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Organizational Behaviour

Study
of
Human
Behaviour

What is it?

Individual Organizational
Behaviour Group Behaviour
Behaviour
Importance of OB

To Get Information
Why and How
the Organization Functions

To Analyze the Relationship

OB
To Manage Organization
Effectiveness As an employee,
Efficiency As a Manager

To Recognize the Value of HR


Satisfactory level of Employees
Organizational Behaviour

Input Interaction Process Output

Individual – Level Factors Performance Outcomes


Individual Process
1. Knowledge 1. Performance Quality
1. Motivation
2. Skills 2. Speed to Solution
2. Performance Improvement
3. Attitudes 3. Error Reduction
3. Stress Management
4. Values 4. Productivity Improvement
Group Process
5. Turnover
Group – Level Factors 1. Communication

1. Structure 2. Team Work

2. Level of “Cohesiveness” 3. Leadership Other Outcomes


3. Group Size 4. Decision Making 1. Member Satisfaction

Organizational Process 2. Group “Cohesiveness”


Environment – Level Factors
1. Organizational Structure 3. Attitude Change
1. Group Task Characteristics
2. Organizational Culture 4. Sociometric Structure
2. Reward Structure
3. Organizational Development
3. Level of Environmental Stress

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Organizational Behaviour

Individual
Interests/Skills Organizational
Behavior
Career Goals/
Opportunities
Individual Tangible
Perceived Behaviors Results
Organizational
Needs
External
Rewards/ Factors
Recognition (unpredictable)

Prepared by:K.Sasikumar 5
Human Beings

There are three kinds of


people:

Those who watch things

happen

Those who ask ‘What

happened?”

Those who make things

happen.
Individual-Level Factors
Personality Characteristics
Knowledge Problem diagnostic knowledge
Environmental Assessment ( PEST Analysis)
Technical Specialization
Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation
Finance &Accounting
Positive Thinking & Mutual Understanding
Attitudes
Quality, Cost & Time Conscious
Innovative
Desire for Change

Skills Commitment & Goal Oriented


Information Seeking
Communication & Team Building
Situation Analysis & Problem Diagnostic

Values Punctuality & Honesty


Professionalism
Trustworthy & Accountability
Type of Personalities

Thinker Doer
Data Oriented Action Oriented
Non dynamic Short Sighted

Analyze alternative Seek Urgent Solution

Own decision maker

Feeler Intuitor
Flexible & Sensitive Conceptual

Responsive Ideological

Environment Lovers Innovative & Creative


Too Soft Desire in Planning &

Skilled in Communication Development


Long on Vision & Short in Action
Personal Entrepreneurial
Characteristics
1.Opportunity Seeking
2.Risk Taking
3.Information Seeking
4.Persistence
5.Goal Setting
6.Networking
7.Self Confidence
Human Inputs

Individuals:
1. Ability
2. Values &
Attitudes
3. Personality
4. Biographical
Characteristics
Conflicts within Individuals

io

Mo
pt

n
n rce
Individuals:

tiv
Pe

1. Ability

at
io
2. Values &
Attitudes
3. Personality
4. Biographical
Characteristics

Individual
Learning
Type of Groups
Definition: Two or more individuals interacting & interdependent who
have come together to achieve particular objective.

Formal Group Designed to accomplish organizational


task.
1. Command GroupDetermined by the Organizational chart where
subordinates reports directly to the manager.
2. Task Group Determined by the organization for getting
together to complete a task.
Informal Group Formed on the basis of common interest

2. Interest Group People may or may not be aligned into command


group. But they affiliate to attain a specific
objective
3. Friendship Often develop for some common objectives
Stages of Group Development
Forming Get together. Tend to find out each other, consider purposes,
brainstorm ideas, find out suitable structure for task and consider
individuals role.

Storming Begins to settle in and individuals get to know each other, they may
start competing for status and role in the group. Disagreements occur
and where some members may try to assert strong opinions or
leadership tactics, others may withdraw.

Norming After the more tense stage of storming, the group usually begins to
settle and found a common approach to the task that all agreed upon
or accept. Action plans begin to find space to begin working on tasks.

