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Gyroscope and

Presented to: Engr. Abu Bakar sb.

Group Members

 Muhammad Talha (15-ME-31)
 Faizan Rasheed (15-ME-32)
 Farhan Mehmood (15-ME-33)
 Hamza Akhtar (15-ME-34)
 Ghulam Murtaza (15-ME-35)
 Abdul Rehman (15-ME-38)

Properties of Gyroscopes
History of Gyroscopes
Applications of Gyroscopes
Types of Gyroscopes available

Counter balancing . based on the principles of conservation of angular momentum.Gyroscope WHAT IS AGYROSCOPE? DEFINITION : A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation.

no change of angular momentum will occur.Law Angular Momentum The law of conservation of angular momentum states that when no external torque acts on an object. jahangirabad institute oftechnology 5 .

1852. Pierre-Simon Laplace recommended the “machine” be used as a teaching aide. 1905 – 1908. Leon Foucault the name “gyroscope” when he uses Bohnenberger’s “machine” in an experiment involving the earth’s rotation. . 1820. The first gyroscope for marine navigation was developed by German inventor Hermann Anschutz- Kaempfe. Johann Bohnenberger created the first know gyroscope. calling it simply the “machine”.History of Gyroscopes 1817.

It is still considered a classic American toy. The “Chandler gyroscope” toy was invented by the Chandler Company in Indiana. 1991.) 1917.History of Gyroscopes(Contd. Charles Stark Draper Laboratory demonstrated one of the first MEMS or “Vibratory” gyroscopes fabricated in silicon. During World War II. the gyroscope became the prime component for aircraft and anti-aircraft gun sights. .

rotor. Gyroscope is a device consisting of a wheel. 8 automatic pilot planes. andstabilizers. according to the law of angular momentum conservation. or disc mounted on shaft so that it can spin rapidly about a spin axis which is free to alter directions.  If a torque is applied to the spin axis. the orientation of the axis is unaffected by tilting of the mounting. Gyroscope Device  As shown in figure. . Implements: Gyroscopes can be used to provide stability or maintain directions in navigation systems.

Gyroscope Parts Spin axis Initial axis of rotation is conserved Rotor Consists of a spinning mass on an axel Gimbal A gimbal is a pivoted support that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis. jahangirabad institute oftechnology 9 .

How Gyroscopes Work Mechanical Gyroscope  Spinning mass mounted on gimbals  Sensors on axis to detect rotation  Precession jahangirabad institute oftechnology 10 .

RIGIDITY 2. PRECESSION .PROPERTIES OF GYROSCOPES  Gyroscopes have two basic properties:  Rigidity and Precession These properties are defined as follows: 1.

What is Rigidity?  The axis of rotation (spin axis) of the gyro wheel tends to remain in a fixed direction in space if no force is applied to it. .

that body is said to be precessing about the secondaxis. What is precession? Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body. In other words. if the axis of rotation of a body is itself rotating about a second axis. Precision follows the right hand thumbrule. 13 .

Applications ofGyroscopes (Contd.) 2.Aircraft and aircraft autopilots rely on gyroscopes to account for changes in direction & altitude . 3.Spacecraft rely on gyroscopes for orientation while in space.

.Yaw in airplane?  The yaw axis is perpendicular to the wings and lies in the plane of the aircraft centerline  The yawing motion is being caused by the deflection of the rudder of this aircraft.

to the left or right of its direction of motion. .How Plane turn? A yaw rotation is a movement around the yaw axis of a rigid body that changes the direction it is pointing.

 The rotor or gyro can be electrically or vacuum / pressure driven by a special pump on the engine.Gyroscope in plane  In aircraft instruments. compass and turn coordinators. gyros are used in attitude.  These instruments contain a wheel or rotor rotating at a high RPM which gives it two important properties: rigidity and precession. .

• The enclosed ball beneath the airplane icon is the slip indicator. and indicates any side-loading during the turn. . It functions exactly like a leveler.

Applications of Gyroscopes A. . some planes.Remote control flying devices. In Aeronautics andAviation:- 1. some hovercraft. etc. helicopters. rely on gyroscopes to prevent them from flipping over or going into a spin.

) Pitching (c.) Steering (b.Gyroscope are used in ships to maintain stability as the effect of gyroscopic couple is on:- (a. In Naval field 1.) B.) Rolling .Applications ofGyroscopes (Contd.

Application of Gyroscopes(Contd.Gyroscopic behaviour is used in the racing car industry. . In automobiles 1. Because of the of the gyroscopic forces from the engine depending on whether the engine is spinning clockwise or anti-clockwise the cars nose will be forced up or down. This is because car engines act just like big gyroscopes.) C.

) .Application of Gyroscope(Contd.

) 2. . Wheels on motorbikes act as gyroscopes and make the bike easier to balance (stay up right) when moving.Applications of Gyroscopes (Contd.

.Gyroscopes are used in various toys such as yo-yo.) D. Some other toy products are Gravitron and ChikyuGoma.Applications ofGyroscopes (Contd. In toys and everyday uses' 1.

computer mouses and presentation mouses.Applications ofGyroscopes (Contd.) E.Gyroscopes are used in various fields nowadays such as in smartphones. In electronics and gadgets 1. . video game controllers.

) .Applications of Gyroscopes (Contd.

when a change in direction occurs the spray is curved resulting in a change in the temperature of the coils. (Currently unpractical because of the numerous factors involved .Types of Gyroscopes available Spinning Mass Gyro Mass spins steadily within the gyro with free movables axis (gimbals). Optical Gyroscope Laser rays reflect many times within an enclosure. any changes in orientation will be registered as changes between the moment of the laser emittance to eventual reception. Vibrating Gyroscope Determines rate of turn by a vibrating resonator and its change in vibrations from the original vibrating direction. Gas Rate Gyro Sprays gas on heated coils.

) Mechanical Gyroscope A mechanical gyroscope is essentially a spinning wheel or disk whose axle is free to take any orientation. . This orientation changes much less in response to a given external torque than it would without the large angular momentum associated with the gyroscope's high rate of spin.Types of Gyroscopesavailable (Contd.

Types of Gyroscopes (Contd.) .

) .Types of Gyroscopes (Contd.

Common Uses  Gyrocompass  Used by ships to find true north  Seeks minimum potential energy  Stability Assistance  Hubble Space Telescope (into low Earth orbit in 1990)  Bicycles  Inertial Guidance System  Guided Missiles  Measure angular velocity in inertial reference frame  Detect jahangirabad changes to orientation institute oftechnology 31 .

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