# PETE 411

Well Drilling

Lesson 15
Surge and Swab Pressures

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Lesson 15 - Surge and Swab Pressures

 Surge and Swab Pressures
- Closed Pipe
- Fully Open Pipe
- Pipe with Bit
 Example
 General Case (complex geometry, etc.)
 Example

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APPLIED DRILLING ENGINEERING
Chapter 4 (all)

HW #8
due 10 –14 – 02

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v ae  v a  K c v p

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Closed Pipe Newtonian The velocity profile developed for the slot approximation is valid for the flow conditions in the annulus. Surge Pressure . but the boundary conditions are different. because the pipe is moving: V=0 2 y dp f y V   c1  c2 V = -Vp 2 dL  5 .

 0   c1  v p 2μ dL μ h dp f v pμ  c1   2 dL h Substituting for c1 and c2: v 1 dp f hy  y   v p 1   2  y 2μ dL  h 6 .vp . y 2 dp f y At Drillpipe v  c1  c 2 Wall 2μ dL μ When y = 0. v = . v = 0.  c2  vp h 2 dp f h When y = h.

Velocity profile in the slot v 1 dp f hy  y   v p 1   2  y 2μ dL  h h 0 W q   dq   vdA   vWdy h  y  v p W (1  )dy h 0 3 Wh dp f v p Wh q   12μ dL 2 7 .

Changing from SLOT to ANNULAR notation  A = Wh = π r  r 2 2 1 2  h  r2  r1 q v ( r2 2  2 r1 ) 3 Wh dp f v p Wh Substitute in: q  12μ dL 2 8 .

Frictional Pressure Gradient  vp  12μ  v   Results in: dp f   2  dL r2  r1 2 Or. in field units:   v    dp f   2  dL 1000 d 2  d1 2 Same as for pure slot flow if vp = o (Kp = 0.5) 9 . in field units  v p  or.

flow rate in annulus = pipe displacement rate: qa  qp  π d1     2 2  2 vp v a  d 2  d1   v p   4   4    vp v  2  d2  d1    1  d1  d2 10 . How do we evaluate v ? For closed pipe.

Open Pipe Pulling out of Hole 11 .

Surge Pressure . i.88) and   μ vi  v p   μ v a   2   1000d 2  d1  (4.e..90d): 2 1500 d i 2 12 .  dp f   dp f       dL  pipe  dL annulus From Equations  Vp  (4.Open Pipe Pressure at top and bottom is the same inside and outside the pipe.

Surge Pressure .Open Pipe Also. Newtonian 13 . Vp d1  d i   v i  d i   v a  d 2  d1  π 2 2 π 2 π 2 2  4 4  4   3d  4d d 2  d1   4 2 2  va   i 1  vp 4 2    6d i  4d 2  d1  d 2  d1 2 2   Valid for laminar flow. constant geometry.e. q t  qi  qa i..

1. Example Calculate the surge pressures that result when 4. Closed pipe 2.0 cp.000 ft of 10 3/4 inch OD (10 inch ID) casing is lowered inside a 12 inch hole at 1 ft/s if the hole is filled with 9. Assume laminar flow. Open ended 14 .0 lbm/gal brine with a viscosity of 2.

000  23.75 2 2  vp   1   μ v a    2 4.064 ft/s 1 (d 2  d1 ) 12  10.064   dp f   2   2 dL 1000(d 2  d1 ) 100012  10.75 (1) va  2  2  4.1 psi 15 .00577  4. For Closed Pipe  d2   2   1  d1  2 2 d vp 10. vp  va  1.00577 dL ft ΔΡ f  0.752 dp f psi  0.

 3d  4d1 d 2  d1  4 2 2  Va   4 2 2    6d  4d 2  d1  d 2  d1 2   Vp   3(10)  4(10.75) (12  10.75) (12  10. For Open Pipe.0)   6(10)  4(12  10. 2.75) 4 2 2  Va   2  (1.4865 sec 16 .75 )  4 2 2 ft   0.

 Vp   1   μ Va    2  0.00001728 ft ΔΡ f  0. 2.4865   dp f   2    2 dL 1000(d 2  d1 ) 1000(12  10. For Open Pipe.00001728 * 4.000  0.07 psi (negligibl e) 17 .75) 2 2 psi  0.

94) From Equation (4. Derivation of Equation (4.92):  vp  μ v a   μ(v i  v p )  2  1500d 2 1000(d 2  d1 ) 2  vp  2 3 v a  d  vi  v p   2 2(d 2  d1 ) 2 18 .

93): v p (d  d )  vi d  va (d  d ) 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 Substituting for vi:  4v p d 2 (d 2  d1 ) 2  6v a d 4  3v p d 4 v p (d  d )  2 2 4(d 2  d1 ) 1 2  v a (d  d ) 2 2 2 1 19 . Derivation of Eq. (4.4v p (d 2  d1 )  6v a d  3v p d 2 2 2  vi  4(d 2  d1 ) 2 From Equation (4.94) cont’d .

