Factor Analysis method and its use.

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Factor Analysis method and its use.

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Factor Analysis

Discuss factor analysis and its difference with

respect to other data analysis techniques

including Anova, Regression, and Discriminant

Analysis.

Give some examples of applications of Factor

Analysis.

Discuss the formulation of the model in Factor

Analysis

Steps associated with conducting Factor

Analysis

Two common methods of doing Factor

Analysis

Rotation of Factor

Determination of fit of a model.

19-2

Factor Analysis

Factor analysis is a general name denoting a class

of procedures primarily used for data reduction and

summarization.

Factor analysis is an interdependence technique

in that an entire set of interdependent relationships is

examined without making the distinction between

dependent and independent variables.

Factor analysis is used in the following

circumstances:

To identify underlying dimensions, or factors, that

explain the correlations among a set of variables.

To identify a new, smaller, set of uncorrelated

variables to replace the original set of correlated

variables in subsequent multivariate analysis

Factor analysis assumes that the observed

variables are linear combinations of some

underlying (hypothetical or

observable)factors.

Some of the factors are assumed to be

common to 2 or more variables and some are

assumed to be unique to each variable.

much smaller in number than the number of

observed variable) contribute to the

covariation among observed variables.

Why to use Factor Analysis

What makes consumer to buy a product.

There may be 20 purchasing criteria.

How to Identify latent or underlying factors from an

array of seemingly important criteria?

larger set for use in subsequent multivariariate analysis.

co-relation of variables, reduces their number in to fewer

factors which explains much of the original data more

economically.

Validity

Construct Validity : A scale possesses validity

when it actually measures what it claims to measure.

When some trait is to be measured and it is not manifested

in any simple and specific behavior, then it is difficult to

measure that trait.

19-6

Construct indicators should be internally consistent

items

between constructs

19-7

Intelligence Trust

Effect Indicator Model

GP Cl Ver GI H H2 B1 B2

€ €2 €3 €4 € €2 €3 €4

19-8

F1=Trust F2=SES

Effect Indicator Model

11 12 13 14 11 12 13 14

H1 H2 B1 B2 Ed Occ Inc Ne

€ €2 €3 €4

19-9

F1 F2

Effect Indicator Model

11 12 13 14 11

14

12 13

Y Y Y Y X X X X

€ €2 €3 €4

Causal Indicators

Socioeconomic Status:

Education; Income; Occupational Prestige; Neighborhood.

Exposure to Discrimination:

Race, Sex, Age and Disabilities.

Life Stress:

Job Loss, divorce, recent bodily injury, death in family

Structural Bonding

Economic; legal; Strategic; Technical; Formal relationship.

Dependence:

Cost;Benefit;Available of alterantives

Effect Indicators

Trust:

Honest, Benevolence

Intelligence:

GPA, In-class behavior;test-taking ability

under anxiety;Verbal.

Social Bonding:

Personal; Social; family; personal interaction.

Structural Bonding:“degree to which certain ties and link hold a buyer

and seller together in a relationship as a result of some mutually

beneficial economic, strategic, technological, or organizational

objective”. (Williams et. al., 1998)

Scale Used:1= Very unimportant----- 7=very important.

1. Economic benefits associated with your relationship with your bank.

2. Formal contracts or agreements between your firm and Bank

3. Sharing of industry or competitive information between your firm

and bank

4. Electronic ties or linkages between your business firm and bank

(such as electronics mail, access to computerized banking transaction

system etc.)

5. Exchange cards, gifts and the like on birthdays, holidays or on

special events between your firm and bank

Trust:Trust is the perceived credibility and benevolence

of a target of trust (cf.Ganesan 1994; Kumar et al 1995;

Doney and Canon 1997))

Scale Used:1= Strongly disagree----- 7=Strongly agree

1. Our bank rep. has been frank in dealing with us.

2. Our bank can always be counted on to do right thing

3. Our bank does not make false claims.

4. Though circumstances may change, I believe that

our bank will always be ready and willing to offer us

assistance and support.

