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Quiz-1

Mba 2E dt 28 Sep 17
1. Describe:
• Project
• Phases of Project Life Cycle
• Project Plan
• Project Management
• PC-1
5
2. The Cost, Time / Duration and Scope are called
triple constraint in project management. Why? Illustrate
with examples.
5
3. a. Describe project environment.
5
b. How does project management help
organizations? h
Revisiting LP-2

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PROJECT PORTFOLIO PROCESS
(PPP)
Selecting a project out of myriad of projects
proposals

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PROJECT PORTFOLIO PROCESS (PPP)

• Pre-requisite to Project Plan


• Independent input
• Correct, relevant and updated Data
• PEST analysis
• Impact of Political, Economic, Social and Technical environment
• SWOT Analysis
• Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
• Porters’ Five Forces
• Rivalry, Threat of Substitute, Buyer’ Power, Supplier’s Power and Barriers
to Entry

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PROJECT PORTFOLIO PROCESS (PPP)

• A Committee (Project Council) comprising senior


managers, Proj managers and certain specialists’
inclusion of whom is beneficial to the Org. It is
equivalent to BOG or COA.
• It is the 8 step procedure for selecting; implementing
and reviewing projects that will help an organization
achieve its strategic objectives.
• Based on the inputs like Org goals, aims and
objectives, PPPs are formulated by the org (PMO) or
by the senior managers.

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PURPOSES OF PPP
• To identify proposed Proj that are not really Proj and can be
handled otherwise
• To prioritize the list of Proj
• To limit the Proj that must receive available resources
• To identify Proj that meet the Org’s strategic goals
• To eliminate Proj that incur losses / risk / cost over runs
• To eliminate Proj undertaken under directives and accruing
losses
• To keep from overloading resource availability
• To balance the needs with resources
• To balance short, medium and long term returns
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8 STEP PROCEDURE

• In order to carry out the Proj Portfolio Process (PPP)


following are required / must be done:
1.Establish Proj Council
2.Identify Proj Criteria and Categories
3.Collect Proj Data
4.Assess resource Availability
5.Reduce the Proj and Criteria Set
6.Prioritize the Proj within categories
7.Select the Proj to be funded and or be held in reserve
8.Implement the Process
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PROJ COUNCIL
• Main Purpose
• The main purpose of project council is to establish and articulate a strategic direction for the
projects. Senior management play a important role in this council. Without the senior
management the PPP will be incapable of achieving main objectives. It will be responsible for
allocating funds to those project that support the organization goals and controlling the
allocation of resources and skills to the projects.

• PC Comprises the following members:


• PMs of major Proj
• Head of PMO, if any
• Relevant GMs/HODs
• Those who can identify key opportunities and risks facing the org
• Anyone who can derail the progress of PPP

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PROJ CRITERIA AND CATEGORIES

• Criteria
• To be able to discriminate between Very Good or even
Better projects
• Does the Org has competence and technology
• Does Market exist for the deliverables
• Determination of risks / profits
• Availability of resources
• Affects on other or related Project
• Margins of profitability
• Merit position when compared with other Proj ect

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AGGREGATE PROJECT PLAN (APP)

• It is the process of creating development goals and objectives


and using these goals and objectives to improve productivity as
well as development capabilities.
• The purpose of this process is generally to ensure that each
project will accomplish its development goals and objectives.
• Projects can be differentiated into five types of projects:
breakthrough, platform, derivative, R&D, or partnered projects
(such as projects performed with partners or allianced firms).
• This differentiation determines a project's development goals
and objectives as well as resources allocated to that project.

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AGGREGATE PROJ PLAN

• Based on resources to be used for a proposed Proj,


aggregate Proj Plan can be used for:
• To view / review the mix of Proj
• To analyze and adjust the mix of Proj within each category or
aspect
• To assess the resources demands on the Org
• To identify and adjust the gaps in the categories, aspects,
sizes and timing of the Proj
• To identify potential career paths for developing project
managers, team members etc

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PROJECT CATEGORIES

• Based on the extent of product change and process change, the


projects can be categorized as:
• Derivative Proj --- Incrementally different in both product and
process from existing offerings
• Platform Proj --- Major departures from existing offerings, i.e.,
new models etc
• Breakthrough Proj --- Introduction of new technology
• R & D Proj --- Blue – sky, visionary endeavors, using new
technologies or present technologies in new ways

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R & D Proj
AGGREGATE PROJ PLAN – PROCESS / PRODUCT CHANGES

Extensive Prod Changes


Minor product Changes
Extensive
Process
Changes

PLATFORM Proj

Breakthrough
Projects

Minor
Process
Changes Derivative Proj

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Projects vs. Business Processes

Project Business Process

Temporary: has a Ongoing: The same


beginning and an end process is repeated over
and over again

Produces a unique output Produces the same output


or deliverable each time
the process is run

Has no predefined work Has predefined work


assignments assignments
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WHAT IS A PROPOSAL

• An offer or bid to do a certain Project for someone.


