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PERFORMANCE OF HYDRAULIC MACHINES

 Essential for comparison of hydraulic machines


( model & prototype)
 Δ ABC & Δ abc are similar therefore Vw/ u =
Vwu/uu and Vf/ u = Vfu/uu or Vwu / Vw = Vfu/ Vf
INLET VEL TRIANGLE FOR UNIT HEAD
=uu / u c
 Power supplied =ρgQH & work done/sec
=ρQVwu Vu
Vfu
 Since efficiency remains unchanged Vwu/(gH) Vru
α θ
a uu
= Vwuuu/(gHu) or Vwuu/H=Vwuuu; since Hu =1 b
Vwu
 Therefore Vw/Vwu = uuH/u
 uuH/u=u/uu ; uu = u/√H C
 Vfu/Vf= uu/u =1/√H ; or Vfu=Vf /√H V Vf
 Since u=πDN/60 and uu = πDuNu/60; hence
uu/u = Nu /N Vr
α θ
 Therefore Nu = N/√H (UNIT SPEED) A u B
Vw
INLET VEL TRIANGLE FOR HEAD H
PERFORMANCE OF HYDRAULIC MACHINES

 Discharge Q = Area of Flow x velocity = π*B*D*Vf


 For unit discharge Qu = π*B*D*Vfu
 Qu/Q= Vfu/Vf = 1/√H or Qu = Q/√H ( UNIT
DISCHARGE )
 Efficiency ηo = P/(wQH) therefore Power developed
P = wQH ηo
 Also Pu = wQuHu ηou ; therefore Pu/P = Qu/(QH) =
(1/√H) *(1/H)= 1/H3/2
 Pu = P/H3/2 (UNIT POWER)
QUESTIONS

 A Francis turbine works under a head of 5 m and produces


70kW. The discharge through the turbine is 1.5 m3/sec and the
speed is 180 rpm. Find the unit quantities & the new values of
speed, discharge & power, when the head increases to 15 m.
 H1 = 5 m ; P1 = 70 kW; Q1 = 1.5 m3/sec ; N1 = 180 rpm
 Nu = N1/√H1 = 180/√5 = 80.50
 Qu = Q1/ √H1 = 1.5/√5 = 0.671
 Pu = P1/H13/2 = 70/53/2 = 6.26
 Q =Qu√H2 = 0.671*√15 = 2.6 m3/sec
 N=Nu √H2 = 80.50 * √15 = 311.80 rpm
 P = Pu *(H2)3/2 = 6.26 * (15)3/2 = 363.7 kW
QUESTIONS

 A Pelton wheel develops 5520 kW under a head of 240 m with


an overall efficiency of 83 % when revolving at a speed of 200
rpm. Find the unit quantities. If the head on the same turbine
during off season falls to 150 m then find the discharge, power
& speed for this head.
 Nu = N1/√H1= 200/√240 =12.91
 Q1 = P1/(ρgη0H1)=5520 x 103/(103 x 9.81 x 0.83 x 240) = 2.82
 Qu = Q1/ √H1 = 2.82/√240 = 0.182
 Pu = P1/ H13/2 = 5520/2403/2 =1.485
 P2 = Pu * H23/2 = 1.485 * 150 3/2 =2727.50 kW
 Q2 = Qu √H2 = 2.23 m3/sec
 N2=Nu√H2 = 158 rpm
MODEL TESTING OF TURBO MACHINES

 Q/(ND3) >>>> FLOW COEFF


 P/(ρD5N3)>>>>>> SPECIFIC POWER OR POWER COEFF
 H/(D2N2) >>>>>> SPECIFIC HEAD
 FLOW COEFFICIENT
 Q= AREA * VELOCITY OF FLOW
 Q=πD*B*Vf ; since B α D THEN Q α D2Vf
 Since Vf = ψ√(2gH) where ψis the flow ratio ; u=Ku√(2gH) where Ku is
the speed ratio ; Vf α u
 u= πDN/60 ; hence Vf α u α DN
 Q α D2(DN) or Q α D3N
 Q/(D3N) = constant
 For model testing [Q/(D3N)]m = [Q/(D3N)]p
MODEL TESTING OF TURBO MACHINES

 P/(ρD5N3)>>>>>> SPECIFIC POWER OR POWER COEFF


 P= wQH or P=ρgQH therefore P α ρQH

 Also Vf α u α √H and u α DN ; therefore √H α DN or H


α D2N2
 Also earlier we have found that Q α D3N

 Hence P α ρD3N (D2N2)

 Therefore P/(ρD5N3) = constant

 For model testing [P/(ρD5N3)]m = [P/(ρD5N3)]p


MODEL TESTING OF TURBO MACHINES

 H/(D2N2) >>>>>> SPECIFIC HEAD


 u= πDN/60 ; also u α √H

 Hence u α √H α DN

 Therefore √H α DN or H/(D2N2) = constant

 For model testing [H/(D2N2)]m = [H/(D2N2)]p


SIMILARITIES BETWEEN MODEL & PROTOTYPE

 SPEED : u = πdn/60 α √h ; V = πDN/60 α √H ; therefore


N/n = d/D * √(H/h)
 DISCHARGE: q = π d b vf ; since d α b hence q = π d2 vf ;
since vf α √h therefore q α d2√h ; similarly Q α D2√H ;
ratio Q/q = [D/d]2 * √(H/h)
 POWER: p =w*q*h ; since q α d2√h ; hence p α d2√h
*(h) ; also P α D2√H *(H) ; therefore
P/p = [D/d]2 * [H/h]3/2
SPECIFIC SPEED OF TURBINE

