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Professional Learning

Community (PLC)
Part I
Norhayu Norany
What is PLC?
• Dufour (2004) – PLC is a group of teachers share
their expertise and work collaboratively to
improve teaching skills and learners’ academic
• Mitchell & Sackney (2001) define PLC as a group
of researcher collaboratively
– assess current practices,
– study new practices and;
– assess the relationship between a practice and its
effect to the community.
The Rationale of PLC
• PLC operates under the assumption that the
key to improved learning for students is
continuous, job embedded learning for
educators (DuFour, 2007)
The Aims of PLC
• The aims are to improve
– teaching practices
– learning of the learners
– positive effects unto learners
• It is also aimed to enhance school
The Shift in T & L Focus
Before PLC After PLC
All learners can learn All learners will learn
Focus on teaching Focus on learning
Isolated Collaborative
Summative Formative
Assessment Assessment
Failure is an option Failure is not an
The Objectives of PLC
• To improve the quality of students’ learning
– Teachers agree on the authentic vision and assignment
that is challenging to the students.
• To implement authentic pedagogy that results in high
quality of students’ learning
• To enhance organisation capability in providing
opportunities for
– the sharing of knowledge and expertise
– working collaboratively with teamwork spirit.
• To enhance the support from external bodies such as
District Education Office, parents and other agencies.
The Principles of PLC
1. Learning for all – All students can succeed in
their learning
– What is to be learnt?
– How to assess student’s learning?
– How to detect students with learning difficulties?
The Principles of PLC
2. Team work
– Working collaboratively to achieve a collective goal that is
ensuring learning for all
– Sharing resources and problems
– School authorities monitor the activities of PLC
– Discussion should focus on important issues in T & L such
• how to achieve the learning outcomes
• alternative assessment
• strategies in improving students academic performance etc.
– All members of PLC must be clear of their roles, the
relationship among members and the common goal
pertaining to students’ achievement.
The Principles of PLC
3. Data driven decisions
• PLC determines the effectiveness of teachers’ instruction
which is reflected in the students’ performance.
• PLC members identify students’ current achievement and
set future performance.
• DRIP syndrome – Data Rich Information Poor
– Formative assessment helps teachers to compare students’
– Average marks can be misleading in getting the accurate
information on students’ achievement.
– Individual assessment will provide a more accurate picture of a
student’s performance.
The Characteristics of PLC
• There are five characteristics of PLC:
1. The sharing of values and vision (DuFour, 2004).
2. Collaborative Culture (Feger & Arruda, 2008).
3. Focus on the improvement of students’ learning
4. Shared and supported leadership (Feger &
Arruda, 2008)
5. The sharing of individual practice (Thompson,
Gregg & Niska, 2004).
Elements and Strategies of PLC

of practice

Collective focus
on students
of PLC

The sharing of
norms and Collaboration
Reflective Dialogue
No Critical Strategy Description
Element of
1 Reflective Discussion/Meeting/ •Monthly meeting
Dialogue Gathering •Weekly gathering
•Discussing article
•Discussing various aspects of teaching
Book Club •A group of teachers read books
•Share the content of the books every
Study Group •Determine issues
•Discuss the issues
•Share information and knowledge
Review Videos on •Avoid personal criticism
Teaching •Focus on professional aspects for
•Emphasize on exemplary ideas
•Focus on best practices
Deprivatisation of Practices
No Critical Strategy Description
Element of PLC
2 Deprivatisation Learning • determine focus of observation
of Practices Walks •Walking around school
•Observe other teachers teaching
•Observe classroom activities
Peer •Observing other teachers teaching through the
Coaching cycle below:
-Post Conference
Lesson Study •A group of teachers collaboratively develop a
lesson plan
•Implement the lesson plan
•Observe and discuss improvements on the
teaching session observed.
Teacher • A group of teachers discuss and share the best
Sharing practices.
Collective Focus on Student Learning
No Critical Strategy Description
Element of
3 Collective Data Analysis •Study and discuss aggregate data of the
Focus on students
Student -Test
Learning - quiz
- assignment/project
Curriculum •Develop curriculum map according to
Mapping -Topic
- standard and
- activity for every subject
•This can be an instructional guide to be shared
with students and parents.
Standard and •Teachers teaching the same year can prepare
Simultaneous -Standard assessment
Assessment - a set of indicators
Critical Friends •Using a protocol to study and discuss the
Group students outcome.
•Using a scheme/rubric
No Critical Strategy Description
Element of
4 Collaboration Horizontal and •Organise meetings according to year taught for
Vertical Teams collaborative planning
•Meetings according to panel (panitia) so that
the continuity between years taught can be
Mentoring •Pedagogical support and guide
•Module for novice teachers in the organisation
Unit or project •Draft units and project across subjects
across subjects •Plan projects among units
and units
Problem- •A group of teachers solve problems together
Solving Group by brainstorming
Shared Norms and Beliefs
No Critical Strategy Description
Element of
5 Shared Activities •Involve teachers in future school development
Norms and related to •Develop school to become an excellent
Beliefs vision organisation
Guiding •Formulate guiding principles for decision
principles making and implementation of actions.
Activities to •Organise small group activities to discuss
instil values organizational values
•Cultivate the culture of a caring school
•Good relation with parents and community
Shared Norms •Agree on the shared norms and beliefs
and beliefs •Focusing on achieving the school aims and
Thank You