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PILE

FOUNDATIONS
INTRODUCTION
• WHAT IS PILE FOUNDATION ?

• WHAT IS PILE ?

• WHAT IS DEEP FOUNDATION ?

• USES OF PILES :
1. When simple spread foundation at a suitable depth is not possible
2. When soil compressible or water logged
3. When load coming from superstructure is very heavy
4. When distribution of load is uneven
5. When structures are to be constructed where, canals, deep drainage lines are
present
6. When structures are situated near sea shore or river bed
7. As fender piles in the construction of docks, piers & other marine structures.
BEHAVIOR OF SHALLOW AND DEEP FOUNDATION
UNDER DIFFERENT LOADING CONDITIONS
1. VERTICLE COMPRESSIVE LOADS

SHALLOW FOUNDATION – by bearing capacity

DEEP FOUNDATION – by combination of skin


friction and end bearing
2. VERTICLE UPLIFT FORCES

SHALLOW FOUNDATION – by dead DEEP FOUNDATION – by combination of skin


weight of foundation & soil above it friction and dead weight
3. HORIZONTAL LOADS

SHALLOW FOUNDATION – by friction


or adession developed along the
foundation along soil interface

DEEP FOUNDATION – by l.e.p


TYPES OF PILES
A.BASED ON TRANSFERRING OF LOADS
1. END BERAING PILES/ POINT BEARING PILES
2. FRICTION PILES
3. LATERALLY LOADED PILES
4. BATTER PILES
5. SHORT PILES
6. TENSION PILES
7. ANCHOR PILES
B. BASED ON MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION

1.TIMBER PILES
2.STEEL PILES
3.CEMENT CONCRETE PILES : 1) cast-in-situ : i) cased cast-in situ piles
ii) uncased cast-in situ piles

4. COMPOSITE PILES
C. BASED UPON CROSS- SECTION

• CIRCULAR PILES
• RECTANGULAR PILES
• SQUARE PILES
• HEXAGONAL PILES
• I- SECTION PILES
• H- SECTION PILES
D. BASED UPON SHAPE
• CYLINDRICLE PILES
• TAPPERED
• UNDER-REAMED
E. BASED UPON METHOD OF
FORMING
• PRECAST PILES
• PRESTRESSED PILES
• CAST-IN- SITU
F. BASED UPON METHOD OF
INSTALLATION
• DRIVEN PILES
• BORED PILES
• VIBRATED PILES
G. BASED UPON EFFECT OF
INSTALLATION OF PILES ON THE SOIL
• DIPLACEMENT PILES
• NON- DISPLACEMENT PILES
CASED CAST-IN-SITU CONCRETE PILES
1. casing should be verticle
2. Casing protects fresh concrete against ground pressures, intrusions and
movements during the setting concrete.
3. Length of casing can be adjusted as per the subsoil conditions.
4. Types of cased cast-in-situ piles :
• Raymond piles
• Mac-arthur piles
• Mono tube piles
• Sewage piles
• Button- bottom piles
UNCASED CAST-IN-SITU CONCRETE PILES :
1. Cheaper, but great skill is needed to get the desired results.
2. Likely to get damaged from subsoil pressure and ground
movements.
3. Inspection should be made before and after the installation, as
no inspection is possible after they are installed.
4. Types of uncased cast-in-situ piles :
• Simplex piles
• Franki piles
• Vibro piles
• Pedestal piles
1. Simplex piles
Franki piles
Vibro piles
Non load bearing piles
Purpose
1. Isolate foundations from adjacent soil, preventing shocks and vibrations from
adjacent structures.
2. Prevent underground movement of water.
3. Prevents transfer of machine vibrations to adjacent structures.
4. Protect river banks.
5. Confine soil and hence increasing bearing capacity.
6. Protect the foundation of a structure from erosion by neighbooring stream,
river, sea etc.
7. Work as cut off walls under dams.
• TYPES OF NON LOAD BEARING PILES
1. concrete sheet piles
2. steel sheet piles
3. timber sheet piles
• CONCRETE SHEET PILES
1. Always precast
2. Square or rectangular and driven side by side
3. Width of RCC piles varies from 50 to 60 cm, thickness from 20
to 60 mm
4. r/f is in the form of vertical bars and hoops.
5. To make them water tight they are placed such that, grooves
are formed which are later filled by cement mortar ( 1:3)
•STEEL SHEET PILES
• commonly used these days
• made from steel sheets 20 cm to 30 cm wide and 4 to 5 meter
long with interlocking arrangments
• easily driven and withdrawn.
• used as peramnent works in marine structure.
TYPES :
1. Arc web steel sheet pile
2. Built- up or trough shaped steel sheet piles
3. Deep arch web steel sheet piles
4. Straight web sheet piles
5. Universal joist steel sheet piles
6. Z-type steel sheet piles
1. Arc web steel sheet pile

2. Built- up or trough shaped steel sheet piles


3. Deep arch web steel sheet piles and 4. straight sheet piles

5. Universal joist steel sheet piles


6. Z-type steel sheet piles
PRE- CAST CONCRETE :

• These are cast and cured at casting yard and then transported to
the sites for driving.
• Size : 30 to 50 m and length 4.5 to 30 m.
• Function of reinforcement in a pre-cast pile is to resist the
stresses produced on account of its handling and loading which
the pile is finally expected to receive.