 USED TO COMPARE TURBINES OF DIFFERENT TYPES


 THE SPECIFIC TURBINE IS AN IMAGINARY TURBINE
IDENTICAL IN SHAPE, GEOMETRICAL PROPORTION,
BLADE ANGLES, GATE SETTING ETC; WITH THE
ACTUAL TURBINE BUT REDUCED TO SUCH A SIZE
THAT IT WILL DEVELOP ONE KILOWATT POWER
UNDER UNIT HEAD.
SPECIFIC SPEED OF TURBINE

 P = η0(ρgQH) hence P α QH
 u α DN and Vf α u α √H therefore D α (√H)/N
 Q = Area x velocity = π*B * D * Vf
 Since B α D ; therefore Q α D2 √H or Q α (H/N2)*(√H)
 Q α H3/2/N2 therefore P α (H3/2/N2) * H
 Therefore P α (H5/2/N2) or P = constant * (H5/2/N2)
 According to definition N=Ns if P= 1 kW & H = 1.0 m ;
constant = Ns2 or Ns = N√P/(H5/4)
 In model testing [N√P/(H5/4)]m = [N√P/(H5/4)]p
SPECIFIC SPEED OF PUMP

 SPEED IN RPM OF A GEOMETRICALLY SIMILAR PUMP


OF SUCH SIZE THAT UNDER CORRESPONDING
CONDITIONS IT WOULD DELIVER 1 M3 PER SECOND
AGAINST A HEAD OF 1.0 METRE
 Q= π*D*B*Vf ; SINCE B α D HENCE Q α D2Vf
 ALSO u α Vf α √H α DN ; THEREFORE D α √H/N
 Q α (H/N2 ) * (√H) OR Q = CONSTANT * (H3/2/N2)
 N=NS IF H= 1.0 m AND Q = 1.0 m3/sec ; CONSTANT =
NS2
 SPECIFIC SPEED OF PUMP NS = (N√Q)/H3/4
 IN MODEL TESTING [(N√Q)/H3/4]m = [(N√Q)/H3/4]p
QUESTIONS

 A centrifugal pump was tested in the laboratory by 1:8 model.


It consumed 5 kW under a head of 5 m at 450 rpm. If the
prototype is to work at 80 m head determine its power, speed
and discharge ratio.
 Speed of the prototype : [√H/(DN)] m = [√H/(DN)] p

 Np = √(Hp/Hm) * Dm/Dp * Nm = √(80/5) * 1/8 * 450 = 225 rpm


 Power developed by the prototype: [P/(D5N3)]m = [P/(D5N3)]p
 Pp = Pm * (Dp/Dm)5 * (Np/Nm)3 = 5 * 85 * (225/450)3 = 20480 kW
 Discharge Ratio : [Q/(D3N)]m = [Q/(D3N)]p
 Qp / Qm = (Dp/Dm)3 * (Np/Nm) = 83 * 225/450 = 256
QUESTIONS

 A centrifugal pump discharges water at the rate of 0.167


m3/sec at 2000 rpm under a head of 100 m and consumes 300
kW power. A 1:5 scale model is to run at 1500 rpm. Determine
its power, discharge and head.
 Discharge Ratio : [Q/(D3N)]m = [Q/(D3N)]p
 Qm = Qp * (Dm/Dp)3 * (Nm/Np) = 0.167 * (1/5)3 * (1500/2000) =0.001
m3/sec
 Power Ratio : [P/(D5N3)]m = [P/(D5N3)]p
 Pm = Pp * (Dm/Dp)5 * (Nm/Np)3 = 300 * (1/5)5 * (1500/2000)3 =0.0405
kW
 Speed Ratio : [√H/(DN)] m = [√H/(DN)] p
 Hm = (Dm/Dp)2 * (Nm/Np)2 * Hp = (1/5)2 * (1500/2000)2 * 100 =2.25 m
QUESTIONS

 A model of Kaplan turbine 1/12 of the actual turbine is tested under a head
of 3.0 m. The head of the proto-turbine is 7.5 m . The proto-turbine ifs
designed to produce 6000 kW at a speed of 150 rpm at an efficiency of 83
%. Find the speed , power and specific speed of the model.
 Speed Ratio : [√H/(DN)] m = [√H/(DN)] p

 Nm = (Hm/Hp)1/2 * (Dp/Dm) * Np = (3 / 7.5)1/2 * (12) * 150 = 1138.42 rpm

 Discharge Ratio : [Q/(D3N)]m = [Q/(D3N)]p

 Qm = (Dm/Dp)3 * (Nm/Np) * Qp ; Qp = Pp/(ρgη0Hp) =98.25 m3/sec

 Qm = (1/12)3 * (1138.42/150)*98.25 = 0.432 m3/sec

 Power Ratio : [P/(D5N3)]m = [P/(D5N3)]p

 Pm = (Dm/Dp)5 * (Nm/Np)3 * Pp = (1/12)5 * ( 1138.42/150)3 * 6000 =


10.54 kW
 Specific Speed = N√P/(H5/4) = 150 * √6000/(7.55/4) = 936