Performin This is the stage when the group achieves optimum efficiency and
work gets done. At this stage it is important to know the team work
g strategies that with best utilize the expertise of each member. It is
also useful be aware of time spent on each task through a log or diary.

Mourning Having satisfactorily got through the group tasks, if the group has
been successful in working together, even initial tensions and
conflicts, can see members sad to leave each other. This is where
mutual respect and achievement is felt most significantly.
Key Roles on Group
Linker
Creditor
Advisor

Coordinate
& Integrate
eas
In I d
fo En

s
ea
rm c o

e e
tiv iat
Id
at ura

ea nit
io g
n e

Cr I
Se
ar
ch
ction
s Promoter
k e A
Ta eas
on I d
Fights
Maintainer External Battles Team
Ins Offe
ig h r
tA
s nal
ys
e on is
in lati
Pr
Provide Directions
& Follow Through

am gu
Ex Re o vi Assessor
& de
les St
Ru ru
ct
ur
e

Controller
Organizer
Producer
Group-Level Factors
Structure

1.Formal Leadership
2.Roles
3.Role Identity
4.Role Perception
5.Role Expectations
6.Norms: Expectable Standards of
Behaviour & Tells what to do and Not
to do.
7.Size
8.Composition
Groups Vs Teams

The group that interacts primarily to


share information and to make decision
to help each member perform within his
or her area of responsibility.

The team generates positive synergy


through coordinated effort.
Groups and Teams

Groups Teams

Share Information Goal Collective

Synergy
Performance
Neutral
Positive
Individual Accountability
Individual & Mutual
Random & Varied Skills
Complementary
Conflicts within a group
Conflicts occur when a person or group believe that their
attempt of achieving goals are being blocked by another
person or group.
It Should be avoided.
It can be appreciated. Why?
1. To stimulate new ideas
2. To promote healthy competition
3. For energizing behaviour
Conflict Management
Use Resolution Use Stimulation
 When Conflict become The agreement within the
Disruptive group is too easily reached
 When too much time and For new creative ideas
effort are spent on conflict
rather than productive
effort
 Conflicts focuses on Change is needed to

internal goals of the group remain competitive


rather than on
organizational goals
Cohesiveness

Definition: The extent which the group is committed to staying


together
Factors:
Results: •Heterogeneous Composition
•Goal Accomplishment •Recent Formation
•Members Satisfaction •Large Size
•Progress Improvement •Physical Dispersion
•High Commitment •Ambiguous Goals
•Failure

Factors:
Results:
•Homogeneous Composition
•Difficulty in goal achievement
•Mature Development
•Poor Progress
•Relatively Small Size
•Individual Orientation
•Frequent Interaction
•Lower Commitment
•Clear Goals
Performance Improvement

Learning Cycle
Stress Management

What is Stress?
Desire Uncertain Outcome

Action Constraints Task


Stress Management
Individual Approach

Making
Daily list
Meditation
of
Activities

Physical Prioritize
Exercise the Activities

Relaxation Correct
Training Time Management
Stress Management
Organizational Approach

Realistic
Redesigning
Goal
Jobs
Setting

Improved Increased
Personnel Employee
Selection Involvement

Improve
Employee
Organizational
Welfare
Communication
Communication
Function

Transfer of Information
Sender Receiver
Information Being Understood

Group activity is impossible without communication


Importance

1. Establish and disseminate goals of an enterprise


2. Develop plans for their achievement
Purpose 3. Organize human and other resources in most effective &
efficient way

Communication is two way process in which everyone is both


Responsibility
an originator and a receiver of the communication
Communication
Process

Noise

Understand
Receiving

Decoding
Encoding

Sending
Thought

Use of Channels
to
Transmit
Message
SENDER RECEIVER

Feedback
Communication

Simp
l
Word e
s

or t
W ho r
ds
S

Thoughts
Express
Un Wor
Av
ne
o id ar y
ces s
s
d

Give
Illustrations
Communication
Barriers
1. Lack of planning
2. Lack of Openness
3. Unclarrified assumption
4. Semantic Distortion
5. Poorly expressed message
6. Loss in transmission
7. Poor Listening
8. Threat & Fear
9. Information Overload
10. Personnel Barriers
“Coming together is a
Beginning,
Staying together is the
Progress,
And
Working together is the
Success”
- Henry Ford,
A small group of thoughtful committed people can change the world.
Types of Teams
Problem Self Managed Cross Functional
Solving
Discuss the ways: Implement Solution: Made up the team:
Improving Quality Plan & Schedule work Allowing people from

Efficiency Collective control diverse areas.


