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© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only


 Functions of a steering system
 Basic steering systems
 Steering gear principles
 Manual rack-and-pinion steering
 Power rack-and-pinion steering
 Electronic steering assist
 Four-wheel steering systems

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only
 Provides perfect rolling motion of road
wheel under all conditions
 Provides directional stability
 To reduce tyre wear
 To facilitate straight ahead recovery
after complete turns.

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only
 The system to be very accurate and
should be easy to handle
 The steering effort should be minimum
 It must give directional stability.

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 Two basic kinds of steering systems
are in use today:
 linkage (worm gear) steering systems
 rack-and-pinion steering systems
 Each may be operated manually or
with power assist

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only
Steering
Basic linkage
steering

Basic rack-and-
pinion steering
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 Consists of the steering wheel, steering
shaft, column, ignition key mechanism,
and sometimes, a flexible coupling and
universal joint
 Bolts to the underside of the dash
 Sticks through the firewall and fastens
to the steering gear

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only
Steering Column
Components

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Locking Steering
Wheel
 When the ignition is off, the steering
wheel cannot be turned
 A rack and sector slide a steel pin into
mesh with a slotted disc that is splined
to the steering shaft
 The pin locks the steering shaft to the
column, preventing the steering wheel
from being turned

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only
Locking Steering
Wheel

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 Two basic types of gear mechanisms
are found in steering gearboxes:
 worm gears
 rack-and-pinion gears

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Gear Mechanisms

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Steering
Gears
Rack-and-pinion gear

Worm and nut steering gear

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Recirculating-Ball
Gearbox
 Normally used with a linkage steering
system
 Small steel balls circulate between the
gear members to reduce friction

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Recirculating-Ball
Gearbox

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Worm and worm wheel steering gear

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Rack-and-Pinion
Steering

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Worm And Roller Steering Gear

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Power Steering
Systems
 Most systems use an engine-driven
pump and a hydraulic system to assist
steering action
 An electric motor in the rack may be
used to provide power assist

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only
Basic Power Steering

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Basic Operation
 Pressure from the oil pump is used to
operate a piston-and-cylinder assembly
 When the control valve routes oil
pressure into one end of the piston, the
piston slides in its cylinder
 Piston movement helps move steering
system components

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only
Types of Power
Steering
 There are three main types of power
steering systems:
 Integral-piston linkage system
 Linkage power steering system

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Integral-Piston Linkage

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Linkage power
steering

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Power Rack-and-Pinion

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In a four-wheel steering system, all
four wheels change direction to
improve handling, stability, feel,
and maneuverability

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Four-Wheel
Steering
System

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Four-Wheel Steering

In a gentle turn, the wheels pivot


in the same direction
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Four-Wheel Steering

In a sharp turn, the wheels pivot back


and then turn in opposite directions
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Electronic System
 An electronic system is speed-sensitive
 An electric-motor-driven power rack
(rear actuator) acts on the rear wheels
using a recirculating-ball drive and
mechanical links
 The rear-wheel steering angles are
computer controlled

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Electronic Assist
Rack-and-Pinion

Lighter and more compact than a


hydraulic system
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Electronic System

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