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Urban Issues and Challenges

How are urban populations changing across the globe? Is this different between HICs and
LICs?

Why are urban areas growing?


Define natural increase:

Define migration: Case Study of a major city in an LIC or NEE:


Where is this city?
Example of rural to urban migration:

Define megacity: Opportunities: Challenges:

How can cities be more sustainable?

Example of an urban planning scheme:


How can urban transport schemes help reduce traffic congestion? Is it helping the urban poor? How/how not?
Urban Issues and Challenges How has urban change produced opportunities?

How has urban change produced challenges?

Case study of a major city in the UK:


Where is this city?

How has migration affected the city?

Exam questions:
Suggest why there is such a low rate of urbanisation in rich countries. 6 marks.
Explain how migration has been an important factor in urban change across the world. 6 marks.
How has an urban regeneration project helped? For a city you have studied, outline how the quality of life for the urban poor can be improved. 6 marks.
For a UK city you have studied, describe how migration has affected its growth. 4 marks.
For a UK city you have studied, describe how it is making use of changes in the city to promote economic growth.
6 marks.
For any named city you have studied, evaluate the strategies used to manage traffic congestion. 6 marks.
The Challenge of Resource Management – ENERGY

Why is having enough food, water, and energy important for economic and social well-
being?

Why do some countries in the world not have enough of these?


How can renewable energy be used to increase energy supply? Outline 3 different ways.

Example of a fossil fuel:


Advantages: Disadvantages:

How can we be more sustainable in how we use energy?


Individuals: A local renewable energy scheme:
Where in the world produces a lot of energy? Example:

Where in the world consumes a lot of energy?

Why is energy consumption going up?

What are the impacts of energy insecurity?


Exam questions:
Explain why many countries are experiencing energy insecurity. 6 marks.
‘The advantages of exploiting natural gas outweigh the disadvantages.’ Do you agree with this statement. Justify
your decision. 9 marks.
Evaluate the success of a local renewable energy scheme you have studied. 6 marks.
Water:
The Challenge of Resource Management – UK How and why is the demand for water in the UK changing?

How is water quality and pollution managed?

Which areas of the UK experience water deficit and which experience water surplus?

Example of a water transfer scheme:

Energy:
How are the types of energy the UK uses changing?

Food:
Why does the UK demand more food from LICs?
Why is this?

What issues can this cause?


Economic issues: Environmental issues:
How is this affecting the carbon footprint of what we eat?

Exam questions:
Define agribusiness. Explain the UK’s attempts to respond to changing demands for food. 4 marks.
Describe how the problem of water transfer is solved in the UK. 4 marks.
Explain why the UK’s energy mix will include both renewable and non-renewable sources in the future. 6
marks.
Causes of uneven development: Define these development indicators:
Changing Economic World Physical Economic Historical
GDP:

Death Rate:

Birth Rate:

Literacy Rate:

Doctors per Person:

Infant Mortality:

Life Expectancy:
Define TNC:
Advantages to a country you have studied: Why is using just one of these indicators to make judgements about a
country problematic?
Disadvantages to a country you have studied:

Define:
HIC –
LIC –
NEE –
Annotate this diagram of the DTM to explain the characteristics of populations at each stage.
How can the development gap be reduced?

Tourism in an LIC example:


How has this helped to reduce the development gap?

Exam questions:
Explain why HDI gives a more accurate understanding of the level of a country’s development than using just GDP.
What have been the problems caused by uneven development? 4 marks.
Explain the link between trade and the development gap. 4 marks.
How does uneven development cause international migration? 4 marks.
How can industrial development reduce the development gap? 4 marks.
Discuss whether trade or aid is the best way for poorer countries to develop. 9 marks.
Changing Economic World

LIC or NEE we have studied:


Where is it and what is it like? Define de-industrialisation –

How is industry changing in this country? How is the UK economy changing?

What is the north/south divide? How is this being reduced?


How has this affected the environment?

The UK’s relations to the wider world:


Commonwealth: EU:
How does this country relate to the rest of the world? How has this changed?

How has economic development affected quality of life?


Not covered on this sheet:
UK car industry
Rural UK
Improvements in UK infrastructure
Exam Questions: For an LIC or NEE you have studied, discuss how political and economic factors have influenced
their changing relationships with other parts of the world. 6 marks.
Explain the causes and impacts of de-industrialisation in the UK. 6 marks.