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HYDRAULIC MACHINES

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( model & prototype)

Δ ABC & Δ abc are similar therefore Vw/ u =

Vwu/uu and Vf/ u = Vfu/uu or Vwu / Vw = Vfu/ Vf

INLET VEL TRIANGLE FOR UNIT HEAD

=uu / u c

Power supplied =ρgQH & work done/sec

=ρQVwu Vu

Vfu

Since efficiency remains unchanged Vwu/(gH) Vru

α θ

a uu

= Vwuuu/(gHu) or Vwuu/H=Vwuuu; since Hu =1 b

Vwu

Therefore Vw/Vwu = uuH/u

uuH/u=u/uu ; uu = u/√H C

Vfu/Vf= uu/u =1/√H ; or Vfu=Vf /√H V Vf

Since u=πDN/60 and uu = πDuNu/60; hence

uu/u = Nu /N Vr

α θ

Therefore Nu = N/√H (UNIT SPEED) A u B

Vw

INLET VEL TRIANGLE FOR HEAD H

PERFORMANCE OF HYDRAULIC MACHINES

For unit discharge Qu = π*B*D*Vfu

Qu/Q= Vfu/Vf = 1/√H or Qu = Q/√H ( UNIT

DISCHARGE )

Efficiency ηo = P/(wQH) therefore Power developed

P = wQH ηo

Also Pu = wQuHu ηou ; therefore Pu/P = Qu/(QH) =

(1/√H) *(1/H)= 1/H3/2

Pu = P/H3/2 (UNIT POWER)

QUESTIONS

70kW. The discharge through the turbine is 1.5 m3/sec and the

speed is 180 rpm. Find the unit quantities & the new values of

speed, discharge & power, when the head increases to 15 m.

H1 = 5 m ; P1 = 70 kW; Q1 = 1.5 m3/sec ; N1 = 180 rpm

Nu = N1/√H1 = 180/√5 = 80.50

Qu = Q1/ √H1 = 1.5/√5 = 0.671

Pu = P1/H13/2 = 70/53/2 = 6.26

Q =Qu√H2 = 0.671*√15 = 2.6 m3/sec

N=Nu √H2 = 80.50 * √15 = 311.80 rpm

P = Pu *(H2)3/2 = 6.26 * (15)3/2 = 363.7 kW

QUESTIONS

an overall efficiency of 83 % when revolving at a speed of 200

rpm. Find the unit quantities. If the head on the same turbine

during off season falls to 150 m then find the discharge, power

& speed for this head.

Nu = N1/√H1= 200/√240 =12.91

Q1 = P1/(ρgη0H1)=5520 x 103/(103 x 9.81 x 0.83 x 240) = 2.82

Qu = Q1/ √H1 = 2.82/√240 = 0.182

Pu = P1/ H13/2 = 5520/2403/2 =1.485

P2 = Pu * H23/2 = 1.485 * 150 3/2 =2727.50 kW

Q2 = Qu √H2 = 2.23 m3/sec

N2=Nu√H2 = 158 rpm

MODEL TESTING OF TURBO MACHINES

P/(ρD5N3)>>>>>> SPECIFIC POWER OR POWER COEFF

H/(D2N2) >>>>>> SPECIFIC HEAD

FLOW COEFFICIENT

Q= AREA * VELOCITY OF FLOW

Q=πD*B*Vf ; since B α D THEN Q α D2Vf

Since Vf = ψ√(2gH) where ψis the flow ratio ; u=Ku√(2gH) where Ku is

the speed ratio ; Vf α u

u= πDN/60 ; hence Vf α u α DN

Q α D2(DN) or Q α D3N

Q/(D3N) = constant

For model testing [Q/(D3N)]m = [Q/(D3N)]p

MODEL TESTING OF TURBO MACHINES

P= wQH or P=ρgQH therefore P α ρQH

α D2N2

Also earlier we have found that Q α D3N

MODEL TESTING OF TURBO MACHINES

u= πDN/60 ; also u α √H

Hence u α √H α DN

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN MODEL & PROTOTYPE

N/n = d/D * √(H/h)

DISCHARGE: q = π d b vf ; since d α b hence q = π d2 vf ;

since vf α √h therefore q α d2√h ; similarly Q α D2√H ;

ratio Q/q = [D/d]2 * √(H/h)

