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States of matter: Phase Transitions ICE WATER STEAM

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These are three states of matter (plasma is another one)

States of Matter

Solid Liquid Gas Plasma

States of Matter

Solid

Has definite volume Has definite shape Molecules are held in specific location by electrical forces and vibrate about equilibrium positions Can be modeled as springs connecting molecules

Liquid Gas Plasma

States of Matter

Solid

Crystalline solid

Atoms have an ordered structure Example is salt (red spheres are Na+ ions, blue spheres represent Cl- ions)

Amorphous Solid

Atoms are arranged randomly Examples include glass

Liquid Gas Plasma

States of Matter

Solid Liquid

Has a definite volume No definite shape Exist at a higher temperature than solids The molecules wander through the liquid in a random fashion

The intermolecular forces are not strong enough to keep the molecules in a fixed position

Gas Plasma

States of Matter

Solid Liquid Gas

Has no definite volume Has no definite shape Molecules are in constant random motion The molecules exert only weak forces on each other Average distance between molecules is large compared to the size of the molecules

Plasma

States of Matter

Solid Liquid Gas Plasma

Matter heated to a very high temperature Many of the electrons are freed from the nucleus Result is a collection of free, electrically charged ions Plasmas exist inside stars or experimental reactors or fluorescent light bulbs!

Is there a concept that helps to distinguish between those states of matter?

Density

The density of a substance of uniform composition is defined as its mass per unit volume:

m V! V

some examples:

4 Vsphere ! T R 3 3 Vcylinder ! T R 2 h Vcube ! a 3

The densities of most liquids and solids vary slightly with changes in temperature and pressure Densities of gases vary greatly with changes in temperature and pressure (and generally 1000 smaller)

Units SI CGS kg/m3 g/cm3 (1 g/cm3=1000 kg/m3 )

Pressure

Pressure of fluid is the ratio of the force exerted by a fluid on a submerged object to area

F P| A

Units SI Pascal (Pa=N/m2)

Example: 100 N over 1 m2 is P=(100 N)/(1 m2)=100 N/m2=100 Pa.

**Pressure and Depth
**

If a fluid is at rest in a container, all portions of the fluid must be in static equilibrium All points at the same depth must be at the same pressure (otherwise, the fluid would not be in equilibrium) Three external forces act on the region of a cross-sectional area A crossExternal forces: atmospheric, weight, normal

§F !0

PA Mg P0 A ! 0,

but : M ! V V ! V Ah , so : PA ! P0 A V Agh

P ! P0 V gh

Question 1

You are measuring the pressure at the depth of 10 cm in three different containers. Rank the values of pressure from the greatest to the smallest:

1. 2. 3. 4.

1-2-3 2-1-3 3-2-1 It¶s the same in all three

10 cm

1

2

3

**Pressure and Depth equation
**

P ! Po Vgh

Po is normal atmospheric pressure

1.013 x 105 Pa = 14.7 lb/in2

The pressure does not depend upon the shape of the container

Other units of pressure: 76.0 cm of mercury

One atmosphere 1 atm =

1.013 x 105 Pa 14.7 lb/in2

Example:

Given: masses: h=100 m

Find pressure at 100 m below ocean surface.

P ! P0 V H 2O gh, so P ! 9.8 v 10 5 Pa 10 3 kg m 3 9.8 m s 2 100 m } 10 6 Pa

10 v atmospheri c pressure

Find: P=?

Pascal s Principle

A change in pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to every point of the fluid and to the walls of the container. The hydraulic press is an important application of Pascal s Principle F1 F2 P! ! A1 A2 Also used in hydraulic brakes, forklifts, car lifts, etc.

Since A2>A1, then F2>F1 !!!

Measuring Pressure

The spring is calibrated by a known force The force the fluid exerts on the piston is then measured

One end of the U-shaped tube Uis open to the atmosphere The other end is connected to the pressure to be measured Pressure at B is Po+ gh

A long closed tube is filled with mercury and inverted in a dish of mercury Measures atmospheric pressure as gh

Manometer

Gravitational force and mass density of fluid Low pressure (bellow 2 atmosphere)

p1 p2

(h

p1 p2 ! Vg(h

How would you measure blood pressure? pressure?

