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 Supercharger , the engine booster.

 How it works
 Working diagram of supercharger.
 Classification of supercharger.
 History.
 Roots supercharger.
 Twin-Screw Supercharger.
 Centrifugal Supercharger.
 Drives used in Supercharger.
 Engineers calculate engine airflow requirements using
these three factors:
◦ Piston displacement
◦ Engine revolutions per minute (RPM)
◦ Increasing the density of charge, such that greater mass of
charge is introduced into the same volume or increasing
Volumetric efficiency
 Volumetric efficiency is a
comparison of the actual
volume of air–fuel mixture
drawn into an engine to the
theoretical maximum volume
that could be drawn in.
 Volumetric efficiency is
expressed as a percentage, and
changes with engine speed.

FIGURE - A supercharger on a Ford V-8.

 Higher compression increases the thermal efficiency of
the engine because it raises compression temperatures,
resulting in hotter, more complete combustion.
◦ However, a higher compression can cause an increase in NOX
emissions and would require the use of high-octane gasoline
with effective antiknock additives.
 The amount of force an air–
fuel charge produces when it
is ignited is largely a function
of the charge density.
 Density is the mass of a
substance in a given amount
of space.

FIGURE The more air and fuel that can be

packed in a cylinder, the greater the
density of the air–fuel charge.
FIGURE - Atmospheric pressure decreases with increases in altitude.
 A supercharger is an engine-driven air pump that
supplies more than the normal amount of air into the
intake manifold and boosts engine torque and power.
 A supercharger provides an instantaneous increase in
power without the delay or lag often associated with
◦ However, a supercharger, because it is driven by the engine,
does require horsepower to operate and is not as efficient as a
A supercharger is an equipment that compresses the air being
delivered to an engine, allowing the combustion chamber to be
overfilled without enlarging
the space.

The higher concentration of

oxygen provided by a super-
charger is matched with a larger
amount of fuel from the fuel injectors
thus boosting the power of the
A typical supercharger
 Increases the power of an engine.
 A supercharger spinning at 50,000 RPM translates to a boost
of about six to nine pounds per square inch(psi).
 Increases the torque produced.

 An efficiently working supercharger can achieve the same

speed in one third time.
 Necessary in aero-planes as they have less oxygen at high
 Ensures complete combustion of the fuel.

 Reduces pollution to some extent.

“More fuel + More air = Bigger explosion = Greater horsepower”.

 But we cannot simply pump more fuel into the engine.

 The chemically correct mixture – (14 : 1 :: air : fuel) – is essential for an

engine to operate perfectly.

 Thus superchargers provides more air by compressing air above

atmospheric pressure , hence providing more fuel into the charge & would
make for a more powerful explosion .

 Thus: Increased Power , Torque and Speed is achieved.

A standard engine with the addition of a supercharger
Based on method of compression, Superchargers can be
classified as:-

1. Positive-displacement type, which deliver a nearly-fixed

volume of air per revolution at all speeds and a fairly constant
level of boost regardless of engine speed.

2. Dynamic compressors rely on accelerating the air to high

speed and then exchanging that velocity for pressure by
diffusing or slowing it down & deliver increasing boost with
increasing engine speed.
Roots Superchargers
Twin-Screw Superchargers
Centrifugal Superchargers
Vane type supercharger
The Roots supercharger is the oldest design of supercharger.
 Philander and Francis Roots patented the design in 1860 as a
machine that would help ventilate mine shafts.
 In 1900, Gottleib Daimler for the first time included a Roots
supercharger in a car engine.
Roots supercharger
As the meshing lobes spin, air trapped in the pockets between the lobes is carried
between the fill side and the discharge side & Large quantities of air move into the
intake manifold and "stack up" to create positive pressure.
•Roots superchargers are usually large and sit on top of the engine.
•Roots superchargers are the least efficient supercharger for two reasons:-
1.)They add more weight to the vehicle.
2.)They provide air in discrete bursts instead of
providing in a smooth and continuous manner.
A twin-screw supercharger operates by pulling air through a pair
of meshing lobes that resemble a set of worm gears.

 A twin-screw supercharger compresses the air inside the rotor

housing (That's because the rotors have a conical taper, which
means the air pockets decrease in size as air moves from the fill side
to the discharge side).

As the air pockets shrink,

the air is squeezed into a smaller space.

Working of a twin-screw supercharger


•Thus twin-screw superchargers are more efficient compared to roots


•They cost more because the screw-type rotors require more precision in
the manufacturing process.

• They also make a lot of noise.

•The compressed air exiting the discharge outlet creates a whine or

whistle that must be checked with noise suppression techniques.

Twin-screw supercharger
 A centrifugal supercharger works by powering an impeller
(a device similar to a rotor) at very high speeds to quickly draw
air into a small compressor housing.

 Impeller speeds can reach ‘50,000 to 60,000 RPM’.

 Centrifugal superchargers are

the most efficient and the most
common induction systems.

 They are small, lightweight and

attachable to the front of the

•As the air is drawn in the hub of the impeller, centrifugal force causes it
to radiate outward.

•The air leaves the impeller at high speed, but low pressure.

•A diffuser converts the high-speed , low-pressure air to low-speed ,

high-pressure air.

•Thus pressurized air is achieved.

Working of a centrifugal supercharger

 Belt (V belt, Toothed belt & Flat belt).
 Gear drive.
 Chain drive.

Exhaust gas turbines:-

 Axial turbine.
 Radial turbine.

 Electric motor.
 Superchargers do not suffer lag:- Superchargers have no lag
time because they are driven directly by the crankshaft, whereas
Turbochargers suffer from lag because it takes a few moments
before the exhaust gases reach a velocity that is sufficient to
drive the impeller/turbine.

