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Tendency

MS. ANTONETTE C. TORREDA

MPS-DEPARTMENT

The Measures of Central Tendency

1. Mean

• Ungrouped

• Grouped

2. Median

• Ungrouped

• Grouped

3. Mode

• Ungrouped

• Grouped

MEAN FOR UNGROUPED DATA

• The sum of the values divided by the number

of values--often called the "average."

• Add all of the values together.

• Divide by the number of values to obtain the

mean.

• Example: The mean of 7, 12, 24, 20, 19 is

• (7 + 12 + 24 + 20 + 19) / 5 = 16.4

Arithmetic Mean

X

∑ Xi

n

3.

4. A savings and loan association makes

one car loan of P5000 at 10.5% interest,

a second car loan of P6300 at 10.8%

interest, and a third car loan of P4500 at

11% interest. What is the average

percentage return to the savings and

loan association for these three loans?

MEDIAN FOR UNGROUPED DATA

MEDIAN

The value which divides the values into two

equal halves, with half of the values being lower

than the median and half higher than the

median.

The middlemost value in the list of items

arranged in increasing or decreasing order.

Properties of Median:

It is the value midway between the highest and

the lowest value in a rank order distribution.

It is the point that divides the distribution into

two equal parts.

To find the median:

1. Sort the values into ascending order.

2. If you have an odd number of values, the

median is the middle value.

3. If you have an even number of values, the

median is the arithmetic mean of the two

middle values.

Example: A. 7, 12, 24, 20, 19

B. 12, 23, 18, 15, 24, 30

MODE

MODE

the most frequently-occurring value (or values).

the value that appears most often.

Calculate the frequencies for all of the values in the

data.

The mode is the value (or values) with the highest

frequency.

Example:

For individuals having the following ages –

18, 18, 19, 20, 20, 20, 21, 23

Three types of Mode:

Unimodal – a distribution of only one mode

Ex. 7, 3, 9, 7, 2, 1, 4, 7

Bimodal – a distribution of two modes

Ex. 1, 2, 8, 5, 1, 2, 4, 9, 6

Trimodal – a distribution of two modes

Ex. 9, 4, 6, 4, 1, 5, 1, 7, 9, 2, 3,

A. A teacher gives a 20-point test to 10 students, whose scores are

shown below:

12, 14, 10, 19, 8, 11, 9, 18, 7, 20

Solve for the following:

1. MEAN 2. MEDIAN 3. Mode

Long quiz

Sept. 11, 2017

MEAN FOR GROUPED DATA

Method A

n

fixi

x i1

where: n

x - mean

f – frequency

x – midpoint of each class

n – total number of observations

Frequency Distribution of the Grades of 30 students in

College Algebra

GRADES f

70 – 74 3

75 – 79 5

80 – 84 12

85 – 89 8

90 – 94 2

n=30

Method B

fd

x x' i

n

Where:

x - Mean

x '- Assumed Mean or Guessed Mean

f – frequency

d – unit coded deviation from the x'

i – interval size

n – total number of observations

Method C

x x'

fd

n

Where:

x - Mean

x ' - Assumed Mean or Guessed Mean

f – frequency

d – deviation of the x ' from each x of

the classes (x - x ')

n – total number of observations

MEDIAN

Median Class – is the class interval containing the

median. [n/2]

n cf

Mdn Lm 2 i

fm

where:

mdn – median

n

- median class location/position

2

Lm - lower boundary of the median class

cf< - cumulative frequency adjacent below the

median class

Modal class – the class interval with the highest

frequency

1

X Lmo i

1 2

Lmo = lower boundary of the modal class

Δ1 = difference between the modal class

frequency and the frequency of the next

lower interval.

Δ2 = difference between the modal class

frequency and the frequency of the next

higher interval.

Below shows the amount of calcium (in millilitres)

for a variety of fresh milk ready for distribution.

23 30 20 27 44 26 35 20 29 29

25 15 18 27 19 22 12 26 34 15

27 35 26 43 35 14 24 12 23 31

40 35 38 57 22 42 24 21 27 33

Construct the following:

1. Frequency Distribution Table using 6 classes.

2. Solve for the ff.:

a. Mean (using the 3 methods)

b. Median

c. Mode

Assignment:

Below shows the amount of calcium (in millilitres)

for a variety of fresh milk ready for distribution.

