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Environmental and Energy

Conservation issues in Welding

By
S Sankaran

29 April 2018 1

2015

130 years of Arc Welding History

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 Edmund Davy discovered acetylene in 1836
First commercial oxy-acetylene welding torch at
turn of the century
 Humphrey Davy discovered the electric arc in 1801
 Concerned with use of arc for illumination
 Benardos & Olszewski showed in 1885-87 arc with
Carbon Electrodes and its use for melting Steel.
 In 1890, Slavianoff used a metal Electrode and Arc to
deposit metal from the electrode.
 Oscar Kjellberg invented coated electrode during the
years 1907 to 1914
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STT and CMT Hybrid Laser-MIG Gas metal arc welding Developments 4 April 2018 29 .

Driving Force behind Welding Developments Need to Join newer materials Improve Productivity Reliability of welds in service Environmental Issues 29 April 2018 5 .

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Surface Tension Transfer Welding Cycle 29 April 2018 7 .

STT Produce Less fumes and Low in Spatter 29 April 2018 8 .

Advantages ( Surface Tension Transfer STT)  Can replace TIG for root pass welding  Substantially reduced spatter  Lower arc radiation and fume generation  Reduced heat input on thin-gauge material  Longer operating time for robots 29 April 2018 9 .

An Overview of GMAW Recent Innovations in GMAW .CMT Wire feed – Forward & Retraction in CMT .

Cold Metal Transfer . 29 April 2018 12 .CMT Joint between steel and aluminium. Welded on the aluminium side. Joining Zn Coated steel Brazed on the steel side.

An Overview of GMAW Recent Innovations in GMAW .CMT Advantages ( Cold Metal Transfer CMT)  Substantially reduced heat input  Low distortion and high precision  No spatter  Can weld galvanised sheets  Can weld Aluminium to Steel .

Global Trend JAPAN EUROPE USA INDIA SMAW 20 % 30 % 35 % 70 % SAW 8% 8% 8% 8% GTAW 2% 2% 2% 2% FCAW + 70 % 60 % 55 % 20 % GMAW 29 April 2018 15 . Process Share of Weld Metal .

Energy Conservation in Welding FCW .Flux Cored Wire SW .Coated Electrode 29 April 2018 16 .Solid Wire CE .

Metal Core Wire Hybrid: Characteristics & Benefits of Solid Wire & Flux-Cored Wire Flux-Cored Wire Solid Wire 29 April 2018 17 .

...……... 1930s  Self-Shielded FCAW Wires)….1950s  Small Dia. FCAW Wires ………….….1911  Large Dia.. FCAW Wires …….1970s  Metal-Cored Wires……..…..…………....1980s 29 April 2018 18 . History of FCAW  Concept of FCAW ………………...

Newer Flux Cored Wires 29 April 2018 19 .

Preventing lack of fusion at start of Aluminum welds

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Welding-Related Expenditure and Productivity Measurement
in
U.S. Manufacturing, Construction, and Mining Industries

By
American Welding Society
Edison Welding Institute
US Department of Commerce

May 2002

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Data from U.S. Department of Commerce & AWS survey

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Summary of welding related expenditure for major industrial sectors 29 April 2018 23 .

Industry Vision Workshop on Welding By American Welding Society National Institute of Standards & Technology US Department of Energy June 1998 29 April 2018 24 .

Industry Vision Workshop on Welding STRATEGIC GOALS FOR 2020  Reduce average cost of welding by one-third  Integrate welding with the Production Cycle  Develop welding technology along with new materials development  Assure welding is a part of six-sigma quality environment  Improve knowledge base of people taking decisions related to Welding  Reduce energy use in welding by 50% 29 April 2018 25 .

Energy Conservation Measures Avoid unwanted welds Choice of Welding Processes Selection of Welding Power Source Handling of Welding Consumables Pre-heating & Post-heating PWHT 29 April 2018 26 .

