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ADVERB CLAUSE

is a subordinate clause used to modify a verb, an adjective


or an adverb in the main clause. It may also be used to
modify the main clause as a whole

*Anugrawan walks as if he is dancing (the underlined


modifies the verb)
*Yudith was wet because he walked in the rain.
*Rachmat talked so loudly that he annoyed the guests.
* Unless the strike is called off, the workers will remain idle.
A list of conjunctions used to introduce
adverb clause of various types:
• Time : after, as, as soon as, before, since, until, whenever, while.
• Place : where, wherever
• Manner : as, as if, as though
• Comparison: as, than, so….as, as…..as
• Purpose: in order that, so that
• Result: and so, so, so…..that
• Condition : If, provide, provided that, unless
• Concession : although, even if, though
• Cause or reason: as, because, since
The teacher came earlier than he normally does:……
Virgantyo studies hard so that he may pass the test:….
I will help you even though I am tired:….
I will read the book if I have the time.:…..
Harida is so tired that he can hardly open his eyes:….
Some conjunctions can be used to introduce more
than one type of adverb clause: ex (since =
time/reason) The other examples:
* The child called out when/because the mother was
walking away.
• We have not washed ourselves because the PUB has
cut off the water supply
• The PUB has cut off the water supply, since then, We
have not washed ourselves
If so, and so or and is used, a comma is
usually placed before the conjunction:

• The Bandit was shot, and so he died.


• The Bandit was shot, and he died on the spot.
In sentences with Adverb Clauses of time,
the tenses of the verbs used are as follows:

• I helped her when she was very busy


(Past tense + Past tense)
• I will help/always help her when she is
busy (Present/future+Present tense)
• Please help me after you have helped her
(present tense+Present perfect)
In sentences with Adverb Clauses of
purpose that begin with so that or in order
that , the tenses of the verbs used are as
follows:

• He comes early so that he can get a seat (present tense


+ VP with can;will;shall;may)
• He has come early in order that he may impress you
(Present perfect+ VP may)
• He is coming early so that you may be impressed
(present progressive+VP May)
• He came early so that he could impress you (Past tens +
VP could;would;should;might)
CONDITIONALS (Adverb Clauses of condition). The
tenses of the verb used in different types of conditionals
are as follows:
a. Conditionals that refer to situations which
sometimes occur or occurred. (Present
tense+Present tense;continuous
b. Conditionals that refer to situations which
sometimes occur or occurred.
CONDITIONALS…Continued…..

c. Conditionals that refer to possible future


occurrences (Future tense+Present, Perfect and Past)
• If they marry, they will have a happy family
• If you do it, I will never forgive you
• If you have lost your watch, daddy will buy a ne w one
• If you failed at your last attempt, you will not be awarded at your next
attempt

Main Clause VP would + VP should


• If you should tell a lie, I would never forgive you
• Should you tell a lie, I would never forgive you
CONDITIONALS…Continued…..

d. Conditionals that refer to unlikely


situations that do not exist.
(VP would;could;should;might+Past tense)

*If dad were alive, he would be very happy


*If I were you, I might buy the house
*I Singapore had the physical size of Indonesia, its history
would have been very different.
CONDITIONALS…Continued…..

e. Conditionals that refer to situations that


might have happened in the past but did
not happen. (Past Perfect + VP would have, could have,
should have or might have)
• If I had won the lottery, I could have married you

• If he had realized his mistake, he would not have


blamed you