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FOR ACADEMIC WRITING

PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE Source: Oshima Writing


Academic English 2
DEFINITION OF PARAGRAPH
A group of related sentence that discuss one main idea.
A Paragraph consists of :
1. Topic sentence
2. Supporting sentence
3. Concluding sentence
TOPIC SENTENCE
It states the main idea of paragraph and limits the topic to one
specific area. A good topic sentence must have a main idea and a
controlling idea.
Some important points to write a good topic sentence:
1. A topic sentence must be a complete sentence.
2. A topic sentence should be neither too general or too specifics.
3. A topic sentence should not have unrelated controlling idea.
EXAMPLE

Not recommended topic sentence A good topic sentence

1. Driving on freeways. 1. Driving on freeways requires


skill and alertness.

2. Magister ilmu linguistik. 2. Magister ilmu linguistik


mempunyai dua konsentrasi
yaitu terapan dan umum.
SUPPORTING SENTENCE
It develops, explains and proves the topic sentence.
Specific details that can help to develop topic sentence are
example, statistic and quotation. Examples are perhaps the easiest
kind of supporting detail to use.
Words and phrases that introduce examples include; for example,
for instance, such as, etc.
EXAMPLE
CONCLUDING SENTENCE
Concluding sentence serves two purposes:
1. It signals the end of the paragraph.
2. Words and phrases that introduce conclusion are finally, in brief, in
conclusion, indeed, in short, lastly, etc.
3. It leaves the reader with the most important ideas to remember.
It can do this in two ways:
a. By summarizing the main points of the paragraph.
b. By repeating the topic sentece in different words.
EXAMPLE OF WELL-DEVELOPED PARAGRAPH
EXAMPLE OF BAD-DEVELOPED PARAGRAPH
Magister Ilmu Linguistik
Magister ilmu linguistik adalah salah satu program
studi yang ada di program pascasarjama Undip
Semarang. Kampus undip Semarang terletak di dekat
kawasan Simpang Lima. Simpang lima mempunyai lima
jalur yang salah satunya menuju arah Undip Pascasarjana.
Program magister ilmu linguistik sangat diminati. Ada dua
konsentrasi yaitu linguistik umum dan terapan.
CHECK POINTS OF THIS CHAPTER
1. A good topic sentence:
a. Is a complete sentence with a subject, a verb and a controlling idea.
b. Is neither too general nor too specifics.
c. Is usually the first sentence in the paragraph.
2. A good supporting sentences:
a. Explain or prove the topic sentence
b. Are specific and factual.
c. Can be examples, statistics or quotations.
3. A good concluding sentence:
a. Signals the end of the paragraph
b. Summarizes the important points briefly or restates the topic sentence in different
words.