5. While taking important decision our bank is

concerned about our welfare

6. Based on past experience I can say our bank is

trustworthy

Social Bonding:“is the bonding that takes place between

the individuals of the buyer and seller organization on a

personal and social basis.(Williams et. al., 1998)

Scale Used:

1= Very unimportant----- 7=very important.

1. Establishing personal relationship with you and your

bank representative.

2. Sharing of personal advice or support with your bank

representative.

3.Feelings of belongingness or acceptance between you

and your bank representative

4. Friendship between you and your bank

representative.

19-15

Communality. Communality is the amount of

variance a variable shares with all the other variables

being considered. This is also the proportion of

variance explained by the common factors.

Eigenvalue. The eigenvalue represents the total

variance explained by each factor.

Factor loadings. Factor loadings are simple

correlations between the variables and the factors.

Factor loading plot. A factor loading plot is a plot

of the original variables using the factor loadings as

coordinates.

Factor matrix. A factor matrix contains the factor

loadings of all the variables on all the factors

extracted.

19-16

Factor scores. Factor scores are composite scores

estimated for each respondent on the derived factors.

Percentage of variance. The percentage of the total

variance attributed to each factor.

Residuals are the differences between the observed

correlations, as given in the input correlation matrix, and

the reproduced correlations, as estimated from the factor

matrix.

Scree plot. A scree plot is a plot of the Eigenvalues

against the number of factors in order of extraction.

19-17

Mathematically, each variable is expressed as a linear combination

of underlying factors. The covariation among the variables is

described in terms of a small number of common factors plus a

unique factor for each variable. If the variables are standardized,

the factor model may be represented as:

where

Xi = i th standardized variable

Aij = standardized multiple regression coefficient of

variable i on common factor j

F = common factor

Vi = standardized regression coefficient of variable i on

unique factor i

Ui = the unique factor for variable i

m = number of common factors

19-18

The unique factors are uncorrelated with each other and with the

common factors. The common factors themselves can be

expressed as linear combinations of the observed variables.

where

Fi = estimate of i th factor

Wi = weight or factor score coefficient

k = number of variables

19-19

Fig 19.1 Problem formulation

Rotation of Factors

Interpretation of Factors

Calculation of Selection of

Factor Scores Surrogate Variables

Conducting Factor Analysis

19-20

The variables to be included in the factor analysis

should be specified based on past research, theory,

and judgment of the researcher. It is important that

the variables be appropriately measured on an

interval or ratio scale.

An appropriate sample size should be used. As a

rough guideline, there should be at least four or five

times as many observations (sample size) as there

are variables.

Conducting Factor Analysis

19-21

prior knowledge, the researcher knows how many

factors to expect and thus can specify the number of

factors to be extracted beforehand.

approach, only factors with Eigenvalues greater than

1.0 are retained. An Eigenvalue represents the

amount of variance associated with the factor.

Hence, only factors with a variance greater than 1.0

are included. Factors with variance less than 1.0 are

no better than a single variable, since, due to

standardization, each variable has a variance of 1.0.

If the number of variables is less than 20, this

approach will result in a conservative number of

factors.

Conducting Factor Analysis

19-22

correlations between the variables.

Bartlett's test of sphericity. Bartlett's test of

hypothesis that the variables are uncorrelated in the

population. In other words, the population

correlation matrix is an identity matrix; each variable

correlates perfectly with itself (r = 1) but has no

correlation with the other variables (r = 0).

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling

adequacy. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure

of sampling adequacy is an index used to examine

the appropriateness of factor analysis. High values

(between 0.5 and 1.0) indicate factor analysis is

appropriate. Values below 0.5 imply that factor

analysis may not be appropriate.

