Face Recognition

A Literature Review

By Xiaozhen Niu Department of Computing Science


Face Segmentation/Detection Facial Feature extraction Face Recognition Video-based Face Recognition Comparison Summary Reference

the research attention was only focused on singleface segmentation. The approaches included:    Deformable feature-based template Neural network Using skin color .Face Segmentation/Detection Before the middle 90¶s.

. (1998).Face Segmentation/Detection During the past ten years. Support vector machine (SVM) by Osuna et al. considerable progress has been made in multi-face recognition area. The neural network approach by Rowley et al. includes:    Example-based learning approach by Sung and Poggio (1994). (1997).

. the system computes a set of different measurements between the new pattern and the canonical face model. For each new pattern to be classified. A trained classifier identifies the new pattern as ³a face´ or ³not a face´.Example-based learning approach (EBL) Three parts:    The image is divided into many possibleoverlapping windows. each window pattern gets classified as either ³a face´ or ³not a face´ based on a set of local image measurements.

Example of a system using EBL .

Although NN have received significant attention in many research areas. few applications were successful. Why? . first proposed an NNbased approach in 1996.Neural network (NN)   Kanade et al.

The number of ³non-face´ simples are just too large. but it is much harder to train a neural network with samples which do not.Neural network (NN)   It¶s easy to train a neural network with samples which contain faces. .

By setting a small threshold. . Merging overlapping detections and arbitration. many false detections can be eliminated.Neural network (NN)   Neural network-based filter. and to detect whether a face exists in each window. A small filter window is used to scan through all portions of the image.

An example of using NN .

Test results of using NN .

Can improve the accuracy and reduce the computation. it can be viewed as a way to train polynomial neural network or radial basic function classifiers. .SVM   SVM was first proposed in 1997.

Using two test sets (155 faces). SVM achieved better detection rate and fewer false alarms.Comparison with EBL   Test results reported in 1997. .

 Still lots of potential! .Recent approaches Face segmentation/detection area still remain active.  A technique of background learning was proposed in August 2002. for example: An integrated SVM approach to multiface detection and recognition was proposed in 2000.

Static face recognition Numerous face recognition methods/algorithms have been proposed in last 20 years. several representative approaches are: Eigenface  LDA/FDA  Neural network (NN)  .

A face in an input image first must be located and registered in a standardsize frame. . Identification. the principal component analysis (PCA) is used to encode face images and capture face features. Every face in the database can be represented as a vector of weights. Eigenpresentation.Eigenface The basic steps are:    Registration. This part is done by locating the images in the database whose weights are the closest (in Euclidean distance) to the weights of the test images.

It is not optimal to discrimination for one face class from others. . Test results demonstrated LDA/FDA is better than eigenface using linear PCA (1997).LDA/FDA     Face recognition method using LDA/FDA is called the fishface method. Fishface method seeks to find a linear transformation to maximize the between-class scatter and minimize the within-class scatter. Eigenface use linear PCA.

.Test results of LDA  Test results of a subspace LDA-based face recognition method in 1999.

Video-based Face Recognition  Three challenges:    Low quality Small images Characteristics of face/human objects. Provides continuity. Allows Provide much more information. Tracking of face image.  Three advantage:    . this allows reuse of classification information from high-quality images in processing low-quality images from a video sequence.

. Non-rigid motion analysis. Using a 3D model to match frontal views of the face. Motion structure. 3D models for faces.Basic steps for video-based face recognition     Object segmentation/detection. The goal of this step is to estimate the 3D depths of points from the image sequence.

.    An access control system using Radial Basis Function (RBS) network was proposed in 1997. A scheme based on streaming face recognition (SFR) was propose in August 2002.Recent approaches Most video-based face recognition system has three modules for detection. tracking and recognition. A generic approach based on posterior estimation using sequential Monte Carlo methods was proposed in 2000.

The test result achieved a 99% correct recognition rate in the intelligent room. . such as Discrete Hidden Markov Models (DHMM) and Continuous Density HMM (CDHMM).The SFR scheme  Combine several decision rules together.

126 images of 1199 individuals. 1996. Three evaluation tests had been administered in 1994. Now consists 295 subjects. and 1997. .  The XM2VTS protocol (1999). Expansion of previous M2VTS program (5 shots of each of 37 subjects). Consists of 14. The results of M2VTS/XM2VTS can be used in wide range of applications.Comparison Two most representative and important protocols for face recognition evaluations:  The FERET protocol (1994).

1996/1997 FERET Evaluations  Compared ten algorithms. .

FERET and XM2VTS have had a significant impact to the developing of face recognition algorithms. such as pose changing and illumination changing. . LDA-based methods and NNbased methods are very successful.Summary    Significant achievements have been made. Face recognition area will remain active for a long time. Challenges still exist.

Neural Network Based Face Detection. Rauss. FERET (Face Recognition Technology) Recognition Algorithm Development and Test Report.I. University of Maryland. P. Face Recognition: A Literature Survey. Zhao. and T. J. Training Support Vector Machines: An Application to Face Recognition. Huang and M. Phillips. Osuna. [5] M. [6] W. pp. and G. and F.A. IEEE Trans. Rowley. Vol. 1991. pp. 1999. Luettin. Phillips. . Kanade. XM2VTSDB: The Extended M2VTS Database. Freund. August 11-15. PhD thesis. Maitre. J. 72-86. MIT A. R. and P. Robust Image Based 3D Face Recognition. 2002. Vol. Sung and T. Chellappa.I.J. pp. Der. Example-based Learning for View-based Human Face Detection. A. Memo 1521. A.S. Technical Report ARL-TR 995. [8] P. Poggio. Eigenfaces for Recognition. 2000. and S. [4] E. Trivedi. J. Army Research Laboratory. Girosi. in IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Pentland. 1997. Matas. U.S. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. On Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. in Proceedings. 1994. Rosenfeld. [3] H. Zhao. [7] K.J. Messer. 16th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR). S. 1999. Kittler. UMD CFAR Technical Report CAR-TR-948. 20. [9] K. 130-136. 72-77. Turk and A.Reference [1] W. International Conference on Audio and Video-based Person Authentication.3. R. [2] K. Laboratory. Baluja. 1998. Streaming Face Recognition using Multicamera Video Arrays.M.

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