What¶s Grammar all about ?

‡ Traditionally, grammar is defined as a system of rules relating to the correct forms and relations of words. It¶s a process that we have to know in order to be able to speak and write correctly.

‡ All the words of the English Language are separated and according put into to their

functions

different

categories called PARTS OF SPEECH.

Parts of Speech
‡ Noun ‡ Pronoun ‡ Verb ‡ Adjective ‡ Adverb ‡ Preposition ‡ Conjunction ‡ Interjection ‡ Determiners
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These days Interjections are not given importance as a component of Grammar. The category called DETERMINERS has been introduced which include Articles, Demonstratives and Possessives.

8 Parts of Speech
Name: 1. NOUNS 2. PRONOUNS

8 Parts of Speech

Do:

3. VERBS 4. ADJECTIVES

Describe:

5.ADVERBS 6.PREPOSITIONS

Join:

7.CONJUNCTIONS

Show emotion:

8. INTERJECTIONS

Parts of Speech

Action Verb

Adverbs Adjectives

Conjunction

Parts of Speech

Noun Pronoun

Linking Verb Helping Verb

Interjections

Prepositions

Mouse Click or hit the ³Enter Key´ to bring each grammar term on screen.

³Click´ for Next Frame

Word that names
A Person ‡ A Place ‡ A Thing ‡ An Idea

NOUN

Noun

Noun is a naming word. It gives identity to a person, place, thing, or idea. A noun helps us to recognize an object/a person/a place/ an idea.

John is waving.

Pronoun
Used in place of a noun

He is waving.

Verb
‡ Expresses action or a state of being The carpenter is sawing the board.

Adjective and Adverb
‡ Adjective ‡ Describes or modifies a noun or pronoun ‡ Adverb ‡ Modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb

Adjective
‡ The funny clown is floating dangerously high above the ground.

Adverb
‡ The funny clown is floating dangerously high above the ground.

Preposition
‡ Shows the relationship between the object of the preposition and another word in the sentence ‡ He is running to the beach.

Conjunction
‡ Connects individual words or groups of words ‡ He is running to the beach and is becoming tired.

Interjection
‡ Included in a sentence in order to communicate strong emotion or surprise
‡ Oh no! I am stuck.

N

AV LV

Adv
C

P«.. of S««.

Adj
HV/AxV

I Pn P

Click the mouse cursor over a ³Grammar Symbol ´ listed above for a term¶s definition.

NOUNS
Name people, places, things or events
1)PROPER NOUN Examples: Tom, Sue, China, Shamu, San Diego, Godzilla 2)COMMON NOUN Examples: man, woman, worm, arm, rock, city, whale 3)ABSTRACT NOUN Examples: happiness, laughter, beauty, Physics 4)MATERIAL NOUN Examples: iron, gold, silver, tin
MORE ABOUT NOUNS

Kinds of Nouns
Common Nouns
boy girl

Proper Nouns John Mary Plural Nouns boys girls Plural Possessive boys· girls·

Singular Nouns
boy girl

Singular Possessive boy·s girl·s

PRONOUNS
Pn
TAKE THE PLACE OF A NOUN Personal Pronouns Possessive: Object: my, mine me your you his, hers, him, her it it our, their us, them

Subject: I you he, she, it we, they

Reflexive: myself yourself himself, herself itself ourselves, themselves
MORE ABOUT PRONOUNS

The pronoun is a word used in place of one or more nouns. It may stand for a person, place, thing, or idea.
Indefinite Pronouns
anybody each either none someone, one, etc.

Action VERBS
Action Verb symbol:

V

A

Examples: run, jump, hit, drive, yell, shoot Action verbs, as their name implies, show action of some sort. That action is very often received by an object noun that is referred to as either the direct object (d.o.) or the indirect object (i.o.) if it is second noun in line to receive the action. Example Usage: The batter hit the ball (d.o.) to the left fielder (i.o.).

Possession Verbs
Possession verbs are really a type of action verb showing the act of possessing something. Since it is hard to imagine the act of possessing or simply ³having something´, we refer to the verbs ³has or have´ as Possession Verbs. What ever the subject has is the direct object of the Possession Verb. P Possession Verb Symbol: Examples: has, have

V

Example Usage: I have little money.

She has more money than I.

Linking Verbs
Linking Verb symbol:

V

=

Examples: is, are, was, were, appears, seems These linking verbs simply link a Subject Noun with the Subject¶s Complement, which is all the words that follow the linking verb and describe the Subject Noun. You might say that the subject is = to it¶s complement and that the linking verb is being used like an = sign. Example usage: Shack O¶Neil is a very tall man. She seems a little unhappy tonight.

Helping Verbs
also called Auxiliary Verbs
Helping or Auxiliary Verb symbol:

V

H

Examples: is having, are running, was running Helping verbs are actually the same words as linking verbs except that when these words are combined with an ³ing´ action verb their function changes to mark the tense (present, past, future) or the time that an action occurs. Example Usage: The dog is barking. (Present Tense) The dog was barking. (Past Tense) The dog will be barking. (Future Tense)

Adjectives
Adj.

Adjectives describe or modify a noun or a pronoun.
noun noun noun Adjective noun

Helen is a teacher.
pronoun Adjective

Helen is a brilliant teacher.
noun

noun She is a brilliant teacher.
MORE ABOUT ADJECTIVES

Answers these questions:

Did you lose your address book? Is that a wool sweater? Just give me five minutes.

ADVERBS
Adv.
Adverbs can modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. They often end in ³ly´.

Adverbs answer these questions:
When? How? How often? How much? Where?
MORE ABOUT ADVERB

Modifies or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. He ran quickly. She left yesterday. We went there. It was too hot!

Answers the questions:

To what degree or how much?

PREPOSITIONS
P
Shows the relationships in time, location, or direction. They can never be the subject or the verb of a sentence. TIME EXAMPLES: until, past LOCATION Examples: by, towards, near, over, under,through, between, into

CONJUNCTIONS
(Joining Words)
Join words, phrases, and clauses to show how ideas are related. (CC) COORDINATING CONJUNCTION Examples: and, but, or, yet, for, so, nor (c . .c) CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTION Examples: either « or, neither «nor, not only «but, not only « but also (CA) CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB Examples: however, in fact, nevertheless, otherwise, consequently (SC) SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION Examples: after, because, where, since, unless, before, when, while, if, until

INTERJECTIONS
Express emotion or passion
Mild interjections only require a comma. Examples: Oh, Gee, Well

Strong interjections require an exclamation mark. Examples: Wow! Woops! Yeah! Hooray!

DETERMINERS
Demonstratives: this, that, these, those Quantifiers: some, any Possessives: My-mine, your-yours, his-his, her-hers, Its,our-ours, your-yours, their-theirs

Articles: A, an , the

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