Conducting Factor Analysis

19-23

In principal components analysis, the total variance in

the data is considered. The diagonal of the correlation

matrix consists of unities, and full variance is brought into

the factor matrix. Principal components analysis is

recommended when the primary concern is to determine

the minimum number of factors that will account for

maximum variance in the data for use in subsequent

multivariate analysis. The factors are called principal

components.

based only on the common variance. Communalities are

inserted in the diagonal of the correlation matrix. This

method is appropriate when the primary concern is to

identify the underlying dimensions and the common

variance is of interest. This method is also known as

principal axis factoring.

19-24

RESPONDENT

Table 19.1 NUMBER V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6

1 7.00 3.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 4.00

2 1.00 3.00 2.00 4.00 5.00 4.00

3 6.00 2.00 7.00 4.00 1.00 3.00

4 4.00 5.00 4.00 6.00 2.00 5.00

5 1.00 2.00 2.00 3.00 6.00 2.00

6 6.00 3.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 4.00

7 5.00 3.00 6.00 3.00 4.00 3.00

8 6.00 4.00 7.00 4.00 1.00 4.00

9 3.00 4.00 2.00 3.00 6.00 3.00

10 2.00 6.00 2.00 6.00 7.00 6.00

11 6.00 4.00 7.00 3.00 2.00 3.00

12 2.00 3.00 1.00 4.00 5.00 4.00

13 7.00 2.00 6.00 4.00 1.00 3.00

14 4.00 6.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 6.00

15 1.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 6.00 4.00

16 6.00 4.00 6.00 3.00 3.00 4.00

17 5.00 3.00 6.00 3.00 3.00 4.00

18 7.00 3.00 7.00 4.00 1.00 4.00

19 2.00 4.00 3.00 3.00 6.00 3.00

20 3.00 5.00 3.00 6.00 4.00 6.00

21 1.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 5.00 3.00

22 5.00 4.00 5.00 4.00 2.00 4.00

23 2.00 2.00 1.00 5.00 4.00 4.00

24 4.00 6.00 4.00 6.00 4.00 7.00

25 6.00 5.00 4.00 2.00 1.00 4.00

26 3.00 5.00 4.00 6.00 4.00 7.00

27 4.00 4.00 7.00 2.00 2.00 5.00

28 3.00 7.00 2.00 6.00 4.00 3.00

29 4.00 6.00 3.00 7.00 2.00 7.00

30 2.00 3.00 2.00 4.00 7.00 2.00

19-25

Correlation Matrix

Table 19.2

Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6

V1 1.000

V2 -0.530 1.000

V3 0.873 -0.155 1.000

V4 -0.086 0.572 -0.248 1.000

V5 -0.858 0.020 -0.778 -0.007 1.000

V6 0.004 0.640 -0.018 0.640 -0.136 1.000

V3(strong gums) and V5(prevention of tooth decay):Health

Benefit

and v6(attractive teeth): (Social Benefit)

19-26

Table 19.3

divided by sum of all eigen value.

Factor Eigen value % of variance Cumulat. %

1 2.731 45.520 45.520

2 2.218 36.969 82.488

3 0.442 7.360 89.848

4 0.341 5.688 95.536

5 0.183 3.044 98.580

6 0.085 1.420 100.000

19-27

Table 19.3 cont.

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Factor Eigen value % of variance Cumulat. %

1 2.731 45.520 45.520

2 2.218 36.969 82.488

Factor Matrix

Variables Factor 1 Factor 2

V1 0.928 0.253

V2 -0.301 0.795

V3 0.936 0.131

V4 -0.342 0.789

V5 -0.869 -0.351

V6 -0.177 0.871

Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings

Factor Eigenvalue % of variance Cumulat. %

1 2.688 44.802 44.802

2 2.261 37.687 82.488

19-28

Table 19.3 cont.

