Ohm¶s Law as Applied to a Resistive Circuit.

‡ EMF ( electro-motive force ) is the force which causes electrons to flow through the connected circuit. This force or EMF is measured in volts and is referred to as ³ voltage´. Symbol is V or E. In this lecture, the symbol ³V´ will be used so as not to confuse ³ Voltage ³ with ³ Energy ³.

‡ A battery supplying a large number of volts exerts a greater force on the electrons, causing them to flow at a greater rate through the circuit. ‡ The rate at which electrons flow through a circuit is termed ³ CURRENT´ and is measured in AMPERE. It is denoted by symbol ³I´.

and is assigned the letter R. the greater the resistance to the flow of electric current. . Measured in Ohms. it is abbreviated with the Greek letter.or the opposition to the flow of electric current.OHM¶S LAW ‡ Resistance. capital ³ Omega ³( ) ‡ The larger the ohmic value of the resistor.

That is for any given value of resistance. This relationship is known as Ohm¶s Law and is given by the following expression : .OHM¶S LAW A linear relationship exists between the applied voltage and the resulting current. doubling the voltage applied will double the current. with an increase in voltage producing a proportional increase in current.

OHM¶S LAW Voltage (V) = Current (I) x Resistance (R). I= V/R and R= V/I .

Calculate the voltage required to produce a current of 0.OHM¶S LAW SAMPLE PROBLEMS TO SOLVE 1. If the applied voltage is 12 Volts and the resistance is 48 Ohms.75 Amp in the circuit of Question No. 2. 1 . calculate the Current in Amperes flowing through the 48 Ohms resistor.

5 Ampere using a 12-Volt battery? .OHM¶S LAW What value of resistance is required to produce a current of 0.

and I= Current in Amperes . The common equations for calculating power are : P= EI.ELECTRICAL POWER Electrical Power is defined as the product of volts and amperes and is measured in Watts ( W ). P= I²R and P=E²/R Where P is Power in Watts E= Voltage in Volts.

ELECTRICAL POWER A Watt is a basic unit of power. A typical roaster oven is 1. Kilowatts ( KW ) and Megawatts ( MW ) are the most common units. but is very small. 2. .5 KW.5KW. or 3.5KW. In the electrical utility business. Putting Power Into Perspective One Kilowatt ( KW) = 1000 Watts Hardware store portable generators have ratings such as 750W.

. a 75 KVA transformer is needed to run a 100 HP motor. in reality a motor is only about 80% efficient. and a 100 KVA transformer would be needed.Putting Power Into Perspective One Horsepower (HP )= 746 Watts With 100 HP=74. However.6KW.Cont. .Cont.

Each Mitsubishi Genset in Malakal PP has a rating of 3.Putting Power Into Perspective One Megawatt ( MW )= 1000 Kilowatts Some of the older hydraulic stations on small rivers have generating unit rated at about 1MW.75MW capacity. .Cont.Cont..40 MW while each Wartsilla has 1.

P= I²R P= EI P=E²/R .Formula for Power For Power ( in Watts ) .

Formula For Current For Current ( in Amperes ) I = P/E I = E/R I = ¥P/R .

Formula for Voltage For Voltage ( in Volts ) E = IR E = P/I E = ¥ PR .

Formula for Resistance For Resistance ( in Ohms ) R = E/I R = E²/P R = P/I² .

What is the current required if the voltage specified is 120V and the power is 1200 watts. .Typical Problem Solving 1.

electrical energy and electrical power are not the same thing.ELECTRICAL ENERGY Electrical energy is the product measured at a customer¶s meter. -It is the product of watts and time. One watt times one second is watt-second. . In other words. Electrical energy is actually power x time. One Kilowatt times one hour is a Kilowatt-hour.

the watt is the amount of power being used at a given instant. where the kilowatt is the rate at which energy is used and the hour is the length of time the power is used. . Customer are billed based on the kilowatt-hour ( KW-hr ).ENERGY As a unit. It is also necessary to know how long the power is used to determine the amount a customer is charged for energy.

S. One liter of gasoline has the energy equivalent of approximately 10 KW-hr. . One U.Putting KW-Hr into Perspective KWOne Kilowatt-hour will run a 1000-watt microwave oven or a 1000-watt hair dryer for one hour. gallon of gasoline has the energy equivalent of approximately 37KW-hr ).

Putting KW-Hr in KWPerspective 1000 Kilowatt-Hours An average household in North America is considered to use 1000 KW-Hr per month. the energy rate in Palau for the first 500 KW-Hr per month is 8 cents/ KW-Hr ( excluding Fuel Adjustment Cost ) .Cont. and this figure is often used when comparing electric bills between utilities. For residential rate.

the amount of energy generated is shown in billion kilowatt-hours. Annual statistics for the sale or generation of electricity are expressed in billions of KWHr. The total generating capacity of the world is approx 12. When utilities and even countries are compared.000 billion KW-Hr.Cont. Putting KW-Hr in KWPerspective One KW-Hr is a small unit. .

ENERGY MEASUREMENT KW-Hr meters are installed to measure the kilowatt-hours used by a customer. There is a large variety of revenue metering used to measure other variables. .

Reactive power .TYPES OF REVENUE METERING There are three kinds of electrical power: 1. Real power 2. Apparent power 3.

