Unit 2 Study Guide Part A 2010
Growth and Reproduction
What and How to Study
Study the PowerPoint lectures and their review questions. Read the chapters assigned in the text. Know the key vocabulary terms (lists at the end of each chapter and/or the glossaries). Prepare frequently prior to the test. Review the film study questions where applicable. These statements apply to all of the unit tests and exam.
The study guide question project is a work in progress, and accordingly, it is incomplete. Therefore none of the study question sets should be considered a ³substitute´ for a complete and exhaustive test preparation. This applies to all four of the study guide question sets.
Study Guide Questions
Define the word reproduction.
The production of a new generation of cells or a multi-cellular organism similar to itself.
Mitosis and meiosis refer to the division of the cell's __________.
Mitosis and meiosis refer to the division of the cell's __nucleus (DNA)________.
Distinguish between somatic cells and germ cells as to their location and function.
Distinguish between somatic cells and germ cells as to their location and function. Somatic cells are body site of mitosis (2n); Immature reproductive cells (site of meiosis)
The eukaryotic chromosome is composed of __________ and __________.
The eukaryotic chromosome is composed of __DNA________ and __Proteins________.
The two attached threads of a duplicated chromosome are known as sister __________.
The two attached threads of a duplicated chromosome are known as sister ______chromatids____.
Characterize the organization of chromosomes using the terms histones and nucleosome.
Characterize the organization of chromosomes using the terms histones and nucleosome. At reg. intervals double stranded DNA is wrapped around proteins called histones; DNAhistone spools look like beads on a string. Each bead is a nucleosome.
The __________ is a small region with docking sites for the microtubules with roles in nuclear division.
The ____centromere______ is a small region with docking sites for the microtubules with roles in nuclear division.
Each species has a characteristic __________ number, the sum total in cells of a given type.
Any cell having two of each type of chromosome characteristic of a species is a __________ cell; eggs and sperms of such organisms have only one of each type of chromosome and are said to be __________
Any cell having two of each type of chromosome characteristic of a species is a ___diploid_______ cell; eggs and sperms of such organisms have only one of each type of chromosome and are said to be _haploid_________
Interphase of the cell cycle consists of G1, __________, and G2.
Interphase of the cell cycle consists of G1, ____S______, and G2.
Describe the structure and function of the spindle apparatus.
Describe the structure and function of the spindle apparatus. The spindle apparatus moves the chromosomes. The spindle apparatus is composed of two sets of microtubules. Microtubules (components of the cytoskeleton) extend from the two ³poles´ of the cell and overlap at the cell equator. Microtubules are composed of numerous subunits called tubulins. Some microtubules extend from the centromeres to one of the two poles; others extend from the poles, overlap in the middle of the cell, but do not contact the chromosomes. Microtubules attached to the centromeres shorten and pull the chromosomes toward the poles. Other microtubules at the spindle poles ratchet past each other to push the two spindle poles apart.
Describe the number and movements of centrioles in the cell division of some cells.
Describe the number and movements of centrioles in the cell division of some cells. The centrioles, which have duplicated by the time prophase is underway, are moved by the microtubules to the opposite poles of the cell.
The "__________" is a time of transition when the nuclear envelope breaks up into tiny, flattened vesicles prior to metaphase.
The "__prophase________" is a time of transition when the nuclear envelope breaks up into tiny, flattened vesicles prior to metaphase.
Be able to give a detailed description of the cellular events occurring in the prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase of mitosis.
Prophase: Mitosis Begins 1. Chromosomes become visible as rodlike units, each consisting of two sister chromatids. 2. In the cytoplasm, the microtubules of the cytoskeleton break apart and begin reassembling near the nucleus. a. Microtubules are composed of numerous subunits called tubulins. b. Some microtubules extend from the centromeres to one of the two poles; others extend from the poles, overlap in the middle of the cell, but do not contact the chromosomes. A.
3. The nuclear envelope begins to disintegrate. 4. The centrioles, which have duplicated by the time prophase is underway, are now moved by the microtubules to the opposite poles of the cell
B. Transition to Metaphase 1. The nuclear membrane now breaks up completely in the transition between pro- and metaphase. 2. Sister chromatids, each attached to microtubules, become oriented toward opposite poles. 3. When all the chromosomes are aligned at the cell¶s equator, halfway between the poles, we call the stage metaphase.
C. From Anaphase Through Telophase 1. Sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite poles. a. Microtubules attached to the centromeres shorten and pull the chromosomes toward the poles. b. Other microtubules at the spindle poles ratchet past each other to push the two spindle poles apart. c. Once separated, each chromatid is now an independent chromosome.