Energy Conservation Measures Avoid unwanted welds Choice of Welding Processes Selection of Welding Power Source Handling of Welding Consumables Pre-heating & Post-heating PWHT 29 April 2018 27 .

Energy Conservation Measures Avoid unwanted welds Choice of Welding Processes Selection of Welding Power Source Handling of Welding Consumables Pre-heating & Post-heating PWHT 29 April 2018 28 .

Energy Conservation Measures Avoid unwanted welds Choice of Welding Processes Selection of Welding Power Source Handling of Welding Consumables Pre-heating & Post-heating PWHT 29 April 2018 29 .

Energy Conservation Measures Avoid unwanted welds Choice of Welding Processes Selection of Welding Power Source Handling of Welding Consumables Pre-heating & Post-heating PWHT 29 April 2018 30 .

Energy Conservation Measures Avoid unwanted welds Choice of Welding Processes Selection of Welding Power Source Handling of Welding Consumables Pre-heating & Post-heating PWHT 29 April 2018 31 .

Energy Conservation Measures Avoid unwanted welds Choice of Welding Processes Selection of Welding Power Source Handling of Welding Consumables Pre-heating & Post-heating PWHT 29 April 2018 32 .

Weld finished with full grinding As welded with no grinding 29 April 2018 33 .

Manipulators. Robot  Weld Preparation – Machining. Grinding  Weld Finishing – Deslagging. Grinding 29 April 2018 34 . Motorised Slides. Fume Extractors  Job Handling Devices .Total Energy Consumption in Welding Processes Primary Energy  Energy required to heat the material above melting or forging temperature Secondary Energy  Preheat / Postheat  Electrode Baking / Holding  Wirefeed units. Gantry.

S – Secondary Energy 29 April 2018 35 . Material Thickness ( Length 250 mm ) PROCESS 1 mm 12 mm 50 mm P S Total P S Total P S Total SMAW 57 105 163 1420 1278 2698 17640 13035 30675 GMAW 32 52 84 1280 277 1557 GTAW 94 40 130 SAW 1450 864 2314 16200 9870 26070 LASER 112 454 466 120 4268 4388 EB 15 3230 3245 120 5283 5403 1000 7958 8958 FRICTION STIR 1100 347 1447 3680 1495 5175 RESISTANCE 35 11 46 Data from TWI Publication Total Energy Consumption for making a Weld in KJ P – Primary Energy.

Friction Stir Welding 29 April 2018 36 .

SMAW : Electrode Size from 4 to 5 mm 33% increase in deposition rate 25 % energy saving SAW : Single wire to tandem arc 20% increase in deposition rate TIG : Enhance Penetration Use A-TIG MIG : Smaller size wire Increase in deposition rate 29 April 2018 37 .

TIG PROCESS A–TIG PROCESS 29 April 2018 38 .

70 mm Diameter x 5 mm thick SS Tube welded in 5G position with Activated flux 29 April 2018 39 .

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CMT Cold Metal Transfer 29 April 2018 41 .

Wire feed – Forward & Retraction in CMT 29 April 2018 42 .

0. or backing devices.8 mm AlMg3 sheets CMT-welded 1. filler metal CuSi3.0 mm Galvanised sheet without using any clamping. CMT-brazed joint. 29 April 2018 43 .

Apparent Power Power Factor = Real Power ADVANTAGES OF HIGH POWERACTOR Increased Power Supply Capacity Reduced Heat Load on Electrical Cables Reduction of kVA Demand Reduction in Electricity Delivery Charge Reduced Voltage Drop on Cables Improved Equipment Operation 29 April 2018 44 .

Inverter Rectifier Generater 6800 kwh/year 8500 kwh/year 12500 kwh/year 29 April 2018 45 .

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A Inverter 29 April 2018 47 . Energy consumption per year for SMAW welding power sources 14000 Energy Consumption 12000 10000 (KWH/year) 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Generator 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Transformer Welding Current .

