Earth: Our Home

Full Geography

CHAPTER 7

Types of Climate

You will learn:
to explain the distribution of the three types of climate: tropical equatorial tropical monsoon cool temperate to explain the characteristics of these three types of climate to explain the weather and climate of Singapore with reference to rainfall, relative humidity and temperature to discuss the extent of climate change

Types of climates
Climates are classified based on: differences in temperatures rainfall patterns experienced by different parts of the world.

Distribution of climatic types

Köppen climate classification map

Tropical equatorial climate
Places that experience this climate include: countries in Southeast Asia, such as Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia the Amazon Basin of South America the Congo Basin of Africa Distribution Within latitudes of 10rN and 10rS of the Equator Temperature Rainfall

Tropical equatorial climate
Characterised by high mean annual temperatures, averaging 27 rC. High temperatures are due to the concentration of the Sun¶s rays on the Earth¶s surface. Temperatures are uniform because areas near the Equator receive about the same amount of sunlight throughout the year. Distribution Within latitudes of 10rN and 10rS of the Equator Temperature Rainfall

(27 s 2)rC

Tropical equatorial climate
Relative humidity is very high, usually 80%. High rainfall -- high temperatures cause water to evaporate rapidly, as a result, convectional rain occurs frequently. Rain falls throughout the year. There are no distinct wet (rainy) or dry seasons. Distribution Within latitudes of 10rN and 10rS of the Equator Temperature Rainfall

(27 s 2)rC

" 1 500 mm

Weather and climate of Singapore
Located very near the Equator
Receives about the same amount of sunlight throughout the year High temperatures are uniform throughout the year

High annual rainfall
Slight influence by the Northeast Monsoon winds give rise to lower temperatures and higher rainfall from October to March.

Location

Temperature

Rainfall

01r22¶N of the Equator

25.7 to 27.5rC

2 400 mm

Tropical monsoon climate
Places that experience this climate include: Places in Indo-China, such as Vietnam and Myanmar Places in South Asia such as India and Sri Lanka Western Africa Northeastern and southeastern Brazil Distribution Between latitudes of 10r to 25rN and 10r to 25rS of the Equator Temperature Rainfall

Tropical monsoon climate
Characterised by high mean annual temperatures, averaging 26rC. Annual temperature range is 6rC, which is larger than that of the tropical monsoon climate. There is greater variation in the mean monthly temperatures compared to equatorial climate. Distribution Between latitudes of 10r to 25rN and 10r to 25rS of the Equator Temperature Rainfall

(26 s 6)rC

Tropical monsoon climate
Rainfall range is large²between 0 millimetres and 3 000 millmetres. Characterised by distinct wet and dry seasons. Countries that lie within the latitudes of the tropical monsoon climate are affected by monsoon winds.

Distribution Between latitudes of 10r to 25rN and 10r to 25rS of the Equator

Temperature

Rainfall

(26 s 6)rC

" 1 500 mm

Cool temperate climate
Places that experience this climate include: Canada Northwest Europe East Asian countries like China, Korea, and Northern Japan New Zealand Distribution Between latitudes of 35r to 70rN and 35r to 70rS of the Equator Temperature Rainfall

Cool temperate climate
High temperatures during summer and low temperatures during winter. Annual temperature range varies from 15rC to more than 30rC. Coastal areas experience less extreme temperatures. Inland areas experience winter temperatures of below freezing point. Distribution Between latitudes of 35r to 70rN and 35r to 70rS of the Equator Temperature Rainfall

-68 to 30rC

Cool temperate climate
Precipitation comes in the form of rain during summer and snow during winter. Annual precipitation ranges from 300 millimetres to 2 000 millimetres. Precipitation patterns are not uniform among different places that experience this climate. Distribution Between latitudes of 35r to 70rN and 35r to 70rS of the Equator Temperature Rainfall

-68 to 30rC

300 to 2 000 mm

Climate Change
Climate change is a shift in the average weather conditions that a region has been experiencing over a long period of time. The Earth¶s climate has been changing, where past temperature changes took place slowly over tens of thousands of years. However, in the last 200 years, there has an acceleration of climate change.

Causes of climate change
Enhanced greenhouse effect
Greenhouse effect is a natural process whereby greenhouse gases absorb heat from the Sun and trap it in the atmosphere. Keeps the Earth warm enough to sustain life. However, enhanced greenhouse effect as a result of increase in human activities causes a rise in the Earth¶s average global temperature known as global warming.

Global Warming
Global warming leads to: melting ice and rising sea levels extreme weather conditions such as severe storms, heat waves and droughts possible extinction of plant and animal species

Reducing the impact of climate change
Mitigation:
Countries that acceded to the Kyoto Protocol aim to reduce their greenhouse gases to six major ones. All vehicles in Singapore must install catalytic converters.

Adaptation
People might have to be relocated away from low-lying coastal areas.

Is climate change a natural cycle?