• A Proposal is the one that asks its audience to:
• Approve it
• Fund it
• Grant permission to do the Proj
• Hire you to do the work or both.

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PROJECT PROPOSAL- Key requirements

• Which projects should be bid on?


• How should the proposal-preparation process be organized and
staffed?
• How much should be spent on preparing proposals for bids?
• How should the bid prices be set? What is the bidding strategy? Is it
ethical?

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PROJ PROPOSAL

• It is the set of documents submitted to higher authorities for


Evaluation / Appraisal.
• It is equivalent of Proj Plan. A proposal must be in line with
RFP. It should invariably consist of following:
• Comparison of proposals at hand
• How proposal preparation process be organized & staffed
• Cost estimates for preparing proposal (Feasibility Study or
Pre-Feasibility Study including Pilot Proj or Proto type)
• Price mechanism – bidding process be made ethical
• Which proposal / project should be bid on

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FORMAT OF PROJ PROPOSAL*
• Covering letter
• Executive Summary
• Nature of the technical problems and its implications
• Implementation plan
• Logistics and admin proposals*
• Personnel / org / companies to be involved in completion of the
Proj
• Milestones, schedules and budgets *
• Deliverables and deadlines*
• Test criteria
• Past experiences
• Recommendations in order of priority

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SALIENT FEATURES OF A PROJ PROPOSAL**
• Major Milestones
• The Technical Approach
• All tests & inspection procedures to assure performance, quality,
reliability and compliance with specifications
• The Implementation Plan
• Estimates of time
• Aggregate Costs as well as cost per category
• Estimates of materials (BOQs)
• Control Charts (PERT/Gantt)
• Logistics and Administration Plan
• Ability to supply machinery, manpower, equipment, skills needed for
the project
• Procedure be outlined for handling of Change Orders
• Past Experience

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DETAILED FORMAT OF PROJ PROPOSAL
• Covering letter and Executive Summary
• Need Analysis followed by Idea generation
• Selection of an idea to be developed as a project along with Project Statement duly
supported by Feasibility study and relevant data
• Business / Financial proposal
• Project Scope / Product scope / Performance Parameters
• Nature of the technical problems and its implications – Risks and Uncertainties and
methods to mitigate them
• Project Plan duly supported by Work Breakdown Structure
• Financial Plan and Project Budget Plan as Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) + Activity
Charts and Networking (Gantt Charts)
• Implementation plan including Logistics and Admin proposals
• HR – Personnel, Companies to be involved in completion of the Proj
• Milestones, schedules and budgets
• Time Management, Communication Management, HR management
• Deliverables and Deadlines
• Test criteria to meet Scope
• Past experiences of the Company executing the project
• Recommendations in order of priority
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Suggested Outline Project ----- Construction of a House
• Project Objective Statement
• Reasons for construction of houses --- Basis of Proj Selection
• Major Deliverables
• Proj Plan
• Major Risks and remedial measures
• The Contingencies and Responses
• Proj Org Structure
• Team Roster
• Duties of project manager and Team Members
• Planning of the Project (Work Plan)
• Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
• Activity Chart
• Networking
• Managing the Project (Implementation, Control, Leading, Evaluation
• Quality Assurance Plan (QA / QC) ---- Success Parameters
• Storage & safe custody of project file
• Closing the Proj
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CHARACTERISTICS OF PROPOSAL

• Proposal writing is a project by itself:


• Requires Team of Reps:
• Sales
• PM
• Technical & Support Functions
• To be closely monitored by Sr Mgt.
• Heavy responsibilities
• Workloads considered
• Costed against Corporate Overheads
• Tightly Budgeted activity
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CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
• Offer your customers at least one service that they
cannot get elsewhere.
• Do not be afraid to loose money to satisfy a customer
or a sponsor of a project.
• Make it look Potentially Valuable to the client
• Always remember !
• SHORT TERM LOSSES CAN EQUAL LONG TERM GAINS.