Advantages (Inverter Welding Power Sources)  Compact size – Shop floor space free  Low weight – Highly portable  High efficiency – energy saving  Ripple free – Smooth arc and better weld  Multi-process capability 29 April 2018 48 .

Recommended Storage for Electrodes  Below 50% relative humidity  Between 20 to 40 degree C Conditioning of Electrodes before use  Drying – at 100 to 300 deg C depending on type of electrode  Holding – above 100 deg C till use 29 April 2018 49 .

40 – 50 kwh/day Card board carton Vacuum sealed packet 29 April 2018 50 .

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90/Hr ) 29 April 2018 55 . 75/Hr) (Rs.Low velocity candle type burner Spot burner (Rs.

Providing Insulation / hoods to retain heat at the joint Hood to retain heat Dished End and Nozzle Forged nozzle at the joint covered with Insulation Pre-heating 29 April 2018 56 .

Infra red sensor PID controller Infra red sensor measure preheat temperature 29 April 2018 57 .

Large Furnace with Ceramic Fiber Insulation 29 April 2018 58 .

Energy Saved is Energy Generated 29 April 2018 59 .

Flux Cored Arc Welding 29 April 2018 .

Flux Cored Arc Welding 29 April 2018 .

Welding related energy cost as percentage of total energy costs 29 April 2018 62 .

. . . . - SAW . . . 1450 864 2314 16200 9870 26070 Laser 112 454 566 120 4268 4388 . . . 1100 347 1447 3680 1495 5175 RSW 35 11 46 29 April 2018 63 . Comparison of the total energy consumption of welding processes. - EBW (V) . . . . . - GTAW 94 40 130 . 120 5283 5403 1000 7958 8958 FSW . (For 250mm length weld) Material 1 mm thick Material 12 mm thick Material 50 mm thick Process Primary Secondary Total Primary Secondary Total Primary Secondary Total Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy KJ KJ KJ KJ KJ KJ KJ KJ KJ MMAW 57 105 162 1420 1278 2698 17640 13035 30675 MIG/MAG 32 52 84 1280 277 1557 .

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Rework. Rejection  Do it Right First Time and Every Time 3) Enhance Image of Welding  Attract talented youth  Improved working environment 4) Knowledge Management in Welding 5) Multiple Qualifications And Certification 6) Use of IT and computer control in welding 29 April 2018 67 .Concerns in Indian Context 1) Energy Optimisation in welding 2) Reduce . Repair.

Rejection  Do it Right First Time and Every Time 3) Enhance Image of Welding  Attract talented youth  Improved working environment 4) Knowledge Management in Welding 5) Multiple Qualifications And Certification 6) Use of IT and computer control in welding 29 April 2018 68 . Repair.Concerns in Indian Context 1) Energy Optimisation in welding 2) Reduce .Rework.

Repair.Rework. Rejection  Do it Right First Time and Every Time 3) Enhance Image of Welding  Attract talented youth  Improved working environment 4) Knowledge Management in Welding 5) Multiple Qualifications And Certification 6) Use of IT and computer control in welding 29 April 2018 69 .Concerns in Indian Context 1) Energy Optimisation in welding 2) Reduce .

Rejection  Do it Right First Time and Every Time 3) Enhance Image of Welding  Attract talented youth  Improved working environment 4) Knowledge Management in Welding 5) Multiple Qualifications And Certification 6) Use of IT and computer control in welding 29 April 2018 70 .Rework. Repair.Concerns in Indian Context 1) Energy Optimisation in welding 2) Reduce .

Rework. Repair. Rejection  Do it Right First Time and Every Time 3) Enhance Image of Welding  Attract talented youth  Improved working environment 4) Knowledge Management in Welding 5) Multiple Qualifications And Certification 6) Use of IT and computer control in welding 29 April 2018 71 .Concerns in Indian Context 1) Energy Optimisation in welding 2) Reduce .

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