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PATOLOGI UMUM

9
PENYAKIT LINGKUNGAN
Prodi Kesmas
FIKes
URINDO
Januari 2016

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PENYAKIT LINGKUNGAN
(ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES)
Penyakit yang disebabkan oleh lingkungan termasuk
karena terpajan pada bahan berbahaya/merusak yang
terdapat di lingkungan.
Penyebab dapat berasal dari terpajan pada jenis pekerjaan,
udara yang terpolusi, bahan kimia yang terhirup masuk paru
atau masuk ke dalam saluran pencernaan, serta bahan
yang kontak langsung ke tubuh.

International Labor Organization has estimated that


work related injuries and illnesses kill 1.1 million people
per year globally.

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III. Air Pollution
..................................................................................................... 231
IV. Industrial Exposures
....................................................................................... 234
V. Tobacco Smoking
............................................................................................ 238
VI.Chemical & Drug Injury
.................................................................................... 239
VII. Physical Injuries

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A. Polusi udara (Air pollution)

1. Di luar ruang (Out door air pollution)


The ambient air in industrialized countries is highly contaminated
with gaseous and particulate pollutants..
Air pollution is severe in big cities
In addition air may be locally spoiled in the vicinities of heavy
industries.

2. Di dalam ruang (Indoor air pollution)


Indoor air pollution is a major problem in undeveloped countries
where people cook inside living rooms
Tobacco smoke is the commonest pollutant in the house of people
living in developed countries

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1. Out door air pollution
BAHAN SUMBER / ASAL AKIBAT / DAMPAK
Interaction of oxygen with Highly reactive, oxidizes
Ozone (O3) various pollutants: oxide of polyunsaturated lipids that
nitrogen, sulfur and become irritants and induce
hydrocarbons. release of inflammatory mediators
affecting all airways
Dissolves in secretion in airways to
Nitrogen Combustion of fossil fuels
form nitric & nitrous acids which
dioxide like coal, gasoline and wood
irritates & damage linings of air
ways

Carbon Incomplete combustion of Combines with hemoglobin to


monoxide gasoline, oil, wood & natural displace oxyhemoglin & thus
gas induce systemic asphyxia

Particulates Great variety of finely divided Major contributor to smog & a


pollutants may include major cause of respiratory
asbestos, plaster dust, lead, diseases
ash hydrocarbon residue and
other industrial nuclear wastes
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2. In door air pollution

BAHAN Populasi terisiko AKIBAT / DAMPAK


Carbon Dewasa dan anak-anak Keracunan akut
monoxide

Nitrogen Peningkatan infeksi saluran


Anak-anak
dioxide pernafasan

Wood smoke Anak-anak dan wanita Peningkatan infeksi dan iritasi


saluran pernafasan

Formaldehyde Dewasa dan anak-anak Iritasi mata dan hidung.


Asthma

Asbestos Pekerja dengan bahan Kanker paru


fibers asbes

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B. Industrial Exposures
Industrial workers are exposed to a wide range of
organic and inorganic substances, which have
different kinds of consequences on their health.

Diseases can range from mere irritation of mucosa


of airways due to organic fumes
to lung cancer due to inorganic dusts and
leukemia due to prolonged exposure to benzene
and uranium

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C. Tobacco smoking

Tobacco smoking affects not only those who are


actively smoking but it also has an adverse
consequence on the health of those who are by
the vicinity of the smoker.
These individuals are termed as passive Smokers

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