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Adopt a well understood format
and
WRITE THE PROPOSAL PROFESSIONALLY

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WINNING A PROPOSAL
MESSAGE. That we understand the project. The owner’s real
wants are prepared to satisfy them with our resources and
company’s commitment.
RESPONSE. Complete and direct response to RFP/ bidding
documents.
DISCLOSURE. Comprehensive documentation of all relevant
company experience. Careful attention to personnel
resumes, rewriting them to emphasize pertinent
experience.
CREATIVITY. Something unique or innovative to set
yourselves apart from the competitors.
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WINNING A PROPOSAL Contd

• PRICE: Usually but not always a significant factor in


competitive proposals on bids.
• FINANCING: More than ever, an important
consideration, even a requirement. Bids are usually
adjusted by financing terms offered so the product of
price and financing determines the bottom line.
• Style: Well composed, concisely written, logically
organized, properly referenced, and attractively
presented.

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LP- 3 28 Sep 17
The Project Manager (PM)
• Learning Objectives
• Relationship between Functional Manager & Proj Mgr
• Project Responsibilities
• Project Career path
• Selecting PM – How, Why and When
• Special Demands on the PM
• Managerial behavior in different Cultures
• Class Activity: Selection of a PM
• Additional Reading
• Learning Outcomes
• Students would be able to appreciate importance of PM,
his selection / nomination and the role played by him as
project leader
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WHO IS PM?

• A person who integrates all aspects of the project,


ensures that needed resources are optimally utilized
and makes sure that the expected results
(Performance / Quality) are produced in a timely
(Given time frame) and cost effective manner (within
cost).

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
FUNCTIONAL MANAGER & Project Manager
(PM)

• Functional Manager (FM)


• A FM is a direct, technical supervisor.
• A FM is in charge of one of a firm’s functional departments
such as marketing, engineering, or finance. Such department
heads are usually specialists in the areas they manage.
• Being specialists, they are analytically oriented and they
know something of the details of each operation for which
they are responsible.
• As administrative Managers they are responsible for
deciding how something will be done, who will do it, and
what resources will be devoted to accomplish the task.

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FUNCTIONAL
MANAGER & PROJ MGR
• Project Manager
• The PM is a facilitator and generalist.
• A PM generally starts his or her career as a specialist in some
field who is blithely informed by a senior manager that he or
she is being promoted to the position of Project Manager on
the Whizbang Project. The PM must now metamorphose from
technical caterpillar into generalist butterfly.
• The PM, new or experienced, must oversee many functional
areas, each with its own specialists. Therefore, what is required
is an ability to put many pieces of a task together to form a
coherent whole—that is, the project manager should be more
skilled at synthesis, whereas the functional manager should be
more skilled at analysis.

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FUNCTIONAL
MANAGER & PROJ MGR
• The functional manager uses the analytic approach
and the PM uses the systems approach.
• The phrase “systems approach” requires a short
digression describing briefly what is meant by those
words.
• A system can be defined as a set of interrelated
components that accepts inputs and produces
outputs in a purposeful manner.
• This simple statement is a bit more complicated than
it appears.

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PM V/S FUNCTIONAL MGR

Primary concern The Project The Department

Orientation / Task oriented Job oriented


Approach System Approach Analytical Approach
Responsible Operational + Administration
Admin
Specialization A specialist turned Specialists
generalist

Basic Functions Organizing, Organizing, and


staffing, budgeting, planning
directing, planning
and controlling

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PROJECT RESPONSIBILITIES

• Responsibility to the Parent Organization.


• Senior management fully informed
• Warning Senior managers about likely future problems
• Reports must be accurate and timely
• Must maintain credibility, protect the parent firm from high
risk, and allow senior management to intercede where needed
• Proper conservation of resources
• Timely and accurate project communications
• Responsibility to the project and the client
• Maintaining integrity of the project despite conflicting
demands made by the many parties (Stakeholders) who have
legitimate interests in the project.
• The PM must never surprise the senior management
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PROJECT RESPONSIBILITIES

• Responsibility to the members of the project team.


