∆KElost = 0.75 ×10 6 J
lost in heat/”gluing”/sound/…

More Types of Collisions
• Elastic collisions
– both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved

• Actual collisions
– Most collisions fall between elastic and perfectly inelastic collisions

• Both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved • Typically have two unknowns

m1v1i + m2 v2i = m1v1 f + m2 v2 f 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 m1v1i + m2 v2i = m1v1 f + m2 v2 f 2 2 2 2
• Solve the equations simultaneously

Elastic Collisions:
• Using previous example (but elastic collision is assumed)
P before = m1 v1i + m1 v 2i = (1000 kg )(50 m s ) + (1500 kg )(−20 m s ) = 2.0 × 10 4 kg ⋅ m s 1 1 2 KEbefore = m1v12i + m2 v2i 2 2 = 1.25 × 106 J + 3 × 105 J
= 1.55 × 106 J
For perfectly elastic collision:

2.0 ×10 4 kg ⋅ m s = −m1v1 f + m2 v2 f 1.55 ×106 J = 1 1 2 m1v12f + m2 v2 f 2 2

v1 f = −26.7 m s v2 f = +31.1 m s

Problem Solving for One -Dimensional Collisions
• Set up a coordinate axis and define the velocities with respect to this axis
– It is convenient to make your axis coincide with one of the initial velocities

• In your sketch, draw all the velocity vectors with labels including all the given information

Sketches for Collision Problems
• Draw “before” and “after” sketches • Label each object
– include the direction of velocity – keep track of subscripts

Sketches for Perfectly Inelastic Collisions
• The objects stick together • Include all the velocity directions • The “after” collision combines the masses

Problem Solving for One-Dimensional Collisions, cont.
• Write the expressions for the momentum of each object before and after the collision
– Remember to include the appropriate signs

• Write an expression for the total momentum before and after the collision
– Remember the momentum of the system is what is conserved

Problem Solving for One-Dimensional Collisions, final
• If the collision is inelastic, solve the momentum equation for the unknown
– Remember, KE is not conserved

• If the collision is elastic, you can use the KE equation to solve for two unknowns

Glancing Collisions
• For a general collision of two objects in threedimensional space, the conservation of momentum principle implies that the total momentum of the system in each direction is conserved

m1v1ix + m2 v2ix = m1v1 fx + m2 v2 fx and m1v1iy + m2 v2iy = m1v1 fy + m2 v2 fy

– Use subscripts for identifying the object, initial and final, and components

Glancing Collisions

• The “after” velocities have x and y components • Momentum is conserved in the x direction and in the y direction • Apply separately to each direction

Problem Solving for Two-Dimensional Collisions
• Set up coordinate axes and define your velocities with respect to these axes
– It is convenient to choose the x axis to coincide with one of the initial velocities

• In your sketch, draw and label all the velocities and include all the given information

Problem Solving for Two-Dimensional Collisions, cont
• Write expressions for the x and y components of the momentum of each object before and after the collision • Write expressions for the total momentum before and after the collision in the x-direction
– Repeat for the y-direction

Problem Solving for Two-Dimensional Collisions, final
• Solve for the unknown quantities
– If the collision is inelastic, additional information is probably required – If the collision is perfectly inelastic, the final velocities of the two objects is the same – If the collision is elastic, use the KE equations to help solve for the unknowns

Contoh masalah
• Seorang astronout dengan massa 80Kg melemparkan kunci pas dengan kecepatan 3 m/s. Tentukan kecepatan astronout yang terpental setelah melemparkan kunci pas. Sebarapa jauhkah astronout bersangkutan terpisahd ari pesawat dalam selang 1 jam ?

Contoh masalah 2
• Sebuah mobil dengan massa 1300kg bertabrakan dengan sebuah truk bermuatan dengan massa 15000kg di perempatan jalan. Setelah tubrukan mobil dan truk menjadi satu dan bergeser sejauh 5 m membentuk sudut 30O terhadap arah gerak mobil. Jika koefisien gesekan statiknya sebesar 0.7, berakah kecepatan awal masing-masing kendaraan ?
Truk

Mobil 30O

Rocket Propulsion
• The operation of a rocket depends on the law of conservation of momentum as applied to a system, where the system is the rocket plus its ejected fuel
– This is different than propulsion on the earth where two objects exert forces on each other
• road on car • train on track

Rocket Propulsion, cont.
• The rocket is accelerated as a result of the thrust of the exhaust gases • This represents the inverse of an inelastic collision
– Momentum is conserved – Kinetic Energy is increased (at the expense of the stored energy of the rocket fuel)

Rocket Propulsion

• The initial mass of the rocket is M + Δm
– M is the mass of the rocket – m is the mass of the fuel

• The initial velocity of the rocket is v

Rocket Propulsion

• The rocket’s mass is M • The mass of the fuel, Δm, has been ejected • The rocket’s speed has increased to v + Δv

Thrust of a Rocket
• The thrust is the force exerted on the rocket by the ejected exhaust gases • The instantaneous thrust is given by
∆v ∆M Ma = M = ve ∆t ∆t

– The thrust increases as the exhaust speed increases and as the burn rate (ΔM/Δt) increases