.e.  v p 4(d 2  d1 ) (d  d  d )  3d 2 2 1 2 2 4   va 6d 4  4(d  d )(d 2  d1 ) 2 2 2 1 2   4d (d 2  d1 )  3d 2  2 4  v a   4 1  2  p v  6d  4(d 2 .d1 ) (d 2  d1 )  2 2  3d  4d (d 2  d1 ) 4  2 2 i.So. v a    1 v   6d  4(d  d ) (d  d )  p 4 2 2 2  2 1 2 1  20 .

Surge Pressure . 21 . or if the flow is turbulent.General Case The slot approximation discussed earlier is not appropriate if the pipe ID or OD varies.an iterative solution technique may be used. if the fluid is non- Newtonian. In the general case .

4. Fig.42 Simplified hydraulic representation of the lower part of a drillstring 22 .

qt  π 2 4  d1  d v p 2  2. Assume a split of this flow stream with a fraction. Start at the bottom of the drillstring and determine the rate of fluid displacement. and (1-fa) going through the inside of the pipe. going to the annulus. 23 . General Solution Method 1. fa.

4. Calculate the resulting total frictional pressure loss in the annulus. 24 . using the established pressure loss calculation procedures. General Solution Method 3. Calculate the total frictional pressure loss inside the drill string.

until the two pressure loss values agree within a small margin. General Solution Method 5.. Compare the results from 3 and 4. and if they are unequal. The average of these two values is the surge pressure. repeat the above steps with a different split between qa and qp. 25 . repeat with different values of fa.e. i.

26 . it varies whenever the cross- sectional area varies. This velocity is further modified to arrive at an effective mean velocity. The same holds for the drill string. NOTE: The flow rate along the annulus need not be constant. An appropriate average fluid velocity must be determined for each section.

Fig.42 Simplified hydraulic representation of the lower part of a drillstring 27 . 4.

it depends on the annular geometry. (Not related to Power-law K!) 28 . Burkhardt Has suggested using an effective mean annular velocity given by: v ae  v a  K c v p Where v a is the average annular velocity v based on qa Kc is a constant called the mud clinging constant.

The usual procedure is to calculate surge or swab pressures for both the laminar and the turbulent flow patterns and then to use the larger value.The value of Kp lies between 0. Establishing the onset of turbulence under these conditions is not easy. and is often taken to be 0.5 for most typical flow conditions. 29 .45.4 and 0.

Kc Kc 30 .

41 . for computing surge-and-swab pressure. Kc. 31 . KK c = 0. 4.Mud clinging constant.Kc For very small values of a.45 is not a good approximation Fig.

260 (qp)2.422 0.692 (qp)1.103 (qp)3.093 0.70 0.211 0.35 Variable fa=(qa/qt)1 0.251 0. cu ft/s 0.101 -0.054 0. cu ft/s 0. Summary of Swab Pressure Calculation for Example 4.Table 4.75 0.5 0.052 32 .111 -0.061 -0.265 0. cu ft/s 0.8.

8 Summary of Swab Pressure Calculation Inside Pipe Variable fa=(qa/qt)1 ……… 0. psi ……… 104 33 44 46 DpDP. psi ……… 449 273 293 297 Total Dpi.75 0.70 0.692 DpBIT. psi …… 995 421 497 514 33 .5 0. psi ……… 442 115 160 171 DpDC. Table 4.

174 Dpdca .5 0. cu ft/s 0. psi 104 139 128 126 Dpdpa .75 0. psi 335 405 392 389 Total Dpa. cu ft/s 0.8 Summary of Swab Pressure Calculation in Annulus Variable fa=(qa/qt)1 0. psi 995 421 497 514 34 . psi 439 544 520 515 Total Dpi.422 0.183 0.692 ( qa )1 .70 0.012 0. Table 4.594 0.585 ( qa ) 2 .223 0.633 0.

Table 4.5 35 .5 0.70 0.94 0.39 0.692 1 ΔΡ i  ΔΡ a  2 : 1.75 0.99 1.35 fa : 0.8 Summary of Swab Pressure Calculation for Example 4.00 514.

vp 36 .

SURGE PRESSURE VELOCITY ACCELERATION 37 .

Inertial Effects Example 4.25 borehole containing 10 lbm/gal.5 ft/s2 acceleration of 10. pp. 171-172 38 .000 ft of 10. Ref. ADE. with a closed end through a 12.75” csg.36 Compute the surge pressure due to inertial effects caused by downward 0.

Example 4.5)(10.00162  a p d 2  1 dL d d 2 2 2 1 0.000) 12. 75) 2  Δp a  (10.75 2 2  Δp a  271 psi 39 .36 From Equation (4.99) dp a 0.25  10.00162(10)(0.Inertial Effects .

END of Lesson 15 Surge and Swab 40 .