• The project manager’s responsibilities to members of the
project team are dictated by the finite nature of the project
itself and the specialized nature of the team.
• Because the project is, by definition, a temporary entity and
must come to an end, the PM must be concerned with the
future of the people who serve on the team. If the PM does not
get involved in helping project workers with the transition back
to their functional homes or to new projects, then as the
project nears completion, project workers will pay more and
more attention to protecting their own future careers and less
to completing the project on time

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PROJECT MANAGER CAREER PATH
• Where does the company find people competent to manage
such a wide variety of projects?
• In Chapter 1, we referred to the professionalization and rapid
growth of project Management, to PMBOK (the project
management body of knowledge), as well as to the
development of college and university-level courses and degree
programs available in the field.
• Although the percentage of PMs who are academically trained
is increasing rapidly, many current project managers have no
college-level training in the field. A rapidly growing number of
private consulting firms offer instruction in project
management as well as programs preparing individuals for the
PMI’s examination for certification as Project Management
Professionals (PMPs).

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PROJECT MANAGEMENT CAREER PATH INCLUDES

• Trainee: a six-month position to learn about project


management.
• Cost Analysis/Schedule Engineer: 6–18 month team position
reporting to a project manager.
• Site Manager: a 6–12 month position responsible for a large site
and reporting to a program manager.
• Small Project Manager: sole responsibility for a small $1M to
$3M revenue project.
• Project Manager: responsible for Small – Medium sized projects
• Program Manager: responsible for multiyear projects and
programs over ------- say $25M.

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AREAS OF EXPERTISE NEEDED BY THE PROJECT
MANAGER & TEAM

Understanding the
Project
PMBOK Guide Environment
PMBOK

Application
Interpersonal area
General
Skills management Knowledge,
Knowledge and skills Standards and
Regulations

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PM-KNOWLEDGE AREAS – LEVEL OF AWARENESS---?

• The PM must have due knowledge of following with reasonable


level of efficiency and competency:
1. Project Integration Management
2. Project scope Management
3. Project Time Management
4. Project Cost Management
5. Project Quality Management
6. Project HR Management
7. Project Communications Management
8. Project Risk Management
9. Project Procurement Management

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PROJ MGMT PROCESS GROUPS
LEVEL OF AWARENESS

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THE PROJ MANAGER – WHY AND WHEN

• Projects seldom run smooth and as per schedule or so to say as


per book.
• Despite best of efforts and close watch by the CEO, one would
find at the last minute that technical drawings were not
updated.
• The BOQs were worked out two years ago and were based on 2
floors of the building whereas plans had been revised with
complete air conditioning. Somehow, the same was not taken
into account and the project was initiated.
• This and many other issues would crop up as and when a
project is launched. It is over here that the PM would come in
with a bang and sort things out.

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THE PROJ MANAGER – WHEN and WHY
CONTD

• The PM can be chosen and installed as soon as the


project is selected for funding or earlier at any point
that seems desirable to senior management.
• Soon after nomination and acceptance, the PM faces
three questions:
• What needs to be done?
• When must it be done?
• How are the needed resources going to be
available?

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THE PROJECT MANAGER (PM)

• Starting Points:
• Project has been approved (Selected and Funded)
• Project in implementation phase
• Project Team has been formed
• Project org has been constituted as per the Org’s system of
processes (PMO)
• Time to look for a team leader --- the PM
• And the relationship between:
• The PM, the Functional managers, the project team, and
the project manager’s supervisor must be “congenial”.
• The Org must, therefore, be populated by talented people.

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SELECTING THE PM
• Responsibilities:
• Organizing, Staffing, Budgeting, Directing, Planning and Controlling the project.
• Attributes
• Ethically correct
• Superb Organizer and Motivator
• An accomplished leader
• A keen observer and good analyst.
• A trouble shooter / A hard-nosed manager
• Excellent in intra-personal communications
• Acceptable to higher management
• Currently available
• Computer savvy ---- AUTOCAD or PRIMAVERA or MS Project
• Technically strong.
• Good in financial management.

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PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES – PM
• Credibility
• Technically and administratively
• Sensitivity
• Be able to sense dangers and mischieves
• Leadership Style
• Must have skills
• Must possess strong ethics
• Institute ethics audit – Refer to page 120
• Ability to Handle Stress
• Relaxed under trying conditions – Refer to page 122
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THE PM – ROLE MODEL

• Rewards and Punishments


• Bearer of bad news is not punished
• Admitter-to-error is not executed

• But,

• Hider of mistake may be shot at with impunity


• Never surprise the boss
• Learn from the experience of others
• Manage the Proj like managing a business.
• Opt for Systems Approach compared to the Functional Manager
who normally uses Analytical Approach

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VITAL DOZEN FOR THE PROJ MGR

