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BASIC

RADIOLOGY

DR. BANGUN NUSANTORO, SP.RAD


Radiology
Medical imaging

techniques and processes used to


create images of the human body
RADIOGRAPHY
Radiographs / Roentgenographs
named after the discoverer of X-rays

8 November 1895

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845–


1923)

often used for evaluation of bony


structures and soft tissue
Figure 1. Diagram of a standard x-ray tube
Taking an X-ray image with early Crookes tube
apparatus, late 1800s.
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845–1923)
X-ray equipmentS
X-ray equipments
X- RAYS DEFINITION

 A relatively high-energy photon having a


wavelength in the approximate range from 0.01
to 10 nanometers.
 A stream of such photons, used for their
penetrating power in radiography, radiology,
radiotherapy, and scientific research. Often used
in the plural. Also called roentgen ray.
 A photograph taken with x-rays.
These previously unknown rays (hence the X) were
found to be a type of electromagnetic radiation
.

Fluoroscopy,
computed tomography
(1970s), mammography,
ultrasound (1970s), and
magnetic resonance imaging
(1980s).
Sources
X-ray photons

Sealed X-ray tubes Betatrons, Linear accelerators


(linacs)

Gamma rays Gamma rays, Radioactive sources such as Ir -192


have been used.
GRADAtion DENSITy of X-RAY
FILM

Very Moderately Intermediate Moderately Very


Radiolucent radiolucent Radiopaqe Radiopaqe
Gas Fatty Tissue Connective Bones Heavy metals
tissue Calsium salt
Muscle tissue
Cartilago
Epithelium
Cholesterol
stones
Uric Acid
stones
CONTRAST AGENTS
Three type of contrast agents :

 Positive contrast agents : Barium sulphate,


Organic Iodine.

 Negative contrast agenst : Oxigen, Air, Helium

 Double contrast
BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF X-RAY
EXPOSURE
 Early effects : Chemical changes
structure or function of constituent cells.
 Delayed effects, such as cancer, may also
occur ultimately as a result of DNA damage
produced by the radiation in surviving cells.
 Earliest visual indications of a high radiation
dose erythema or skin reddening
BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF X-RAY
EXPOSURE
 The threshold dose 300 rads (3.0 Gray)
 The effect erythema occurs within a day of the exposure and then
disappears.
 The effect may recur 8-14 days later pain in the affected tissue.
 After a few days, the skin may return to its normal appearance but
remain highly sensitive.
 For doses in excess of 5000 rads (50 Gray) blood flow problems
atrophy and ulcerations.
 may eventually require the amputation of fingers or major portions
of the hand.
Occupational Dose Limits for

External Exposures to Ionizing Radiation.

Quarterly Annual

Whole body; head and trunk; lens of eye; 1.25 rems 5 rems
gonads

Hands and forearms; feet and ankles 18.75 rems 18.75 rems

Skin of the whole body 7.5 rems 30 rems


RADIATION PROTECTION
Time

 Three factors Distance

Shielding

ALARA : "As Low As Reasonably


Achievable".
Stomach (single
contrast)
Colon (single contrast)
Colon (double contrast)
IVU X-RAY FOR K IDNEY STONES
Hysterosalpingography
Inguinal and iliac lymph nodes and vessels
(lymphography)
SELAMAT
BELAJAR