UNIT OF MEASURE FOR BILLING Kinds of Power Real Power Apparent Power Reactive Power Power Peak KW Peak KVA Peak KVAR Energy KWh KVAh KVARh .

but 600-volt meters are available.Is a meter that can be installed without the use of current or potential transformers. The meter can carry the actual load current through its coil and can use the actual service voltage in the meter potential coil.METER AVAILABILITY Self-contained meters. The S-C meter are normally 240 volts or less. although there are higher rated meters on the market. Generally 200 Amp or less. .

A transformerrated meter is used to measure a representative current from the current transformer and a representative voltage from the potential transformer.METER AVAILABILITY Transformer-Rated meters. instrument transformers are used to send a representative current and voltage to the meter.When current or voltage is too high to be carried by selfcontained meter. .

METER AVAILABILITY Primary or Secondary Metering -Some customers buy power at a primary voltage and use their own transformers to step it down to a utilization voltage. . A transformer.rated meter and its associated potential and current transformers are used to send a representative voltage and current from the primary to the meter.

ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) ‡ Introduction Alternating current (AC) became the standard form of electrical power over Direct Current ( DC) in the pioneer days of electrical power. Easy transformation allows the voltage to be stepped up for efficient transmission of electrical energy over long distances. . AC¶s Major Advantage ± the easy transformation from one voltage to another.

The direction of the current flow in a circuit is determined by the polarity of the source terminals.Characteristics of AC ‡ AC Basics Current flows in a conductor as long as there is a potential difference present. one end of the circuit is at an opposite pole ( polarity ) to the other end. . These polarities are labeled as positive and negative. To have a potential difference.

. the polarity does not change and the current flows in one direction only. With AC. the polarity at the source alternates between positive and negative and the current direction changes with every change of the source polarity.AC and DC Comparison With DC.

. The term ³ cycles per second´ has been replaced by the international standard term for frequency.ACAC. In some other parts of the world. 50 cycles per second is common.Frequency ‡ In North America. which is hertz and is represented by the symbol Hz. alternating current supplied by electrical utilities travels 60 times in each direction in one second.

it is an indicator that the generator supplying the electrical system is overloaded and slowing.AC . the frequency in a circuit stays constant right from the generator to the customer.03 Hz. A typical range is from 59. A small reduction in frequency will trigger the electrical system to trip out of service.3 Hz.97 to 60.Frequency Unlike voltage or current. . Some systems are set-up to start load shedding when the frequency reaches 59. When the frequency starts to drop.

An inductive load does not generate heat or light and is not measured by the kilowatt-hour meter.REACTANCE IN AC CIRCUITS There are three kinds of loads fed by an AC Circuit: 1. The energy used to magnetize a motor or a transformer is an inductive load. Heating and lighting are resistive loads. 2. . A resistive load can do work. The amount of work being done can be measured by a kilowatt-hour meter.

The energy used to supply a capacitive effect at capacitors. paralleling conductors. A capacitive load does not generate heat or light and is not measured by a kilowatthour meter. .REACTANCE IN AC CIRCUITS 3. or in cables is a capacitive load.

All three types of loads oppose the flow of current and add to the total opposition to current flow in a circuit. This disturbance imposed by inductive and capacitive loads in a circuit is called reactance. . but so do inductive and capacitive loads. The symbol for reactance is X. A resistive load opposes the flow of current.REACTANCE IN AC CIRCUITS 1.

REACTANCE IN AC CIRCUITS Reactance can be inductive reactance ( XL ) caused by loads such as motors. or it can be capacitive reactance (XC ) caused by capacitors or paralleling conductors. fluorescent lights and computers. . transformers.

In an AC circuit. . Impedance is measured in ohms and is represented by the symbol Z. Impedance can be used interchangeably with resistance in calculation using Ohm¶s Law. This combination of resistance and reactance opposing the current flow is referred to as impedance. the opposition to current flow consists of resistance and reactance.IMPEDANCE IN AN AC CKT Resistance is the only opposition to the current flow in a DC circuit.

Z=E/I and I=E/Z where E= effective voltage in volts I= effective current in amperes Z= total impedance in ohms.IMPEDANCE IN AN AC CKT The formula is : Z=IR . .

Real power can be expressed as voltage x resistive loads.AC POWER ‡ Active Power The total power produced in a DC circuit is calculated by multiplying total voltage by total amperes. true power or real power because this is the power that gives light. Because there is no reactance in a DC circuit. all of the power the circuit supplies is useful power or active power. gives heat and turns motor. Active Power is also referred to as effective power. .

The power measured at a customer¶s meter is referred to as active power. or P= IE . the total active power supplied by a circuit is equal to total effective current x total effective voltage.ACTIVE POWER In AC circuits. power alternates at the same rate as the voltage and current are alternating. Therefore.

It is simply abbreviated as KW. .ACTIVE POWER ‡ Active Power is measured at a customer meter and is measured as watts or in blocks of 1000 watts. which is kilowatts.

AP = ( active power)2 +( reactive power )2 . Apparent power is a combination of active and reactive power. because in an AC circuit all of the power does not perform actual work.APPARENT POWER ‡ The total power supplied by a circuit is called apparent power.

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