• Lead from the front


• Build and maintain cohesive team
• Understand the environment
• Recognize Proj Team conflict as progress
• Understand who the stakeholders are and what do they want
• Accept and use the political nature of the Org
• Understand what success means
• Must guard against Enthusiasm and Despair – both are infectious
• One look forward is worth two looks back
• Always remember what you are trying to do / achieve
• Use time carefully or it will use you
• Above all, Plan, Plan and Plan
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THE IMMEDIATE TASKS – PM
• Prepare a preliminary budget and schedule
• To get to know the client and the team. Engage in negotiations if
so required
• Acquire adequate resources
• Establish and enhance Breadth of Communications --- Omni
present.
• Differentiate between discipline-oriented and problem-oriented
Org / Mgmt. Prefer Problem solving Orientation
• Learn and retain the art of dealing with obstacles
• Work out Trade – offs
• Undertake Risk Management
• Get the project moving

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SPECIAL DEMANDS ON THE PM
• Acquiring adequate resources (cost benefit ratio)
• Acquiring and Motivating Personnel
• Dealing with obstacles --- Risks and Uncertainties
• Making project Goals Trade – offs
• Be mindful of Risks and Fear of Failure
• Breadth of Communications ---
• Negotiation --- no let up
 Know the Specs and Work out requirements
 Determine cost benefit ratios (EOQ)
 Match delivery schedules with WBS
 Be political, polite and forthright
 Do not compromise --- it may impact Proj success
 Must Follow the Critical Path
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ACQUIRE AND MOTIVATE PERSONNEL

• High quality / technical skills


• A & B Teams
• Political sensitivity – Attitude of bosses
• Must win appreciation for your attitude and recognition for
your work
• Orientation
• Problem solving, trouble shooter, helper, guide and mentor
• Goal orientation
• High level of performance
• High Self-esteem
• Be motivated and motivate others

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ENHANCE BREADTH OF COMMUNICATIONS

• Find out why and how the Proj’s success would be


measured
• Identify areas of risks / pointers that lead to failure
• Seek support of bosses
• Develop bondage with functional managers, clients
and sponsors etc
• Show flexibility (Keep Org and Proj goals in full view)
• Negotiate on the basis of equality and from the
position of strength

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WORKING IN MULTI CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT

• Be mindful of languages -- use of words / salutations


etc
• Develop awareness of social etiquettes and standards
• Understand culture, ethics and values
• Structure and style of communications
• Managerial and personal behavior

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IMPACT OF INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT

• Socioeconomic Environment – Dealings with bureaucracy

• Legal Environment – respect the Local Laws and be mindful of


international Laws

• Business Conditions in a country – High level of awareness is needed


to be successful

• Technological Environment – Breakthrough technology may reduce a


project to zero

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Additional Reading

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PM - Leading the Project -7 Principles

1. People own what they participate in.


2.Team members who understand the project are more
committed to making it successful.
3.People are inspired by what is meaningful to them.
4.Show your appreciation for the contributions:
✔ Recognize accomplishments and thank people for the work
they do.
✔ Celebrate successes.
✔ Respect each person’s and teams’ inputs and opinions.
✔ Stand up for the team.
✔ Be honest.

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PM - Leading the Project -7 Principles

5. Build a team and maintain an environment of mutual


trust and respect.
✔ Honor diversity of thinking, learning, and other
individual differences.
✔ Don’t make promises you can’t keep.
✔ Keep your commitments.
✔ Value each person’s inputs and ideas.
✔ Be honest.
✔ Eliminate blame.

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PM - Leading the Project -7 Principles
contd:

6. Use team-based tools for planning, monitoring, idea generation,


decision making, and conflict resolution so that the team can make
good decisions and reach consensus quickly.
7. Empower the team.
• Clearly define the roles that each person involved with the project will play
and hold each person to those roles.
• Clearly define what is expected from the team and from each individual on
it.
• Provide adequate resources to get the job done.
• Make sure the people on the team have the skills and knowledge to get the
job done.
• Make sure your team has the project and team skills it will need to be
successful.
• Clearly define accountability for results.
• Push decision making down to the lowest level possible.
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EMPOWERING THE TEAMS

• 5 stages
• 1st - THE FORMING STAGE
• 2nd- THE STORMING STAGE
• 3rd - THE NORMING STAGE
• 4th - THE PERFORMING STAGE
• 5th - THE MOURNING STAGE

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1st Stage: THE FORMING STAGE

• When a team is forming, they answer the questions like:


• Why are we here?
• What is my role in this endeavor?
• Who are these other people and how will we get along?
• What’s the project leader like and how will he or she run this project?
• In the forming stage:
• Team members are polite.
• In this stage the project begins at the kick off and ends when people stop
being polite and conflicts begin to emerge.
• Set the right tone for the project and move through this first stage of
team formation quickly.
• If you’re successful at the forming stage, the team will naturally move on
to the next stage of development: Storming.