POWER: p =w*q*h ; since q α d2√h ; hence p α d2√h

*(h) ; also P α D2√H *(H) ; therefore

P/p = [D/d]2 * [H/h]3/2

SPECIFIC SPEED OF TURBINE

THE SPECIFIC TURBINE IS AN IMAGINARY TURBINE

IDENTICAL IN SHAPE, GEOMETRICAL PROPORTION,

BLADE ANGLES, GATE SETTING ETC; WITH THE

ACTUAL TURBINE BUT REDUCED TO SUCH A SIZE

THAT IT WILL DEVELOP ONE KILOWATT POWER

UNDER UNIT HEAD.

SPECIFIC SPEED OF TURBINE

P = η0(ρgQH) hence P α QH

u α DN and Vf α u α √H therefore D α (√H)/N

Q = Area x velocity = π*B * D * Vf

Since B α D ; therefore Q α D2 √H or Q α (H/N2)*(√H)

Q α H3/2/N2 therefore P α (H3/2/N2) * H

Therefore P α (H5/2/N2) or P = constant * (H5/2/N2)

According to definition N=Ns if P= 1 kW & H = 1.0 m ;

constant = Ns2 or Ns = N√P/(H5/4)

In model testing [N√P/(H5/4)]m = [N√P/(H5/4)]p

SPECIFIC SPEED OF PUMP

OF SUCH SIZE THAT UNDER CORRESPONDING

CONDITIONS IT WOULD DELIVER 1 M3 PER SECOND

AGAINST A HEAD OF 1.0 METRE

Q= π*D*B*Vf ; SINCE B α D HENCE Q α D2Vf

ALSO u α Vf α √H α DN ; THEREFORE D α √H/N

Q α (H/N2 ) * (√H) OR Q = CONSTANT * (H3/2/N2)

N=NS IF H= 1.0 m AND Q = 1.0 m3/sec ; CONSTANT =

NS2

SPECIFIC SPEED OF PUMP NS = (N√Q)/H3/4

IN MODEL TESTING [(N√Q)/H3/4]m = [(N√Q)/H3/4]p

QUESTIONS

It consumed 5 kW under a head of 5 m at 450 rpm. If the

prototype is to work at 80 m head determine its power, speed

and discharge ratio.

Speed of the prototype : [√H/(DN)] m = [√H/(DN)] p

Power developed by the prototype: [P/(D5N3)]m = [P/(D5N3)]p

Pp = Pm * (Dp/Dm)5 * (Np/Nm)3 = 5 * 85 * (225/450)3 = 20480 kW

Discharge Ratio : [Q/(D3N)]m = [Q/(D3N)]p

Qp / Qm = (Dp/Dm)3 * (Np/Nm) = 83 * 225/450 = 256

QUESTIONS

m3/sec at 2000 rpm under a head of 100 m and consumes 300

kW power. A 1:5 scale model is to run at 1500 rpm. Determine

its power, discharge and head.

Discharge Ratio : [Q/(D3N)]m = [Q/(D3N)]p

Qm = Qp * (Dm/Dp)3 * (Nm/Np) = 0.167 * (1/5)3 * (1500/2000) =0.001

m3/sec

Power Ratio : [P/(D5N3)]m = [P/(D5N3)]p

Pm = Pp * (Dm/Dp)5 * (Nm/Np)3 = 300 * (1/5)5 * (1500/2000)3 =0.0405

kW

Speed Ratio : [√H/(DN)] m = [√H/(DN)] p

Hm = (Dm/Dp)2 * (Nm/Np)2 * Hp = (1/5)2 * (1500/2000)2 * 100 =2.25 m

QUESTIONS

A model of Kaplan turbine 1/12 of the actual turbine is tested under a head

of 3.0 m. The head of the proto-turbine is 7.5 m . The proto-turbine ifs

designed to produce 6000 kW at a speed of 150 rpm at an efficiency of 83

%. Find the speed , power and specific speed of the model.

Speed Ratio : [√H/(DN)] m = [√H/(DN)] p

10.54 kW

Specific Speed = N√P/(H5/4) = 150 * √6000/(7.55/4) = 936

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