Work Environment Making operating Different discipline

decision members
Taking actions on Exchange Information

problems Develop new Ideas


And And
And
Implement Coordinate projects
Solution Take full responsibility
for outcomes
Review of team work
processes

Parallel System: Sequential System: Reciprocal System:


Jobs are divided into Jobs are done in People work together on
sub-tasks. sequence. all tasks.
passing work along the
line to other group
members.
Problem within a Team

1. Varying previous knowledge


2. Dissatisfaction with other team members work effort
3. Managers/Supervisors – weak guidance and
accessible
4. Unclear objectives for the project task
5. Unclear working models
6. Poor Knowledge of handling conflicts within team
members
7. Large Teams (9 persons or more)
8. Unclear roles within the team
9. Disagreement about the working methods
10.Disagreement about the responsibilities
Skills Obtained by Team Work

•Communication skills
•Time planning and organization
•Collaboration with different personality styles
Leadership

It is
an attempt
It influencing
The activities of the Followers
Through the communication process
Toward the attainment of
Some Goals
Leadership
Leadership

Inspire Plan
Attract

Control

Direct
Leader Lead Manager

Motivate Organize
Leadership
Story
“Management is doing things right,
leadership is doing the right things”
A group of workers and their leaders are set a task of
clearing a road through a dense jungle on a remote island
to get to the coast where an estuary provides a perfect
site for a port.
The leaders organise the labour into efficient units and
monitor the distribution and use of capital assets –
progress is excellent.
The leaders continue to monitor and evaluate progress
making adjustments along the way to ensure the progress
is maintained and efficiency increased wherever possible.
Then, one day amidst all the hustle and bustle and
activity, one person climbs up a nearby tree. The person
surveys the scene from the top of the tree.
Leadership

2.Minimisation:
3. Depression:
As the change becomes clearer,
1. Immobilisation: As reality, staff feel angry &
people try to fit in the change
The individual feels some sense lack of control of events overtake
with their own personal position
of shock and possible disbelief people & feel depressed, try
and may try to believe that
– so much so that they deem it to reconcile what is happening
it will not affect them.
worthy of doing nothing. With their own personal situation.

4. Acceptance/letting go:
The lowest point in self-esteem

Changes Finally sees people starting


to accept the inevitable.
Fear of the future is
a feature of this stage.

7. Internalisation: 5. Testing out:


The change is understood and 6. Search for meaning: Individuals begin to interact
adopted within the individual’s Individuals begin to work with the change, they start
own understanding – they now with the change and see to ask questions to see
know how to work with it and how they might be able to how they might work
feel a renewed sense of make the change work for them with the change.
confidence and self esteem. – self esteem begins to rise.
Leadership

Depends on: Affecting Factors


Type of staff Risk - decision making and change
History of the business initiatives based on degree of risk
Culture of the business involved
Type of business – creative business
Quality of the relationships
or supply driven?
Nature of the changes needed
How important change is – change
Accepted norms within the for changes sake?
institution
Organisational culture – may be long
embedded and difficult to change
Nature of the task – needing
cooperation? Direction? Structure?
Power of the Leadership

Rewarding/
Punishing

Legitimate Cohesive
Power Power Power

of
the Leader

Expert Reference
Power Power
Intelligence

Discovering

When & Where


Making Decision

Intelligence

Necessary for
Decision Making

What It is? Alternativ


Alternativ
ee
Solution
Solution
Make No:01
No:01
Make
The
The
Alternative
Alternative
Solution
Solution
No:02
No:02
Choice
Choice

Alternative
Alternative
Solution
Solution
No:03
No:03

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Decision Making Cycle
Identify problems
&
Causes

Implement Clarify
Action Objectives

Select Search for


an alternative Alternatives

Evaluate
Alternatives
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