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BAB 1:

PENGENAL AN
KEPADA
PENAKSIRAN
ASSESSING LEARNERS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS: AN APPLIED
APPROACH
T E R RY OV E RTO N
Definisi Penaksiran

Tujuan Penaksiran
ISI
Model-model KANDUNGAN
Penaksiran

Jenis-Jenis Penaksiran
PENAKSIRAN:
SATU BHGN. PENTING DLM PENGAJARAN
Pengujian
• Satu kaedah penaksiran untuk menilai kemajuan pelajar, hasil
pembelajaran serta keperluan pembelajaran.
Penaksiran
• Merangkumi pelbagai kaedah penilaian murid secara formal
dan tidak formal.
• Berlaku setiap hari agar intervensi yang diperlukan dapat
dijalankan ke atas murid.
RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION (RTI)
• Proses yang digunakan apabila intervensi
berasaskan penyelidikan tidak berkesan
terhadap murid.
• Murid mungkin memerlukan penilaian
tambahan atau yang berbeza atau pengajaran
atau penilaian untuk sokongan pendidikan khas
(3-5%).
AMALAN PENAKSIRAN
Amalan penaksiran yang terbaik haruslah mematuhi
mandat undang-undang, piawaian etika dan prinsip asas
pengukuran.
Sistem sekolah dan agensi pendidikan negeri dikehendaki
mengumpul data untuk dokumentasi pencapaian pelajar.
Intervensi pra-rujukan bertujuan untuk menyatakan
tentang bias yang berlaku dalam proses rujukan dan
mengelakkan penaksiran yang tidak diperlukan.
KESAHIHAN PENAKSIRAN
IDEA 2004 & NCLB memberi penekanan terhadap penilaian bagi SEMUA
pelajar dalam mencapai standard.
Murid-murid dengan pelbagai pengecualiaan dikehendaki untuk menduduki
ujian seluruh negara atau ujian alternative bagi penilaian kemajuan dalam
kurikulum pendidikan umum.
• Kakitangan pendidik harus membuat keputusan tentang jenis penilaian, ujian
• Educational personnel must make decisions about the type of evaluations, tests and
accommodations that might be needed for statewide assessments.
Inclusion of students with disabilities within the context of the general
education classroom setting, as a mode of service delivery, has increased to
more than 52% and will continue to increase.
The number of students receiving special education support is increasing, but
so is the number of students who graduate with a regular diploma (54.5%).
TUJUAN PENAKSIRAN
• Penentuan tahap pencapaian murid (student outcomes).
• IDEA 1997, ESEA 2001 & IDEA 2004 menekankan
penaksiran terhadap semua murid bagi mencapai
standard pendidikan dalam kurikulum umum
• Penekanan terhadap akauntabiliti mereka yang terlibat
dengan pendidikan khas - murid berjaya dalam
kurikulum pend. umum
KATEGORI KETIDAKUPAYAAN
PERSEKUTUAN
•Autism •Orthopedic health
•Deaf-blindness impairment
•Deafness •Other health impairment
•Emotional disability •Specific learning disability
•Hearing impairment •Speech or language
•Intellectual disability impairment
•Multiple disabilities •Traumatic brain injury
•Visual impairment
including blindness
KATEGORI KETIDAKUPAYAAN
AKAUNTABILITI PENDIDIKAN
• Menambah baik pendidikan dan pencapaian
murid, terutamanya pencapaian pendidikan
(educational outcomes) bagi murid dengan
budaya, bahasa dan kumpulan etnik yang
pelbagai, dengan bilangan yang tidak seimbang
bagi beberapa kategori ketidakupayaan dalam
pendidikan khas.
PRA-RUJUKAN & INTERVENSI AWAL

Sebahagian daripada pendidikan umum, bukan


sistem pendidikan khas
Direka bentuk agar bias dapat dikurangkan
dalam sistem rujukan
Direka bentuk agar murid dapat dikekalkan
dalam sistem pendidikan umum
Contoh: RTI
SEJARAH & MODEL KONTEMPORARI PENAKSIRAN
•Historical Model •Contemporary Model
•Teacher noticed a student was having difficulty. •Problem-Solving Model
•Specific deficits that appear to be the cause of a •Emphasizes finding a solution rather than
student’s difficulty were identified. determining eligibility or finding an alternative
•Student was referred to a multidisciplinary team placement.
who evaluated the student. •Various methods of intervention and assessment
•Eligibility was determined. are utilized and documented before referral and
•An individualized education program (IEP) evaluation for special education services.
was put in place for eligible students. •Interventions may or may not include special
education services.
Outcomes
•Increasing rates of children referred for assessment
and subsequently receiving special education
services.
SEJARAH MODEL PENILAIAN
Pengajaran Kelas Pendidikan Am
Murid tidak menunjukkan kemajuan seperti jangkaan.