23 30 20 27 44 26 35 20 29 29

25 15 18 27 19 22 12 26 34 15

27 35 26 43 35 14 24 12 23 31

40 35 38 57 22 42 24 21 27 33

Construct the following:

1. Frequency Distribution Table using 6 classes.

2. Frequency polygon

3. Frequency Histogram

4. Ogive Curve

5. Pie Chart

CALCIUM Class

(ml) f X boundaries rf % Cf< Cf>

20-27 17 23.5 19.5-27.5 17/40 43 24 33

28-35 10 31.5 27.5-35.5 ¼ 25 34 16

36-43 4 39.5 35.5-43.5 1/10 10 38 6

44-51 1 47.5 43.5-51.5 1/40 3 39 2

52-59 1 55.5 51.5-59.5 1/40 3 40 1

n=40

Frequency Distribution for the operating life of laptop

computer batteries

Class

f x

Interval

125 - 130 13

131 – 136 11

137 – 142 4

143 – 148 8

149 – 154 1

155 – 160 2

161 - 166 1

N = 40

Solve for the ff:

1. Mean (using the 3 methods)

2. Median

3. Mode

A B C

136.95 136.95

MEASURES OF LOCATION

1. MEDIAN

2. QUANTILES

QUANTILES – are also average of position or

location of the desired item.

(n/2, n/4, 3n/4,n/10, n/100…)

1. Quartiles

2. Deciles

3. Percentiles

QUANTILES FOR UNGROUPED DATA

Quantiles are also measures of location that measures:

Below are the reading temperature in 12 cities in the

country during summer:

72, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79, 82, 85, 86, 90, 93, 94

1. Decile 3 2. Decile 5 3. Decile 8

4. Percentile 25 5. Percentile 75 6. Percentile 85.5

QUANTILES FOR GROUPED DATA

n cf

Q1 LQ1 4 i

fQ

1

n cf

D1 LD1 10 i

fD

1

n cf

P1 LP1 100 i

fP1

Assignment: 1whole short bond paper

A. A teacher gives a 20-point test to 10 students, whose scores are

shown below:

12, 14, 10, 19, 8, 11, 9, 18, 7, 20

Solve for the following:

1. QUARTILE 1 2. Quartile 3 3. DECILE 7 4. PERCENTILE 76

Class f

Interval

B. Solve for the following: (show the

53 - 57 1

table with necessary data column)

48 - 52 2

1. Q1

43 - 47 6

2. Q3

38 - 42 10

3. D3

4. D8 33 - 37 14

5. P70 28 - 32 13

6. P90 23 - 27 7

18 - 22 5

n = 58

Answers:

A. 1. Mean = 12.8 Q3 = 18.25

2. Mdn = 11.5 P20 = 18.25

3. none

4. Q1 = 8.75 8. P76 = 18.36

5. D7 = 16.8 7. MAD = 4.4

6. s2 = 22.4 s = 4.73

9. MAD = 4.4

10. QD = 4.75

Answers:

2. median= 33.93 D3 = 39.75

3. mode = 33.5 P70 = 38.3

4. Q3 = 39.75

5. D8 = 41.2

6. P90 = 45.17 7. MAD = 6.41

8. QD =

Class f X fx d fd fd2 cf< f/x - x /

Interv

al

53 - 57 1 55 55 7 7 49 58 20.86

48 - 52 2 50 100 6 12 72 57 31.72

28 - 32 13 30 390 2 26 52 25 53.82

23 - 27 7 25 175 1 7 7 12 63.98

18 - 22 5 20 100 0 0 0 5 70.7

N = 58 1980

Long Quiz 2:

A. A teacher gives a 20-point test to 10 students, whose

scores are shown below:

12, 14, 10, 19, 8, 11, 9, 18, 7, 20

Solve for the following:

second quiz in statistics.

45 38 49 22 22 34

37 44 27 28 38 35

24 49 37 33 26 43

37 29 40 39 37 30

26 41 20 36 46 35

Long Quiz 2:

A. A teacher gives a 20-point test to 10 students, whose

scores are shown below:

12, 14, 10, 19, 8, 11, 9, 18, 7, 20m

1. Mean 2. Median 3. Mode 4. QD 5. MAD 6. s / s2

B. Solve for the following:

Class f Solve for:

Interval

20 – 25 4

1. Mean (using 3 methods)

2. Median

26 – 31 6

3. Mode

32 – 37 9 4. Quartile one

38 – 43 6

5. Decile Six

6. Standard Deviation and Variance

44 - 49 5

(use 2 methods)

N = 30 7. Coefficient of variation

Class f X fx d fd fd2 cf<

Interval

20 – 25 4 22.5 90

26 – 31 6 28.5 171

32 – 37 9 34.5 310.5

38 – 43 6 40.5 243

44 - 49 5 46.5 232.5

N = 30 1980

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