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Technology Training

December 4, 2012
saket.n@mail01.huawei.com
Outline
• LTE radio resources
• Duplex techniques – FDD / TDD
• Multiple antenna techniques
• Reference signals
• Throughput calculation
• Rank Index
• PCI (Physical cell identity)
• Cyclic prefix (CP)
• Network architecture

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Resource Block
• LTE – radio resource = “time-frequency chunk”
Resource Block (RB) = 12
carriers in one TS
(12*15KHz x 0.5ms)

• Time domain
 1 frame = 10 ms = 10 sub-frames
 1 subframe = 1 ms = 2 time slots
 1 slot = 0.5 ms = 7 (or 6) OFDM
symbols
• Frequency domain
 1 OFDM carrier = 15KHz

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Scalable Bandwidth
Parameter Value
Bandwidth (MHz) 1.4 3 5 10 15 20
Frame /subframe
10/1 ms
duration

Subcarrier spacing 15KHz

Resource blocks 6 15 25 50 75 100


Number of used
72 180 300 600 900 1200
subcarriers

OFDM symbols /slot 7 (normal CP), 6 (extended CP)

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TDD & FDD

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TDD frame configurations
• Different configurations allow
balancing between DL and UL
capacity
• Adjacent cells have same allocation

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TDD Special Subframe Configurations

Special Subframe Formats

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Multi antenna techniques
• LTE uses of multiple antennas at Downlink MIMO
both communication ends
• MIMO Techniques
– Spatial multiplexing
– TX diversity
– SDMA (Space division multiple access)
– Beam forming

Uplink MIMO

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Reference signals
• Reference signals :
– Cell search & initial acquisition
– DL channel quality estimation

• Mainly there are two type of reference signals


1. Cell specific DL reference signals
– Every DL subframe
– Across entire DL bandwidth
2. UE specific DL reference signals
– Intended for individual UE’s

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Cell specific reference signals
• There are 504 different Reference Sequences (RS)
• They are linked to PHY-layer cell identities
• Shifts are introduced to avoid collision between RS of adjacent cells
• For a given PHY Cell ID - sequence is the same regardless of the bandwidth used.

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UE Specific RS
• UE specific RS – used for beam forming
• Provided in addition to cell specific RS
• Sent over resource block allocated for DL-SCH (applicable only
for data transmission)

Note: additional reference signals


increase overhead. One of the most
beneficial use of beam forming is at the
cell edge – improves SNR

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Throughput calculation
• An exercise to calculate throughput for different configurations.

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Rank Index

• Represents the number of layers to be used in downlink


transmission.
• Rank Index values are proposed by the UE based on the radio
conditions.
• eNodeB may or may not follow UE proposal.
• 2x2 MIMO
– Spatial multiplexing : RI = 2
– Transmit diversity : RI = 1
– SDMA: RI = 1
– Beam forming : RI = 1
• 4x4 MIMO
– Spatial Multiplexing : RI = 2, 3, 4.
– Transmit Diversity : RI = 1.
– SDMA: RI = 1
– Beam forming : RI = 1

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Physical cell identity (PCI)
• PCI = PSS + 3* SSS • Planning guidelines:
• Co PCI scenario must never happen.
• Primary synchronization signal :
• All 3 cells of a site should have same SSS.
– Frequency synchronization.
• PSS should be defined 0 for first sector, 1
– Time slot synchronization.
for second sector, 2 for third sector.
– 3 PSS values (0,1,2)
• Some SSS should be reserved for indoor
• Secondary synchronization signal : sites i.e. (151 – 167).
– Radio frame synchronization.
– TDD/FDD duplex information.
– CP length.
– 168 SSS values, (0 to 167).
• 3*168 = 504 different PCI values.

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Cyclic prefix
• Multipath propagation degrades orthogonality between carriers, to regain the orthogonality –
cyclic prefix is used.
• Copying the last part of a symbol shape for a duration of guard-time and attaching it in front of the
symbol.
• A receiver typically uses the last part of the following symbol to locate the start of the symbol and
begin then with decoding.
• Normal CP : Length is 4.7 us. With normal CP, 7 symbols per time slot.
• Extended CP : Length is16.7 us. 6 symbols per time slot.

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LTE Architecture

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Evolved packet core (EPC)
• MME (Mobility Management Entity)
– Control plane function.
– Idle mode tracking.
– Allocation of temporary identities to UE.
– Paging.
– Choosing the SGW for UE during initial attach.
– User authentication & interaction with HSS (home subscriber server).
– Roaming.
• SGW (Serving Gateway)
– User plane function.
– Carry data packets.
• PGW (PDN Gateway)
– Connects to the external data network.

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