2. Telophase begins when the two daughter chromosomes of each original chromatid pair arrive at opposite poles. a. Chromosomes return to the threadlike form typical of interphase. b. The nuclear envelope reforms from the fusion of small vesicles c. Each daughter cell has the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell; mitosis is complete.
Compare and contrast cytokinesis as it occurs in plant and animal cell division; use the following concepts: cleavage furrow, microfilaments at the cell's midsection, and cell plate formation.
Plants 1. Because of the rather rigid cell wall, the cytoplasm of plant cells cannot just be pinched in two. 2. Instead vesicles containing remnants of the microtubular spindle form a disklike structure during cell plate formation. A. Cell Plate Formation in
B. Cytoplasmic Division of Animal Cells 1. The flexible plasma membrane of animal cells can be squeezed in the middle to separate the two daughter cells±a process called cleavage.
Parallel arrays of contractile microfilaments slide past one another at the cleavage furrow, pulling the plasma membrane inward.
Explain how cells from Henrietta Lacks continue to benefit humans everywhere more than forty years after her death.
Explain how cells from Henrietta Lacks continue to benefit humans everywhere more than forty years after her death. Her cells live on in the cell biology laboratories of the world where they help cellular biologists understand cell division, both normal and abnormal.
Study Guide Questions
Distinguish between germ cells and gametes.
Germ cells are 2n while gametes are n (haploid). Germ cells produce gametes. Gametes fuse to form a zygote.
1. "One parent alone produces offspring, and each offspring inherits the same number and kinds of genes as its parent" describes __________ reproduction.
Qµs 3, 4, and 5
__________ reproduction involves meiosis, gamete formation, and fertilization. __________ divides chromosomes into separate parcels not once but twice prior to cell division. Describe the relationship between the following terms: homologous chromosomes, diploid number, and haploid number.
A¶s 3, 4, and 5
Sexual; Meiosis Homologous chromosomes line - up (even unequally matched sex chromosomes!) during meiosis. These homologous chromosomes are in pairs so that each nucleus is diploid prior to anaphase I of meiosis. After anaphase I, the resulting daughter nuclei are haploid (having only one of each type of chromosome).
Q¶s 6, 7, and 8
If the diploid chromosome number for a particular plant species is 18, the haploid gamete number is __________. During interphase a germ cell duplicates its DNA; a duplicated chromosome consists of two DNA molecules that remain attached to a constriction called the __________. As long as the two DNA molecules remain attached, they are referred to as __________ __________ of the chromosome.
A¶s 6, 7, and 8
9 centromere sister chromatids
Q¶s 9, 10, and 11
During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair; each homologue consists of __________ chromatids. During meiosis II, the two sister __________ of each __________ are separated from each other. Interphase of the cell cycle consists of G1, __________, and G2..
A¶s 9, 10 and, 11
two chromatids; chromosome S
Q¶s 12 and 13
The __________ attachment and subsequent positioning of each pair of maternal and paternal chromosomes at metaphase I lead to different __________ of maternal and paternal traits in each generation of offspring. Meiosis in the animal life cycle results in haploid __________; meiosis in the plant life cycle results in haploid __________.
A¶s 12 and 13
random; combinations gametes; gametophytes
Using the special terms for the cells at the various stages, describe spermatogenesis in male animals and oogenesis in female animals
Gamete Formation in Animals 1. The life cycle of multicelled animals proceeds from meiosis to gamete formation >>> fertilization >>> growth by mitosis. 2. In males, meiosis and gamete formation are called spermatogenesis. a. Germ cell (2n) >>> primary spermatocyte (2n) >>> MEIOSIS I >>> two secondary spermatocytes (n) >>> MEIOSIS II >>> four spermatids (n). b. Spermatids change in form; each develops a tail to become mature sperm.
3. In females, meiosis and gamete formation are called oogenesis. a. Germ cell (2n) >>> primary oocyte (2n) >>> MEIOSIS I >>> secondary oocyte (n, and large in size) plus polar body (n, and small in size) >>> MEIOSIS II >>> one large ovum (n) plus three polar bodies (n, small). b. The single ovum is the only cell capable of being fertilized by a sperm; the polar bodies wither and die.
Q¶s 15 and 16
Crossing over, the distribution of random mixes of homologous chromosomes into gametes, and fertilization contribute to __________ in the traits of offspring. Mitotic cell division produces only __________; meiotic cell division, in conjunction with subsequent fertilization, promotes __________ in traits among offspring.
A¶s 15 and 16
variation identical cells, variation
1. Be able to list three ways that meiosis promotes variation in offspring.
The variation present at fertilization is from three sources: a. Crossing over occurs during prophase I. b. Random alignments at metaphase I lead to millions of combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes in each gamete. c. Of all the genetically diverse gametes produced, chance will determine which two will meet.
The End of Unit 2 Part A Study Guide