 Modification of the exhaust system:- Installing a turbocharger

requires extensive modification of the exhaust system, but
superchargers can be bolted to the top or side of the engine ,
that makes them cheaper to install and easier to service and

Shutdown procedure:-
No special shutdown procedure is required with superchargers as
they are not lubricated by engine oil . They can be shut down
normally. Turbochargers must idle for about 30 seconds or so
prior to shutdown so the lubricating oil has a chance to cool down.
 It derives power from the engine itself: Crankshaft drives
superchargers so they steal some of the engine's horsepower. A
supercharger can consume as much as 20 percent of an engine's total
power output.
(But because a supercharger can generate as much as 46 percent
additional horsepower, I think the trade-off is worth it).

 An added strain on the engine: Supercharging puts an added strain

on the engine, which needs to be strong to handle the extra boost and
bigger explosions.

 An extra expense : Heavy-duty components , design complexity &

maintenance add an extra burden on the expenses.
 Despite their disadvantages, superchargers are still the most cost-
effective way to increase horsepower.

 Superchargers can result in power increase of 50 to 100 percent,

making them great for racing, towing heavy loads or just adding
excitement to the typical driving experience.

 It is a must use component in an airplanes.

 With the use of high octane premium-grade gas , I think it is a

miracle invention for speed junkies.
 Superchargers are usually lubricated with synthetic
engine oil inside the unit.
 This oil level should be checked and replaced as
specified by the vehicle or supercharger manufacturer.
 The drive belt should also be inspected and replaced as
 By connecting a centrifugal
supercharger to a turbine drive
wheel and installing it in the
exhaust path, the lost engine
horsepower is regained to
perform other work and the
combustion heat energy lost in
the engine exhaust (as much
as 40% to 50%) can be
harnessed to do useful work.
 This is the concept of a FIGURE 7-7 A turbocharger uses some of
turbocharger. the heat energy that would normally be
FIGURE 7-8 A turbine wheel is turned by the expanding exhaust gases.
 A turbocharger consists of two
chambers connected by a
center housing.
 The two chambers contain a
turbine wheel and a
compressor wheel connected
by a shaft which passes
through the center housing.

FIGURE 7-9 The exhaust drives the

turbine wheel on the left, which is
connected to the impeller wheel on the
right through a shaft. The bushings that
support the shaft are lubricated with engine
oil under pressure.
 Turbocharger response time is directly related to the
size of the turbine and compressor wheels.
 Small wheels accelerate rapidly; large wheels
accelerate slowly.
 While small wheels would seem to have an advantage
over larger ones, they may not have enough airflow
capacity for an engine.
 To minimize turbo lag, the intake and exhaust breathing
capacities of an engine must be matched to the exhaust
and intake airflow capabilities of the turbocharger.
 Both supercharged and turbocharged systems are
designed to provide a pressure greater than atmospheric
pressure in the intake manifold.
 This increased pressure forces additional amounts of air
into the combustion chamber over what would
normally be forced in by atmospheric pressure.
 This increased charge increases engine power.
 The amount of “boost” (or pressure in the intake
manifold) is measured in pounds per square inch (PSI),
in inches of mercury (in. Hg), in bars, or in
FIGURE 7-10 The unit on top of this Subaru that looks like a radiator is the
intercooler, which cools the air after it has been compressed by the turbocharger.
 A turbocharger uses exhaust gases to increase boost, which
causes the engine to make more exhaust gases, which in turn
increases the boost from the turbocharger.
 To prevent overboost and severe engine damage, most
turbocharger systems use a wastegate.
 A wastegate is a valve similar to a door that can open and
 The wastegate is a bypass valve at the exhaust inlet to the
 It allows all of the exhaust into the turbine, or it can route part
of the exhaust past the turbine to the exhaust system.
FIGURE 7-11 A wastegate
is used on the first-
generation Duramax diesel
to control maximum boost
 A relief valve vents pressurized air from the connecting
pipe between the outlet of the turbocharger and the
throttle whenever the throttle is closed during boost,
such as during shifts.
 There are two basic types of relief valves:
◦ Compressor bypass valve or CBV.
◦ Blow-off valve or BOV.
FIGURE 7-12 A blow-off valve
is used in some turbocharged
systems to relieve boost
pressure during deceleration.
FIGURE 7-13 A dual turbocharger system installed
on a small-block Chevrolet V-8 engine.
 When turbochargers fail to function correctly, a drop in
power is noticed.
 To restore proper operation, the turbocharger must be
rebuilt, repaired, or replaced.
 It is not possible to simply remove the turbocharger,
seal any openings, and still maintain decent
1. Volumetric efficiency is a comparison of the actual
volume of air–fuel mixture drawn into the engine to
the theoretical maximum volume that can be drawn
into the cylinder.
2. A supercharger operates from the engine by a drive
belt and, while it does consume some engine power, it
forces a greater amount of air into the cylinders for
even more power.
3. A turbocharger uses the normally wasted heat energy
of the exhaust to turn an impeller at high speed. The
impeller is linked to a turbine wheel on the same shaft
and is used to force air into the engine.
4. There are two types of superchargers: roots-type and
5. A bypass valve is used to control the boost pressure on
most factory-installed superchargers.
6. An intercooler is used on many turbocharged and some
supercharged engines to reduce the temperature of air
entering the engine for increased power.
7. A wastegate is used on most turbocharger systems to
limit and control boost pressures, as well as a relief
valve, to keep the speed of the turbine wheel from
slowing down during engine deceleration.