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MICROCONTROLLER(8051)

BASED
NUMERICAL RELAY

Prepared by: Guided by:


Dinesh Yadav(06EE720) Mr. Ishaq Sheikh
Rahul Rana(06EE745) Miss Hinal Shah
INTRODUCTION

WHY WE DID IN THE PROJECT????


We have measured parameters like ac
Voltage, ac-current, and power factor temp and
Recorded these parameters in pc for reference
Purpose.
We have also provided protection to the
System if voltage, current, temperature are exceeding the limit
That’s why we have selected this project

Microcontroller based numerical relay


LIST OF COMPONENTS OF NUMERICAL-RELAY
PCB
• Microcontroller 89S52 40 pin dip
• LCD DISPLAY 2X16
• 12-0-12VAC TRANSFORMER/500MA
• Diodes 4007-2
• Cap 470uf/100uf
• 5v regulator 7805 with heat sink
• ceramic buzzer
• ADC0809 QTY 1
• CRYSTAL 12MH
• RES SMD 10K QTY 10
• 10UF CAP QTY 1
• LEDS QTY 1
• 10K VAR RES QTY 2
• LM358 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERx2
• TRANSISTOR BC547 QTY 2
• RELAY SPDT PCBMOUNT 7A CAP QTY1
• CLOCK GENERATOR IC CD4093
• MAX232 FOR PC INTERFACE
Microcontroller based numerical relay
Hardware
System works on 5V dc, step-down transformer
gives 12V ac, and diodes rectifies the ac input to
dc input, capacitor makes it smooth, and dc 3pin
regulator IC 7805 makes regulated 5V dc output.
LCD, microcontroller, lm35 and detectors are
working on 5V dc.

Microcontroller based numerical relay


2x16 LCD

It is used for displaying measured values of


parameters as well as set values of the
parameters it can display max 32-ascii
characters at a time
LM358 DETECTOR

Detectors are made from lm358 operational


amplifier. It works on 5vdc it takes ac signals (ac
voltage and ac current) it gives dc output which is
proportional to the ac inputs, gain of the detection
amplifier can be set using 10k variable resistor
ADC 0809

It is 8ch 8bit A/D converter, first select the channel


value using inputs ad0, ad1, ad2 then feed 100kHz
clock through CD-4093 then give start of
conversion command and read the port value and
store the value in memory as well display the value
on LCD
Measure ac voltage
Keyboard
It consists of four switches when we press the switch input
low and when it is not pressed input is high up down the
parameters or enable disable parameters using switches

Relay
The coil operates on 12V dc when the coil is
energized the load is connected to the ac line voltage
when the coil is not energized the load is
disconnected from the ac supply
Buzzer
Buzzer works on 12V dc, when supply is connected
to buzzer it sounds when supply is not connected it
does not sound
Microcontroller based numerical relay
Detail circuit

Microcontroller based numerical relay


Microcontroller based numerical relay
Software
1. We have Keil 8051 development tool to do
the programming
2. To display the readings on PC we have used
HyperTerminal software also Teraterm Pro
can also be used
3. To design the PCB a software called AGPC is
used
4. Programming is done in assembly language

Microcontroller based numerical relay


Microcontroller based numerical relay
Advantage
• It provides Protection Control & Monitoring
• It has a communication facility
• Fault history can be stored in the memory
• It has wide range of settings
• Most compact hardware size
• It does not require calibration
Disadvantage
• Software intensive
• Obsolescence rate
• Emi / emc problems
• Serial nature
Applications
It can be safely used for the protection against
overvoltage, over current protection at our homes
and also in small scale factories

Cost of the project


The cost of the project is approximately about Rs
3000
Some facts about microprocessor
based relays
• ABB & GEC alstom introduced range of
Microprocessor based relays for all unit Protections
• PGCIL goes in for microprocessor based distance
relays in India
• Many electricity boards & process plants in India
start using microprocessor based instruments
Future Scope
There are lot of future scopes
 We can add features such as storage of pre
fault and post fault history
 Inverse, very inverse type of characteristics
could be given to it
 It could be connected to GPS to know the
parameters like exact cause of blackout

Microcontroller based numerical relay


Problem with the Hardware
1. The circuit is not automatically switched ON
when the fault is cleared
2. The LED which has to glow after fault is
blinking continuously

Microcontroller based numerical relay


Conclusion
Microprocessor relays are the present
and future for the power system
protection