Murid dirujuk kepada kumpulan pelbagai disiplin

Penaksiran dilengkapkan oleh kumpulan penaksiran.

Mesyuarat kumpulan penaksiran menentukan


kelayakan murid.
MODEL INTERVENSI TIGA PERINGKAT
I. Progress in core academic subjects of all children should be monitored
routinely (80-90%).
• Statewide assessments, Teacher-made tests, General education performance

II. Students who experience difficulty when compared to their peers are
considered to be at risk of academic or behavioral problems and then
receive tier-two interventions, such as remedial assistance or tutoring using
research-based interventions (5-10%).
III. Students not successful with tier-two interventions receive intensive
intervention through the teacher assistance team that is specifically
designed to address areas of difficulty (1-5%).
• If a child continues to struggle, the child may be referred for consideration of an evaluation for possible
special education eligibility.
RTI & TIERED INTERVENTION
•Response-to-Intervention:

–Universal screening

–Early support to students

–Research-based instruction

–Fidelity of implementation

–Monitoring student progress

–Highly qualified teachers


CAUTION WITH ELLS!
•Ideally, the use of intensive and diverse interventions in preventing
unnecessary evaluation, misdiagnosis and overidentification.
•ELLs require additional consideration.
• ELLs and/or bilingual education is not a special education service.
• Prereferral strategies should promote language acquisition in addition to curriculum.
• Language problems must be eliminated as a reason for referral.
JENIS-JENIS PENAKSIRAN
Informal Assessment Teacher-made assessments used to determine student progress.
Curriculum-based Assessment (CBA) Determines how a student is performing in or mastering the actual curriculum
(e.g., chapter tests).
Curriculum-based Measurement Measures progress of a specific skill against an aim line (e.g., AIMSWeb,
(CBM) DIBELS).
Criterion-related Assessment Assesses a student’s progress on items that are similar to objectives or
standards (e.g., test or quiz on SOL reading bullets for main idea and
sequencing).
Criterion-referenced Test Assesses a student’s progress in skill mastery against specific standards (e.g.,
SOLs).
Performance Assessment Students create a product that demonstrates their skills or competency.

Portfolio Assessment The collection of student products to demonstrate progress over a period of
time.
Dynamic Assessment Determines the potential of a student to learn a new skill.
Checklist, Rating Scale, Observation Informal assessment that can be tailored for individual students. Used to
identify mastery of skill and/or placement in a curriculum.
Norm-referenced Test Compares a student’s performance of a task to students of the same age or
grade level (e.g., GRE and SAT)
Standardized Test Tests are structured, provide specific instructions, formats, scoring and
interpretation procedures.
Menggunakan kesilapan Untuk menentukan
pelajar untuk corak kesilapan atau
menganalisa masalah jenis tertentu
pembelajaran tertentu kesilapan

Apa Tujuan

Analisis ralat
Error Analysis

Siapa
Bila
Guru dan kakitangan
Boleh digunakan lain yang bekerja
setiap hari, mingguan dengan pelajar
ANALISIS RALAT (ERROR ANALYSIS)
Analyze the following sentences written by Roberto.
Identify the spelling errors.
1. The yellow kat is very big.
2. The oshun has big waves.
3. The kan was bent.
Analisis ralat?
SENARAI SEMAK & SKALA
PENARAFAN
• Pemerhatian
• Pelbagai jenis pengukuran digunakan untuk
menentukan tahap kemahiran murid atau
kefungsian tingkahlaku.
SSKI MBK
ISD
PBS
PASR 2011
ASSESSMENT USES
•Error Analysis
• Provides insight into learning how a student completes a task.
• Look for patterns of errors.

•High-stakes Testing
• Used to monitor progress of schools and districts in the form of an adequate
yearly progress (AYP) score.

•Alternative Assessments
• Students with disabilities who are unable to participate in statewide assessments are
tested using an alternative assessment.
ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
•Evaluate the environment to determine influences on the learning
process.
•Reflects a major trend toward assessing students in their natural
environments.
It is no longer considered acceptable to refer students who have
difficulty in the general classroom without interventions unless they
appear to be experiencing severe learning or behavioral problems or
are in danger of harming themselves or others.
ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
Ecological Assessment Considerations (Messick1984):
• Are the curricula effective for the majority of the students?
• Have the students been adequately taught the curricula?
• Is there objective evidence to support that the child has not learned what was taught?
• What type of systematic interventions were made to identify the problem and take corrective action?

