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The Measures of Central

Tendency
MS. ANTONETTE C. TORREDA
MPS-DEPARTMENT
The Measures of Central Tendency
1. Mean
• Ungrouped
• Grouped
2. Median
• Ungrouped
• Grouped
3. Mode
• Ungrouped
• Grouped
MEAN FOR UNGROUPED DATA
• The sum of the values divided by the number
of values--often called the "average."
• Add all of the values together.
• Divide by the number of values to obtain the
mean.
• Example: The mean of 7, 12, 24, 20, 19 is
• (7 + 12 + 24 + 20 + 19) / 5 = 16.4
Arithmetic Mean

X
∑ Xi
n
3.
4. A savings and loan association makes
one car loan of P5000 at 10.5% interest,
a second car loan of P6300 at 10.8%
interest, and a third car loan of P4500 at
11% interest. What is the average
percentage return to the savings and
loan association for these three loans?
MEDIAN FOR UNGROUPED DATA
MEDIAN
 The value which divides the values into two
equal halves, with half of the values being lower
than the median and half higher than the
median.
 The middlemost value in the list of items
arranged in increasing or decreasing order.

Properties of Median:
 It is the value midway between the highest and
the lowest value in a rank order distribution.
 It is the point that divides the distribution into
two equal parts.
To find the median:
1. Sort the values into ascending order.
2. If you have an odd number of values, the
median is the middle value.
3. If you have an even number of values, the
median is the arithmetic mean of the two
middle values.
Example: A. 7, 12, 24, 20, 19
B. 12, 23, 18, 15, 24, 30
MODE
MODE
 the most frequently-occurring value (or values).
 the value that appears most often.

To find the Mode:


 Calculate the frequencies for all of the values in the
data.
 The mode is the value (or values) with the highest
frequency.
Example:
For individuals having the following ages –
18, 18, 19, 20, 20, 20, 21, 23
Three types of Mode:
 Unimodal – a distribution of only one mode
Ex. 7, 3, 9, 7, 2, 1, 4, 7
 Bimodal – a distribution of two modes
Ex. 1, 2, 8, 5, 1, 2, 4, 9, 6
 Trimodal – a distribution of two modes
Ex. 9, 4, 6, 4, 1, 5, 1, 7, 9, 2, 3,
A. A teacher gives a 20-point test to 10 students, whose scores are
shown below:
12, 14, 10, 19, 8, 11, 9, 18, 7, 20
Solve for the following:
1. MEAN 2. MEDIAN 3. Mode
Long quiz
Sept. 11, 2017
MEAN FOR GROUPED DATA
Method A
n
 fixi
x  i1
where: n
x - mean
f – frequency
x – midpoint of each class
n – total number of observations
Frequency Distribution of the Grades of 30 students in
College Algebra

GRADES f

70 – 74 3
75 – 79 5
80 – 84 12
85 – 89 8
90 – 94 2
n=30
Method B
  fd 
x  x'   i

 n 
Where:
x - Mean
x '- Assumed Mean or Guessed Mean
f – frequency
d – unit coded deviation from the x'
i – interval size
n – total number of observations
Method C

x  x'
 fd
n
Where:
x - Mean
x ' - Assumed Mean or Guessed Mean
f – frequency
d – deviation of the x ' from each x of
the classes (x - x ')
n – total number of observations
MEDIAN
Median Class – is the class interval containing the
median. [n/2]
 n  cf  
 
Mdn  Lm   2 i
 fm 
 
where:
mdn – median
n
- median class location/position
2
Lm - lower boundary of the median class

fm - freq. of the median class


cf< - cumulative frequency adjacent below the
median class
Modal class – the class interval with the highest
frequency
  1 
X  Lmo   i
 1   2 
Lmo = lower boundary of the modal class
Δ1 = difference between the modal class
frequency and the frequency of the next
lower interval.
Δ2 = difference between the modal class
frequency and the frequency of the next
higher interval.
Below shows the amount of calcium (in millilitres)
for a variety of fresh milk ready for distribution.

23 30 20 27 44 26 35 20 29 29
25 15 18 27 19 22 12 26 34 15
27 35 26 43 35 14 24 12 23 31
40 35 38 57 22 42 24 21 27 33
Construct the following:
1. Frequency Distribution Table using 6 classes.
2. Solve for the ff.:
a. Mean (using the 3 methods)
b. Median
c. Mode
Assignment:
Below shows the amount of calcium (in millilitres)
for a variety of fresh milk ready for distribution.
23 30 20 27 44 26 35 20 29 29
25 15 18 27 19 22 12 26 34 15
27 35 26 43 35 14 24 12 23 31
40 35 38 57 22 42 24 21 27 33
Construct the following:
1. Frequency Distribution Table using 6 classes.
2. Frequency polygon
3. Frequency Histogram
4. Ogive Curve
5. Pie Chart
CALCIUM Class
(ml) f X boundaries rf % Cf< Cf>

