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A function is a special kind

of relation.
(A relation is an operation, or series
of operations, that maps one number
onto another.)
A function is a special kind
of relation.
Functions are the relations that
mathematicians study most.
What makes a relation a function?
Good question!
In a function, each input value
can give only one
output value.
Does that make sense?
Then try this:
If you put a number into a function,
you want to know
that only one number can come out.
Consider the relation that subtracts
11 from a number:

x  11
If you put a number in, is there only
one possible number that could
come out?

x  11
and
ForIshave
any input
theremore
any value,
than one
number there
outcome?
you iscan
only
one possible
subtract output
11 fromvalue.
So this is a function.
23  5 99

x  11

12  16 88
The most common way to write this
function would be,

y  x  11
When we write it like this,
x is always the input value,
and y is always the output value,

y  x  11
If we wanted to find out what y is
when x is 42,
we would substitute 42 for x, and
then calculate y.
y  42
x 11
31 11
So we could say that 42 belongs to
the domain of the function,
and 31 belongs to the range.

y  x  11
When x  42,
y  31
The domain of a function is
the set of all input, or x-, values.

The range of a function is


the set of all possible
output, or y-, values.
One common way to write
a function uses
function notation.
Function notation looks like this:
f  x  2x  1
Read that, “F of x equals
two x plus 1.”
Now it becomes obvious
that x is the input variable.
You may be asked questions
such as,
Given f  x   2 x  1,
find f (-2).
It’s just a matter of substitution.
If you replace every x with –2,

Given f  x   2 x  1,
find f(-2).
It’s just a matter of substitution.
If you replace every x with –2,
you can easily calculate:

Given f x2  2x 21  1


It’s just a matter of substitution.
If you replace every x with –2,
you can easily calculate:

Given f   2   34  1
Given
f  x   5 x  9,
find:
f   8  49
f 0  9
f 7   26
Functions
A function is a relation in which no two ordered pairs have
the same first coordinate. For every x there is only one y.

(1, 2) (2, 4) (3, 6) (4, 8) A relation that is a FUNCTION

(1, 2) (2, 4) (2, 5) (3, 6) A RELATION that is not a function

1 2 1 2 1 2
2 3 2 3 2 3
3 4 3 4 3 4

FUNCTION FUNCTION RELATION


Functions
Vertical Line Test: If no two points on a graph can
be joined by a vertical line, the
graph is a function.

Function Relation Function


Functional Notation
An equation that is a function may be expressed
using functional notation. The notation f(x)
(read “f at (x)”) represents the variable y.
E.g., y = 2x + 6 can be written as f(x) = 2x + 6.
Given the equation y = 2x + 6, evaluate when x = 3.
y = 2(3) + 6
y = 12
For the function f(x) = 2x + 6, the notation f(3) means
that the variable x is replaced with the value of 3.

f(x) = 2x + 6
f(3) = 2(3) + 6
f(3) = 12
Evaluating a Function
Given f(x) = 4x + 8, find each:

1. f(2) 2. f(a)
f(2) = 4(2) + 8 f(a) = 4(a) + 8
= 16 = 4a + 8

3. f(a + 1) 4. f(-4a)
f(a + 1) = 4(a + 1) + 8 f(-4a) = 4(-4a) + 8
= 4a + 4 + 8 = -16a+ 8
= 4a + 12
Evaluating a Function
If f(x) = 3x - 1 and g(x) = 5x + 3, find each:
1. f(2) + g(3) 2. f(4) - g(-2)
= [3(2) -1] + [5(3) + 3] = [3(4) - 1] - [5(-2) + 3]
= 6 - 1 + 15 + 3 = 11 - (-7)
= 23 = 18

3. 3f(1) + 2g(2)
= 3[3(1) - 1] + 2[5(2) + 3]
= 6 + 26
= 32
Evaluating a Function
If g(x) = 2x2 + x - 3, find each:
1. g(2)
g(2) = 2(2)2 + 2 - 3
=8+2-3
=7

2. g(x + 1)
g(x + 1) = 2(x + 1)2 + (x + 1) - 3
= 2(x2 + 2x + 1) + x + 1 - 3
= 2x2 + 4x + 2 + x - 2
= 2x2 + 5x