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2nd Stage-THE STORMING STAGE

• When the team starts feeling a realization of the actual challenges, the
STORMING STAGE erupts.
• Resultantly, disagreements may arise about what needs to be done and who
will do it.
• The greater the stretch goals for the project, the more vocal the storming
stage.
• It’s healthy to have conflicts over what should be done and how it should
get done, as long as those conflicts are brought to the surface and resolved.
• Storming is a necessary and useful stage as it helps create understanding,
alignment, and ownership.
• Storming may last through much of the planning process.

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3rd stage - THE NORMING STAGE

• The norming stage usually emerges at the end of planning or in


the beginning of the implementation phase, depending on the
complexity and controversy associated with the project and
with your skills at working through the first two stages.
• By this stage the project’s goals, roles, and boundaries have
been clarified and accepted by team members. They have
taken ownership and accountability for getting the work done.
• Conflicts having been resolved, the team moves on to the next
stage of development called norming.
• In the norming stage, people get on with doing their own work.
• This stage comes as a big relief to both the project leader (PM)
and the project team members.

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4th stage - THE PERFORMING STAGE

• In the performing stage the team becomes a true


team, working in unison, supporting one another.
• The team, not the PM, manages the project.
• Team members make adjustments to keep the
deliverables on track; they monitor progress and
manage change.
• The team takes full ownership and accountability, not
only for the project, but for the team dynamics as
well.
• Remember to recognize accomplishments and
celebrate successes. Make it a theme.

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5th stage- THE MOURNING STAGE
• Since, all projects are temporary and so inevitably the peak
experience must come to an end. At that point the team hits
the mourning stage.
• In the mourning stage it’s important to both celebrate and to
mourn.
• It’s time for closure on the team process—saying goodbye to
friends and associates.
• People don’t like to leave a high-performing team because they
feel good about themselves and what they’ve accomplished
together.
• They have enjoyed being a member of a team and contributing
to something larger than themselves.
• A closing ritual can be helpful to help bring a close to the
project.
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The PM

• Valuable skills for the PM are technical and administrative


credibility, political sensitivity, and an ability to get others to
commit to the project, a skill otherwise known as leadership.

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SUMMARY

• The PM has responsibilities to the parent organization,


the project itself, and the project team.
• The unique demands on a PM concern seven areas:
• Acquiring adequate physical resources
• Acquiring and motivating personnel
• Dealing with obstacles
• Making goal trade-offs
• Maintaining a balanced outlook in the team
• Communicating with all parties
• Negotiating

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SUMMARY

• The most common characteristics of effective project team


members are:
• High-quality technical skills
• Political sensitivity
• Strong problem orientation
• High self-esteem
• To handle the variety of project demands effectively:
• The PM must understand the basic goals of the project, have
the support of top management, build and maintain a solid
information network, and remain flexible about as many
project aspects as possible.

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SUMMARY – Culture

• Some important points concerning the impact of culture on


project management are:
• Cultural elements refer to the way of life for any group of
people and include technology, institutions, language, and art.
• The project environment includes economic, political, legal,
and sociotechnical aspects.
• Examples of problematic cultural issues include the group’s
perception of time and the manner of staffing projects.
• Language is a particularly critical aspect of culture for the
project.

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GLOSSARY

• Discipline An area of expertise.


• Environment Everything outside the system that delivers inputs or receives outputs
from the system.
• Facilitator A person who helps people overcome problems, either with technical
issues or with other people.
• Functional One of the standard organization disciplines such as finance, marketing,
accounting, or operations.
• Micro-culture The “corporate culture” within the organization, or even project.
• Analytical Approach Breaking problems into their constituent parts to understand
the parts better and thereby solve the problem.
• Benefit-Cost A ratio to evaluate a proposed course of action.
• Champion A person who spearheads an idea or action and “sells” it throughout the
organization.
• Contingency Plan An alternative for action if the expected result fails to materialize.
• Culture The way of life of any group of people

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"If money is your hope for independence you will never have it. The only real
security that a man will have in this world is a reserve of knowledge,
experience, and ability.“

Henry Ford, Entrepreneur

Thank you for investing your time with me. Now


go to the library and do additional reading to
refine your understanding of Project Manager.

Thank you

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