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Функции

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of relation.

(A relation is an operation, or series

of operations, that maps one number

onto another.)

A function is a special kind

of relation.

Functions are the relations that

mathematicians study most.

What makes a relation a function?

Good question!

In a function, each input value

can give only one

output value.

Does that make sense?

Then try this:

If you put a number into a function,

you want to know

that only one number can come out.

Consider the relation that subtracts

11 from a number:

x 11

If you put a number in, is there only

one possible number that could

come out?

x 11

and

ForIshave

any input

theremore

any value,

than one

number there

outcome?

you iscan

only

one possible

subtract output

11 fromvalue.

So this is a function.

23 5 99

x 11

12 16 88

The most common way to write this

function would be,

y x 11

When we write it like this,

x is always the input value,

and y is always the output value,

y x 11

If we wanted to find out what y is

when x is 42,

we would substitute 42 for x, and

then calculate y.

y 42

x 11

31 11

So we could say that 42 belongs to

the domain of the function,

and 31 belongs to the range.

y x 11

When x 42,

y 31

The domain of a function is

the set of all input, or x-, values.

the set of all possible

output, or y-, values.

One common way to write

a function uses

function notation.

Function notation looks like this:

f x 2x 1

Read that, “F of x equals

two x plus 1.”

Now it becomes obvious

that x is the input variable.

You may be asked questions

such as,

Given f x 2 x 1,

find f (-2).

It’s just a matter of substitution.

If you replace every x with –2,

Given f x 2 x 1,

find f(-2).

It’s just a matter of substitution.

If you replace every x with –2,

you can easily calculate:

It’s just a matter of substitution.

If you replace every x with –2,

you can easily calculate:

Given f 2 34 1

Given

f x 5 x 9,

find:

f 8 49

f 0 9

f 7 26

Functions

A function is a relation in which no two ordered pairs have

the same first coordinate. For every x there is only one y.

1 2 1 2 1 2

2 3 2 3 2 3

3 4 3 4 3 4

Functions

Vertical Line Test: If no two points on a graph can

be joined by a vertical line, the

graph is a function.

Functional Notation

An equation that is a function may be expressed

using functional notation. The notation f(x)

(read “f at (x)”) represents the variable y.

E.g., y = 2x + 6 can be written as f(x) = 2x + 6.

Given the equation y = 2x + 6, evaluate when x = 3.

y = 2(3) + 6

y = 12

For the function f(x) = 2x + 6, the notation f(3) means

that the variable x is replaced with the value of 3.

f(x) = 2x + 6

f(3) = 2(3) + 6

f(3) = 12

Evaluating a Function

Given f(x) = 4x + 8, find each:

1. f(2) 2. f(a)

f(2) = 4(2) + 8 f(a) = 4(a) + 8

= 16 = 4a + 8

3. f(a + 1) 4. f(-4a)

f(a + 1) = 4(a + 1) + 8 f(-4a) = 4(-4a) + 8

= 4a + 4 + 8 = -16a+ 8

= 4a + 12

Evaluating a Function

If f(x) = 3x - 1 and g(x) = 5x + 3, find each:

1. f(2) + g(3) 2. f(4) - g(-2)

= [3(2) -1] + [5(3) + 3] = [3(4) - 1] - [5(-2) + 3]

= 6 - 1 + 15 + 3 = 11 - (-7)

= 23 = 18

3. 3f(1) + 2g(2)

= 3[3(1) - 1] + 2[5(2) + 3]

= 6 + 26

= 32

Evaluating a Function

If g(x) = 2x2 + x - 3, find each:

1. g(2)

g(2) = 2(2)2 + 2 - 3

=8+2-3

=7

2. g(x + 1)

g(x + 1) = 2(x + 1)2 + (x + 1) - 3

= 2(x2 + 2x + 1) + x + 1 - 3

= 2x2 + 4x + 2 + x - 2

= 2x2 + 5x

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