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Introduction of Skin and fascia

Dr. Navneet Kumar
Professor (Anatomy)

Introduction of structures met in
dissection
• Skin
• Superficial fascia
• Artery, Vein ,Nerve
• Deep fascia
• Muscles
• Bones
• joints

Dr. Navneet Kumar
Professor (Anatomy

Dr. Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy .

Dr. .Deep Fascia. Objectives Introduction to Skin. Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy .  Fascia.Superficial Fascia .

Dr. Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy .

Skin Structure of skin. Dr. Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy .  Functions of skin.  Appendages of skin.

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. Structure of the skin Epidermis Dermis  Connective tissue containing  Keratinized stratified (bl. hair devoid of blood vessels follicles. smooth m. v. sensory nerve squamous epithelium endings. lymph v. sweat and sebaceous glands)  In its deep part the collagen bundles are arranged in parallel rows Dr. Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy .

Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy . Skin • Layers of skin • Epidermis • Five type of layers • Dermis • Two type of layers Junction • Dermal papilla • Epidermal peg (rete pegs) Dr.

Stratum corneum-non Dr. spine like process. Navneet Kumar nucleated keratinized dead cells Professor (Anatomy) . Skin…. Stratum basale • Single layer of columnar cells 2. tonofilament 3. fusiform cells 5. Stratum lucidum • Homogeneous keratin. • Epidermis - 1.Stratum granulosum • Keratohyline granules 4. Stratum spinosum • Several layers of polyhedral cells.

. Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy) .Skin…. Dermis • Papillary layer • Tactile papilla • Vascular papilla • Collagen fibre • Reticular layer Collagen fibre • Sweat glands • Sebaceous glands • Hairs Dr.

Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy) .Skin…… • Thick skin -No hairs • Thin skin • Devoid of Stratum lucidum Dr.

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pressure. Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy . water loss. cold. invasion. UV protection • 2-Vitamin D synthesis • epidermal keratinocytes when exposed to UV light • helps maintain health of skeleton by increasing absorption of Ca2+ • 3-Sensation • receptors for heat. vibration and pain Dr. touch. Functions of the Skin • 1-Protection • abrasion.

Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy .• 4.Thermoregulation • thermo receptors and sweat glands • hypothalamus controls cutaneous arteries and sweat glands to retain or dissipate heat • 5.Psychological and social functions • appearance and social acceptance • facial expression and nonverbal communication Dr.

Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy) . The appendages of the skin • Nails • Hairs • Sebaceous glands • Sweat glands Dr.

Dr. Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy .

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Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy . Fascia Collection of connective tissue Superficial fascia Deep fascia Dr.

• It unites the skin to the underlying structures. • It is dense in some places as scalp. Superficial fascia Superficial fascia: • Loose. auricle. palm of hand and sole of foot and contains collagen bundles • It is thin in the eyelids. • Passage for cutaneous vessels. scrotum. penis and clitoris (devoid of adipose tissue). mixture of adipose and loose areolar tissues. Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy) . Functions: • Facilitates movement of skin over underlying structures. Dr. nerves… Protects the body against heat loss.

Superficial fascia .

Superficial Fascia • Site with Very less fat -Eyelids -Pinna -Penis • Site with more fat .Abdomen -Gluteal region Dr.Breast . Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy) .

Deep fascia It is more dense than superficial fascia Collagenous bundles are more compact and more regularly arranged It is usually present in the form of membranes Dr. Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy) .

Investing fascia • Covers the surfaces of muscles • In the neck: it forms well-defined layers. bounds fascial spaces so limits spread of infection or determine the path of infection • In the abdomen: it is thin • In the limbs: forms a definite sheath around the muscles • Dr. Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy) • . Examples of deep fascia A.

Examples of deep fascia……….. Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy . B. Inter muscular septa lie between muscles dividing the limb into compartments Dr.

Examples of deep fascia………. Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy) .. C. prevent bowstringing of tendon Dr. hold the tendons in place. Retinacula Localized thickening of deep fascia around joints.

eg. Carotid sheath Axillary sheath • Fibrous capsule -eg Parotid capsule • Ligaments Dr.Examples of deep fascia……….. • Fibrous sheath . Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy) .

Navneet Kumar Professor (Anatomy) . Absence of deep fascia • Face • Breast • Penis • Anterior abdominal wall • Dr.