12-19 7 15.5 11.5-19.5 7/40 18 7 40


20-27 17 23.5 19.5-27.5 17/40 43 24 33
28-35 10 31.5 27.5-35.5 ¼ 25 34 16
36-43 4 39.5 35.5-43.5 1/10 10 38 6
44-51 1 47.5 43.5-51.5 1/40 3 39 2
52-59 1 55.5 51.5-59.5 1/40 3 40 1
n=40
Frequency Distribution for the operating life of laptop
computer batteries
Class
f x
Interval
125 - 130 13
131 – 136 11
137 – 142 4
143 – 148 8
149 – 154 1
155 – 160 2
161 - 166 1
N = 40
Solve for the ff:
1. Mean (using the 3 methods)
2. Median
3. Mode
A B C
136.95 136.95
MEASURES OF LOCATION
1. MEDIAN
2. QUANTILES
QUANTILES – are also average of position or
location of the desired item.
(n/2, n/4, 3n/4,n/10, n/100…)
1. Quartiles
2. Deciles
3. Percentiles
QUANTILES FOR UNGROUPED DATA
Quantiles are also measures of location that measures:
Below are the reading temperature in 12 cities in the
country during summer:

72, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79, 82, 85, 86, 90, 93, 94

Solve the following:


1. Decile 3 2. Decile 5 3. Decile 8
4. Percentile 25 5. Percentile 75 6. Percentile 85.5
QUANTILES FOR GROUPED DATA
 n  cf  
Q1  LQ1   4 i
 fQ 
 1 

 n  cf  
D1  LD1   10 i
 fD 
 1 

 n  cf  
P1  LP1   100 i
 fP1 
 
Assignment: 1whole short bond paper
A. A teacher gives a 20-point test to 10 students, whose scores are
shown below:
12, 14, 10, 19, 8, 11, 9, 18, 7, 20
Solve for the following:
1. QUARTILE 1 2. Quartile 3 3. DECILE 7 4. PERCENTILE 76
Class f
Interval
B. Solve for the following: (show the
53 - 57 1
table with necessary data column)
48 - 52 2
1. Q1
43 - 47 6
2. Q3
38 - 42 10
3. D3
4. D8 33 - 37 14

5. P70 28 - 32 13

6. P90 23 - 27 7
18 - 22 5
n = 58
Answers:
A. 1. Mean = 12.8 Q3 = 18.25
2. Mdn = 11.5 P20 = 18.25
3. none
4. Q1 = 8.75 8. P76 = 18.36
5. D7 = 16.8 7. MAD = 4.4
6. s2 = 22.4 s = 4.73
9. MAD = 4.4
10. QD = 4.75
Answers:

B. 1. mean = 34.14 Q1 = 28.46


2. median= 33.93 D3 = 39.75
3. mode = 33.5 P70 = 38.3
4. Q3 = 39.75
5. D8 = 41.2
6. P90 = 45.17 7. MAD = 6.41
8. QD =
Class f X fx d fd fd2 cf< f/x - x /
Interv
al
53 - 57 1 55 55 7 7 49 58 20.86

48 - 52 2 50 100 6 12 72 57 31.72

43 - 47 6 45 270 5 30 150 55 65.16

38 - 42 10 40 400 4 40 160 49 58.6

33 - 37 14 35 490 3 42 126 39 12.04

28 - 32 13 30 390 2 26 52 25 53.82

23 - 27 7 25 175 1 7 7 12 63.98

18 - 22 5 20 100 0 0 0 5 70.7

N = 58 1980
Long Quiz 2:
A. A teacher gives a 20-point test to 10 students, whose
scores are shown below:
12, 14, 10, 19, 8, 11, 9, 18, 7, 20
Solve for the following:

B. The following are the scores of 30 students in their


second quiz in statistics.
45 38 49 22 22 34
37 44 27 28 38 35
24 49 37 33 26 43
37 29 40 39 37 30
26 41 20 36 46 35
Long Quiz 2:
A. A teacher gives a 20-point test to 10 students, whose
scores are shown below:
12, 14, 10, 19, 8, 11, 9, 18, 7, 20m
1. Mean 2. Median 3. Mode 4. QD 5. MAD 6. s / s2
B. Solve for the following:
Class f Solve for:
Interval
20 – 25 4
1. Mean (using 3 methods)
2. Median
26 – 31 6
3. Mode
32 – 37 9 4. Quartile one
38 – 43 6
5. Decile Six
6. Standard Deviation and Variance
44 - 49 5
(use 2 methods)
N = 30 7. Coefficient of variation
Class f X fx d fd fd2 cf<
Interval
20 – 25 4 22.5 90

26 – 31 6 28.5 171

32 – 37 9 34.5 310.5

38 – 43 6 40.5 243

44 - 49 5 46.5 232.5

N = 30 1980