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Enculturation and Socialization

Society is different from culture. There

are many cultures within a society. While
members of society share many of the
same expectations and experiences, the
cultural groups create ones that
differentiate them from others in society.
•the process by which an individual adopts
the behavior patterns of the culture in
which a person is immersed

It is the process through which people
learn to understand the societal norms,
expectations and values as members of
Identity Formation

Identity formation starts when one learns to socialize and be

aware of the culture, behaviors, language, morals, and norms of
where he or she belongs in. However, as a person grows, he or
she learns to make his or her own set of beliefs, values, and
morals. This is how a person develops an identity. This is what
makes a person different from others.

Identity is what makes a person distinct from others. It is the
total knowledge and understanding of an individual about who
he or she is.
Types of Identity
1. Personal
•the concept an individual develops about himself or herself
•the sense of oneself as a distinct or unique individual
•may depend on the age and circumstances of a person
Example: Rolen is an African girl. She is the most quiet student in her class. She
believes that time is gold, so spends her free time studying her lessons.

2. Cultural
•the identity of the culture to which a person belongs in
•the feeling or sense of belongingness to a group
•a collective sense of companionship that involves the same beliefs, interests, and
fundamental principles of living
Example: In the Philippines, the Agta tribe has been practicing a unique culture for
centuries. Old men wear the bahag, a unique style of clothing. They prefer to stay in
the forest than to stay in lowlands. They mainly look for natural food sources.
•a way of behaving that expresses a willingness to obey rules or laws
•behavior that is judged by how well a person follows a set of rules or orders

Kinds of Discipline
Discipline is categorized into different types.

1. Discipline of Nature or Reality

A person meets this kind of control every time he or she tries to do
something. A person learns to do things on his or her own without the
supervision of others.
Example: Ryan rented a bicycle near his town. He does not know yet how
to ride the bike. He fell many times, but he did not stop trying. He was so
motivated to learn how to ride the bike that he tried to learn on his own,
and eventually, he was able to ride it.
2. Discipline of Culture or Society
What this discipline instills in every culture is distinct, different,
and unique. A person learns according to what he sees in his
society or his culture.
Example: Mika wears the trendiest dresses these days. She
wears them so she can be “in” with the latest social trends.
3. Discipline of Superior Force
This discipline is the opposite of the discipline of nature or reality.
In this training, a person learns through supervision and
Example: A single mother raised Patricia. Her mother always
reminded her not to fall in love because of her personal idea that
men are cheaters. Even if Patricia does not know how it feels to be
brokenhearted, she does not entertain any suitor.
Development of Personal Identity and Aspirations

Personal identity develops in many ways, depending

on preferred directions.
It may be through enculturation and socialization.
It may also come through observation of a role
You tend to imitate a successful person that leads to
changes in personality.
Your personal identity may change and eventually,
you may develop a clear sense of yourself.
Aspiration is a strong desire and ambition
with which someone is motivated to work
Example: Rico at 20 years old identified
himself as a happy-go-lucky guy. He might
discover that, at 35 years old, he is a
different person. Perhaps he is living a good
life with his family. He would like his children
to have a comfortable life in the future.
Ask two persons about their
personal identity development
and aspirations. Compare them
with yours.