Assessments Components
• Physical environment
• Classroom behavioral structure
• Classroom teacher’s instructional behaviors
• Teacher-student interactions
• Teacher-target student interactions
• Classroom academic structure
• Extended learning experiences
ASSESSMENT PLANS: LEGALITIES

•Once it is determined that a student needs a comprehensive assessment, an individualized


assessment plan must be constructed.
•The teacher must have documentation to show the student is not making progress despite
interventions.
•Assessments must be specifically designed to assess areas of concern
•Assessments must be validated for the purpose of intended use.
•Assessments may only be administered by someone trained to do so.
•More than one assessment must be used to determine eligibility.
•Follow acceptable and ethical standards (e.g, Standards for Educational and Psychological
Testing).
INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENT PLANS

•It is recommended that an evaluation team follow these steps in


preparing an assessment plan (Maxam, Boyer-Stephens, and Alff, 1986) :
• Review all of the screening information.
• Determine what areas need further evaluation.
• Determine specific data-collection procedures to use.
• The team decides which assessments to give and who will give them.
PENILAIAN KOMPREHENSIF
Strategi pra-rujukan dijalankan  murid masih
tidak berjaya dalam persekitaran pembelajaran

Kump. Intervensi pra-rujukan  penilaian


komprehensif  perancangan penilaian

Jenis-jenis penilaian  keperluan murid


PENILAIAN KOMPREHENSIF
•Battery of testing instruments is utilized.
•Standardized and norm-referenced testing is heavily used.
•An individualized education program (IEP) team reviews the results of the assessments in
the eligibility meeting and determines:
• What educational changes are needed (alternative planning under 504)?
• Is the student eligible for special education services (IEP)?

•In the event the child referred is 3 years of age or younger and eligibility for services has been
determined, the law requires that an Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP) be developed by
the team members and parents.
• The IFSP differs from the IEP in that the family’s needs as well as the child’s needs are addressed.
PERTIMBANGAN BUDAYA
•Disproportionate rate of occurrence of some students from various
ethnic and cultural backgrounds happens in the disability categories
that rely heavily on “clinical judgment,” (e.g., learning disabilities, mild
mental retardation, emotional disturbance)
•Students from homes that fall in the range of poverty and that
structurally include a single parent are at increased risk for
disabilities.
•Increased risk for disability in environments that lack resources and
support for single parents.
•Learned behaviors and identity associated with school.
STRATEGIES TO REDUCE
DISPROPORTIONALITY (B UR NET T E, 1 998)

•Ensure that staff knows the requirements and criteria for referral and is kept abreast of current research affecting the process.
•Check that the student’s general education program uses instructional strategies appropriate for the individual, has been adjusted
to address the student’s area of difficulty, includes ongoing communication with the student’s family, and reflects a culturally
responsive learning environment.
•Involve families in the decision to refer to special education in ways that are sensitive to the family’s cultural background.
•Use only tests and procedures that are technically acceptable and culturally and linguistically appropriate.
•Testing personnel should have had training in conducting these particular assessments and interpreting the results in a culturally
responsive manner.
•Personnel who understand how racial, ethnic, and other factors influence student performance should be included in the
eligibility decision.
•When eligibility is first established, a set of firm standards for the student’s progress and readiness to exit special education
should be recorded.
ISU & PENYELIDIKAN
•The effectiveness of earlier special education programs in previous years proved to have mixed
results and this contributed to the inclusion of students with exceptional learning needs in the
general education curriculum and setting.
•Research suggests referral practices in the past were inconsistent and may have been
contributing to bias in the referral, assessment, and eligibility process.
•A teacher’s decision to refer may be influenced by the student’s having a sibling who has had
school problems as well as by the referring teacher’s tolerance for certain student behaviors; the
teacher with a low tolerance for particular behaviors may more readily refer students exhibiting
those behaviors.
•Early research indicated that nationwide more than 90% of the students referred for evaluation
were tested. Of those tested, 73% were subsequently found eligible for services in special
education.
•Studies have found success in preventing inappropriate referrals by employing a problem-solving
model.
KESIMPULAN
• Penaksiran mengambil kira pelbagai jenis penilaian kemajuan
pelajar.
• Penaksiran perlu untuk :
i. memantau pencapaian akademik pelajar
ii. mengukur pencapaian standard kurikulum seluruh negeri
iii. menyaring pelajar yang mungkin memerlukan penilaian yang
menyeluruh untuk menentukan kelayakan bagi perkhidmatan
khas
iv. menentukan bila sesuatu program perlu diubah suai
• Penaksiran perlu melihat pelajar secara holistik, mengambil kira
budaya, bahasa dan latar belakang etnik pelajar.