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Wave carries energy from place to place.

Wave Motion- any disturbance propagated in a

medium such as string, air, etc.

Types of waves:

1. Mechanical waves –waves that are produced

in matter such as solid, liquid and gas

2. Electromagnetic waves- waves that are

produced in electric and magnetic fields and

can propagate even in vacuum or empty

space.

Types of Mechanical Waves

1. Transverse waves- waves which occur when

the particles of the medium vibrate

perpendicularly to the direction of the wave

propagation.

Ex. Waves produced on a vibrating string

Illustration:

Node, N – pt. of no vibration

Antinode,A- pt. of maximum vibration

A A Direction of wave propagation

N N N N N

A A

2. Longitudinal waves- waves which occur when the

particles of the medium vibrate parallel to the

direction of wave propagation. They are also called

compressional waves.

Ex. Sound wave

Rarefaction- the region where the particles are far apart from each other

Properties of a wave:

1. Speed or Velocity (v)- the distance traveled per unit

time. (cm/sec, m/sec, ft/sec)

2. Frequency (f)- the number of similar waves which pass

through a point per unit time or number of vibrations

made by a particle per unit time. (vps, cps, hertz or hz)

3. Wavelength (λ )- the length of one complete wave

between two points which are in phase. (cm, m, ft)

4. Period (T)- the time for a complete wave to pass

through a point. (sec)

5. Amplitude- the maximum displacement of the

vibrating particle from the equilibrium position.

Transverse waves

Transverse waves

perpendicular to the direction of travel of the wave.

Examples: waves on a guitar string.

Longitudinal Waves

Longitudinal Waves

to the line of travel of the wave.

Example: Sound wave in air is a longitudinal wave.

Water Waves

Periodic Waves

Periodic waves are waves that repeat.

Amplitude, Wavelength, and Period

The wavelength, λ is the horizontal length of one cycle of the

wave.

The period, T is the time required for one complete up/down

cycle of the wave.

Frequency

Wave Speed

Wave Speed

Frequency of Vibrating String / Wire

Consider a vibrating string:

L

v v

A A

2L N N

N

wavelength,

n segment segment

Velocity of Transverse Wave W

T

Frequency, f

v

m n T

L f (string)

2L m

L

Velocity of Transverse Wave

(for vibrating wire)

n T

f (wire)

2 T dL

v

d

NOTE:

• n corresponds to the “nth harmonic frequency

mode.”

• nth harmonic frequency mode corresponds to

the “nth overtone +1”

Example:

A string vibrates in the 12 th harmonic

n segment = 12

A string vibrates in the 10 th overtone

n segment = 10 1 11

A string vibrates in 10 nodes

n segment = 10 1 9

The Speed of a Traveling Wave

16-1 Transverse Waves

at time t=Δt. As the wave moves to the right at

velocity ν, the entire curve shifts a distance Δx

during Δt.

Mathematical Description of a Wave

Wave function for a sinusoidal wave

y f x, t wave function that describes the wave. This gives the

displacement (from equilibrium) of any particle at any time

also v f Where:

V - wave speed (m/s, cm/s)

2f ω- angular frequency (rad/sec)

2 k – wave number (rad/m)

k λ – wavelength (m,cm)

𝒚𝒎 - amplitude

4. A certain guitar string 50 cm long at its fixed points sounds an A-

note (440 Hz) when plucked. Where one must put his finger to

play a C-note (528 Hz)

5. A transverse sine wave with an amplitude of 2.50 mm and a

wavelength of 1.8 m travels from left to right along a long,

horizontal, stretched string with a speed of 36 m/s. Take the origin

at the left of the undisturbed string. At time t= 0 the left end of the

string has its maximum upward displacement.

(a) What are the frequency, angular frequency and wave number of

the wave?

(b) What is the equation for y(x,t) that describes the wave?

(c) What is y(t) for the particle at the left end of the string?

(d) What is y(t) for a particle 1.35 m to the right end of the origin?

(e) What is the maximum magnitude of transverse velocity of any

particle of string?

(f) Find the transverse displacement and the transverse velocity of a

particle 1.35 m to the right of the origin at time t= 0.0625s.

6. A sinusoidal wave is traveling on the string with speed 40

cm/s. The displacement of the particles of the string at x = 10

cm varies with time according to y = (5.0 cm) sin[1.0 –

(4.0𝑠 −1 )𝑡 ]. The linear density of the string is 4.0 g/cm . What

are

a) the frequency

b) the wavelength of the wave

c) write the wave equation

d) the amplitude

e) wave number

f) angular speed

g) tension in the string

h) give the equation for 𝑉𝑦 (𝑥,𝑡) and 𝑎𝑦 (𝑥,𝑡)

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