This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
16th June 2010
IS Dev Cont«
Prototyping RAD OO Analysis and Design
$Alternate Internal Development
External Acquisition Outsourcing End User Management
Project Management CASE Case Study - Indiana University
Alternative Development Methods .Prototyping Prototyping A systems development method that uses a ³trial-and-error´ approach for discovering how a system should operate. Steps include: Collecting requirements Develop/Refine Prototype Review Prototype with Users (Repeat the previous steps until correct design is created) Implement and Use System .
When to prototype and when not to prototype .
Alternative Development Methods ± RAD Rapid Application Development (RAD) A rapid four-step iterative systems development method utilizing: prototyping. and close user involvement RAD Phases The following phases are iterated until the requirements and design are completed and approved Requirements Planning User Design Construction Move to the New System . special management practices. computer-based development tools.
OOAD Characteristics The role of analyst and programmer are combined while thinking about data and the operations to define the relevant objects The design and implementation of these objects happen quickly and simultaneously It uses a more integrative prototyping process than the SDLC .Alternative Development Methods ± Object-Oriented ObjectObject-Oriented Analysis and Design (OOAD) Similar to SDLA approaches except that it relies on the tight coupling between data and methods and between the conceptual design of a system and its actual implementation.
Alternative Development Methods ± A Comparison .
Below are four situations that discourage the idea of developing a system internally Limited IS Staff Limited IS Skill Sets IS Staff is Overworked Problem IS Performance The IS organization does not have the capability to build the system itself The IS organization does not have personnel with the correct skill sets to build the system Current IS organization staff demands and priorities make it impossible to build a system The IS organization does not have the appropriate performance level to build a system .Limitations to Internal Systems Building Many times it is not feasible to consider building an information system internally.
or Accenture Outsourcing Turning over some or all responsibility for an organization¶s information systems development and operations to an outside firm End-user Development Capitalizing on the sophistication of current users. this technique allows the system users to develop their system functions using a variety of tools . software.Alternatives to Internal Development External Acquisition The purchasing of an existing system (hardware. network) from an outside vendor such as IBM. EDS. databases.
selection. evaluating the performance of those systems. and examining criteria important to the organization and judging how the proposed systems respond to those criteria Vendor selection ± using a scoring system devised to evaluate the competing proposal and then selecting the proposal that best fits the organization¶s needs . and planning (same as internal method) Systems analysis (same as internal method) Development of a request for proposal (RFP) ± a report that is used to tell vendors what the requirements are and how they might be able to meet those requirements (hardware and software) Proposal evaluation ± may include viewing system demonstrations.External Acquisition ± Steps to Proceed Steps in External Acquisition System identification.
External Acquisition ± The RFP (Request for Proposal) .
Proposal Evaluation Criteria .External Acquisition .
and reengineering ± having a need to focus on core processes Financial factors ± turning over IS systems can strengthen a balance sheet Organizational culture ± political or organizational problems that are difficult for IS to overcome Internal Irritants ± tension between the IS staff and users . downsizing.Outsourcing ± Why Consider? A firm might outsource some (or all) of its information system service for many reasons: Cost and quality concerns ± current cost and quality of information systems is unacceptable Problems in IS performance ± IS is having trouble meeting acceptable service standards Supplier pressures ± aggressive sales tactics Simplifying.
realistic performance measurements of the systems and of the out sourcing arrangement (e.g. The following are recommendations for the best management: A strong CEO and CIO should continually manage the legal and professional relationship with the outsourcer Clear.Outsourcing ± Relationship Management Managing the IS Relationship Ongoing management of the outsourcing alliance is the single most important aspect of the outsourcing project¶s success. the links to deal with policy and relationship issues) . tangible and intangible costs) The interface between the customer and outsourcer should have multiple levels (i.e.
g. speadsheets) that allow the creation of macros or automated routines by users Query languages/report generators ± tools that utilize SQL to extract information from databases and generate reports in userspecified formats Graphics generators ± tools that can extract relevant information from databases and create graphs.EndEnd-User Development ± Tools Tools Many tools can be used by end-users for business applications including some of the following: Personal Computer Tools ± tools common to PCs (e. Decision Support and Modeling Tools ± tools that support complex decision making utilizing multidimensional models Application Generators ± tools that allow users to specify what is to be done and the application decides how it is to be done and generates the program code . charts. etc.
in effect.EndEnd-User Development ± Benefits End-User Development Benefits Embracing end user development can help address some common issues with IS development including: Cost of labor ± IS managers can substitute hardware and the systems for users to develop systems for IS staff Long development time ± allowing users to develop. increases the size of the IS staff . shortens development lead times Slow modification ± users can react to their own needs Work overload ± leveraging the talent of the end user staff.
EndEnd-User Development ± The Benefits .
testing procedures). or troubleshooting data integrity and security problems when enterprise systems are involved Lack of continuity ± as users leave the organization or department. common issues arises as it use become for prevalent including: Lack of Standards ± if users do not adopt standards used by IS professionals (documentation.EndEnd-User Development ± Pitfalls Pitfalls End-user development is not a panacea. error checking. new employees may not understand existing programs and lose productivity learning or developing new applications or ³reinventing the wheel´ Appropriate Use of Time ± there is debate whether it is appropriate for skilled users and managers to be spending time on systems development . the IS staff can experience problems when supporting users.
Project Management Dimensions of project management .
Project Management Project Management Tools ± Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) PERT chart shows events. but not the relationships among activities Advantage: Simple and linear . required activities. and relationships Advantage: Communication of interdependencies among activities ± Gantt Chart Represents activities and start and completion times.
Sample Implementation Process Plan .
Initiating/defining ± ± ± ± State the problems/goals Identify the objectives Secure resources Explore costs/benefits in feasibility study .Five phases of project management 1.
Five phases of project management 2. Planning ± ± ± ± Identify and sequence activities Identify the ³critical path´ Estimate time and resources needed for completion Write a detailed project plan 3. Executing ± Commit resources to specific tasks ± Add additional resources/personnel if necessary ± Initiate project work .
Five phases of project management 4. Controlling ± ± ± ± Establish reporting obligations Create reporting tools Compare actual progress with baseline Initiate control interventions if necessary .
Five phases of project management 5. Closing ± ± ± ± ± ± Install all deliverables Finalize all obligations/commitments Meet with stakeholders Release project resources Document the project Issue final report .
These tools continue to evolve and come in many types .CASE Computer-aided Software Engineering (CASE) These are automated software tools used by systems developers to design and implement information systems.
High Level Sys Design from a CASE tool .
while for IS developers it is often negative for fear of replacement .Influence of CASE Influence of CASE Tools on Individuals CASE can dramatically increase the speed and quality of system development and maintenance while having a strong impact on culture. For IS managers it is commonly positive due to higher quality and lower risk.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.