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LIT1-120

LESSON 4
PARAPHRASING
COMBINING QUOTING AND PARAPHRASING
SHORT MEMORY QUIZ
QUOTING SOURCES
• When we quote, we …………………… the words of the original text
• When we quote, we put in the parenthesis the ___________________________
• When we have already introduced the name of the author we are quoting (i.e.
according to Rhys Tyler) we ___________________
• With short quotes, the punctuation mark comes ________________ the parenthetical
notation
• With long quotes , we _____________________________________
• In short essays, we avoid _______________ quotes
• With quotations, we generally try to logically and syntactically ________________them
• When we omit something from the quotation we use ___________, whereas when we
add something to it we use __________________
MORE ON QUOTING
CITING FROM UNKNOWN AUTHORS

• In-text example
• We see so many global warming hotspots in North America
likely because this region has “more readily accessible climatic
data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study
environmental change” (“Impact of Global Warming” 6).
CITING AUTHORS WITH SAME LAST
NAMES
• In-text Example:
• Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to
designer children (R. Miller 12), others note that the
advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration
(A. Miller 46).
CITING WORKS WITH MULTIPLE AUTHORS

• In-text examples
• Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed
in the United States (76).
• The authors state “Tighter gun control in the United States erodes
Second Amendment rights” (Smith, Yang, and Moore 76).

We use et al. (Jones et al.) when there are more than three authors
CITING MULTIPLE WORKS BY THE SAME
AUTHOR
• In-text Examples:
• Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small
children (“Too Soon” 38), though he has acknowledged elsewhere that
early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill
development in a child's second and third year (“Hand-Eye
Development” 17).
• Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be “too easy”
(Elkins, “Visual Studies” 63).
PARAPHRASING

A restatement of a text or a passage, giving the meaning in


another form (i.e. other words, different sentence structure)
STEP 1
READ YOUR TEXT CAREFULLY!
THINK!
• Think about the main idea until…….
UNDERSTAND!
GET AWAY
RETURN
WRITE
CHECK
CITE

https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resour
ce/619/1/
PARAPHRASING IS A VALUABLE SKILL
BECAUSE….
• it is better than quoting information from an undistinguished
passage.
• it helps you control the temptation to quote too much.
• the mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps
you to grasp the full meaning of the original.

• (quoted from
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/1/)
LET’S PRACTICE

• The original passage:


• Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes,
and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research]
paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript
should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should
strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source
materials while taking notes.
Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.
WHICH ONE IS LEGITIMATE PARAPHRASE?

• In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to


keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem
usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize
the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).
• Students often use too many direct quotations when they take
notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In
fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of
directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of
source material copied while taking notes. (Lester 46-47).
PRACTICE 2

• Annie Oakley's life spanned years of tremendous change for American women.
By the time of her death in 1926, Americans were celebrating the
liberated, urban-
focused, modern times of the Jazz Age. Women had won the right to vote, wo
re less restrictive clothes, and followed a
changing ideal that was loosening some of the restrictions on
women's roles and behavior that had reigned through the nineteenth century.

• “Annie Oakley: In a Man’s World.” American Experience. 2006. PBS Online. 19 M


ay 2008.
WHICH ONE IS LEGITIMATE PARAPHRASE?

• Annie Oakley’s life spanned years of significant changes for American women. By the
time she died in 1926, women had the vote, wore looser clothing, and embraced the
freedom from restrictive 19th century roles and behaviors (“Annie Oakley”)

• As discussed in the biography on PBS’s American Experience web page, sharpshooter


Annie Oakley lived through a period of many liberating changes for women, from the
Victorian era through the first quarter of the 20th century. Examples include voting
rights for women as well as the freedom to wear comfortable and practical clothing
(“Annie Oakley”).
LET’S TRY IT OUT!

• It’s generally assumed that the entrance of women into the work force is
responsible for the collapse of home cooking, but that turns out to be only part of
the story. Yes, women with jobs outside the home spend less time cooking — but
so do women without jobs. The amount of time spent on food preparation in
America has fallen at the same precipitous rate among women who don’t work
outside the home as it has among women who do: in both cases, a decline of
about 40 percent since 1965. (Though for married women who don’t have jobs,
the amount of time spent cooking remains greater: 58 minutes a day, as
compared with 36 for married women who do have jobs.) In general, spending
on restaurants or takeout food rises with income. Women with jobs have more
money to pay corporations to do their cooking, yet all American women now
allow corporations to cook for them when they can
• 2. The twenties were the years when drinking was against the law,
and the law was a bad joke because everyone knew of a local bar
where liquor could be had. They were the years when organized
crime ruled the cities, and the police seemed powerless to do
anything against it. Classical music was forgotten while jazz
spread throughout the land, and men like Bix Beiderbecke, Louis
Armstrong, and Count Basie became the heroes of the young. The
flapper was born in the twenties, and with her bobbed hair and
short skirts, she symbolized, perhaps more than anyone or
anything else, America's break with the past. From Kathleen
Yancey, English 102 Supplemental Guide (1989): 25.