Has to be:

(a) accurate (b) non-invasive (c) simple

sphygmomanometer

Buoyant Force

This force is called the buoyant force. What is the magnitude of that force?

F ! B ! P2 P
A 1

P1 A

P2 ! P V gh so 1 B ! P1 V gh P A ! V fluid ghA ! V fluid gV ! 1

mg P2 A

Buoyant Force

The magnitude of the buoyant force always equals the weight of the displaced fluid

B!

fluid

Vg ! w fluid

The buoyant force is the same for a totally submerged object of any size, shape, or density The buoyant force is exerted by the fluid Whether an object sinks or floats depends on the relationship between the buoyant force and the weight

Archimedes' Principle

Any object completely or partially submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force whose magnitude is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.

**This force is buoyant force.
**

Physical cause: pressure difference between the top and the bottom of the object

**Archimedes Principle: Totally Submerged Object
**

The upward buoyant force is B= fluidgVobj The downward gravitational force is w=mg= The net force is B-w=( fluid- obj)gVobj

objgVobj

Depending on the direction of the net force, the object sink! will either float up or sink!

The net force is B-w=(

fluid- obj)gVobj

The object is less dense The object is more dense than the fluid fluid> obj than the fluid fluid< obj The object experiences The net force is downward, downward, a net upward force so the object accelerates downward

**Archimedes Principle: Floating Object
**

The object is in static equilibrium The upward buoyant force is balanced by the downward force of gravity Volume of the fluid displaced corresponds to the volume of the object beneath the fluid level

If B ! mg : V fluid gV fluid ! V object gVobject , or

V obj V fluid

!

V fluid Vobj

**Fluids in Motion: Streamline Flow
**

Streamline flow

every particle that passes a particular point moves exactly along the smooth path followed by particles that passed the point earlier also called laminar flow

**Streamline is the path
**

different streamlines cannot cross each other the streamline at any point coincides with the direction of fluid velocity at that point

**Fluids in Motion: Turbulent Flow
**

The flow becomes irregular

exceeds a certain velocity any condition that causes abrupt changes in velocity

Eddy currents are a characteristic of turbulent flow

**Fluid Flow: Viscosity
**

Viscosity is the degree of internal friction in the fluid The internal friction is associated with the resistance between two adjacent layers of the fluid moving relative to each other

**Characteristics of an Ideal Fluid
**

The fluid is nonviscous

There is no internal friction between adjacent layers

**The fluid is incompressible
**

Its density is constant

**The fluid is steady
**

Its velocity, density and pressure do not change in time

**The fluid moves without turbulence
**

No eddy currents are present

Equation of Continuity

A1v1 = A2v2 The product of the crosscrosssectional area of a pipe and the fluid speed is a constant

Speed is high where the pipe is narrow and speed is low where the pipe has a large diameter

Av is called the flow rate

Bernoulli s Equation

Relates pressure to fluid speed and elevation Bernoulli s equation is a consequence of Conservation of Energy applied to an ideal fluid Assumes the fluid is incompressible and nonviscous, and flows in a nonturbulent, steady-state manner steadyStates that the sum of the pressure, kinetic energy per unit volume, and the potential energy per unit volume has the same value at all points along a streamline

1 2 P Vv Vgy ! constant 2

**How to measure the speed of the fluid flow: Venturi Meter
**

Shows fluid flowing through a horizontal constricted pipe Speed changes as diameter changes Swiftly moving fluids exert less pressure than do slowly moving fluids

Venturi Meter

Continuity equation

V1 A1 ! V2 A2 ! Q

Bernoulli

V p1 V p2 U1 ! U 2 2 V 2 V

2 1

2 2

Venturi Meter

Arah aliran

Q!

Pengukur beda tekanan

A1 A2

A

2 1

2 A2

2 p1 p 2 m 3s 1 V

Q ! A2 A2 F! A1

2 1 2 3 1 ms 4 V 1 F

**Orifice (Obstruction meter)
**

engukur beda tekanan

Aliran luida

Fluida diam

Rotatometer

Gravitational force and buoyancy If the buoyancy is still, the net force to the buoyancy is equal zero Buoyancy position is change again the fluid flow

Penunjuk mengapung

Pengukur beda tekanan

Aliran fluida

Fluida diam

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