Rotated Factor Matrix

Variables Factor 1 Factor 2

V1 0.962 -0.027

V2 -0.057 0.848

V3 0.934 -0.146

V4 -0.098 0.845

V5 -0.933 -0.084

V6 0.083 0.885

Variables Factor 1 Factor 2

V1 0.358 0.011

V2 -0.001 0.375

V3 0.345 -0.043

V4 -0.017 0.377

V5 -0.350 -0.059

V6 0.052 0.395

Conducting Factor Analysis

19-29

as follows:

Conducting Factor Analysis

19-30

plot is a plot of the Eigenvalues against the number

of factors in order of extraction. Experimental

evidence indicates that the point at which the scree

begins denotes the true number of factors.

Generally, the number of factors determined by a

scree plot will be one or a few more than that

determined by the Eigenvalue criterion.

Variance. In this approach the number of factors

extracted is determined so that the cumulative

percentage of variance extracted by the factors

reaches a satisfactory level. It is recommended that

the factors extracted should account for at least 60%

of the variance.

19-31

Scree Plot

Fig 19.2

3.0

2.5

2.0

Eigenvalue

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

1 2 3 4 5 6

Component Number

Conducting Factor Analysis

19-32

Rotate Factors

indicates the relationship between the factors and

individual variables, it seldom results in factors that

can be interpreted, because the factors are

correlated with many variables. Therefore, through

rotation the factor matrix is transformed into a

simpler one that is easier to interpret.

In rotating the factors, we would like each factor to

have nonzero, or significant, loadings or coefficients

for only some of the variables. Likewise, we would

like each variable to have nonzero or significant

loadings with only a few factors, if possible with only

one.

The rotation is called orthogonal rotation if the

axes are maintained at right angles.

Conducting Factor Analysis

19-33

Rotate Factors

varimax procedure. This is an orthogonal method

of rotation that minimizes the number of variables

with high loadings on a factor, thereby enhancing the

interpretability of the factors. Orthogonal rotation

results in factors that are uncorrelated.

The rotation is called oblique rotation when the

axes are not maintained at right angles, and the

factors are correlated. Sometimes, allowing for

correlations among factors can simplify the factor

pattern matrix. Oblique rotation should be used

when factors in the population are likely to be

strongly correlated.

Conducting Factor Analysis

19-34

Interpret Factors

variables that load high on it.

Another useful aid in interpretation is to plot the

variables, using the factor loadings as coordinates.

Variables at the end of an axis are those that have

high loadings on only that factor, and hence describe

the factor.

19-35

Fig 19.3

Rotated Component Matrix

Component

Variable 1 2

Component Plot in Rotated Space

Component 1 V1 0.962 -2.66E-02

V2 -5.72E-02 0.848

1.0

V4 V6

V3 0.934 -0.146

V2

V4 -9.83E-02 0.854

Component 2

0.5

V5 -0.933 -8.40E-02

0.0

V1 V6 8.337E-02 0.885

V5 V3

-0.5

-1.0

Conducting Factor Analysis

19-36

each factor the variable with the highest loading on

that factor. That variable could then be used as a

surrogate variable for the associated factor.

However, the choice is not as easy if two or more

variables have similarly high loadings. In such a

case, the choice between these variables should be

based on theoretical and measurement

considerations.

Conducting Factor Analysis

19-37

deduced or reproduced from the estimated

correlations between the variables and the factors.

The differences between the observed correlations

(as given in the input correlation matrix) and the

reproduced correlations (as estimated from the factor

matrix) can be examined to determine model fit.

These differences are called residuals.

19-38

Table 19.3 cont.

correlation matrix; the diagonal, the communalities;

the upper right triangle, the residuals between the

observed correlations and the reproduced

correlations.

Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6

V1 0.926 0.024 -0.029 0.031 0.038 -0.053

V2 -0.078 0.723 0.022 -0.158 0.038 -0.105

V3 0.902 -0.177 0.894 -0.031 0.081 0.033

V4 -0.117 0.730 -0.217 0.739 -0.027 -0.107

V5 -0.895 -0.018 -0.859 0.020 0.878 0.016

V6 0.057 0.746 -0.051 0.748 -0.152 0.790

19-39

Table 19.4

Communalities

Barlett test of sphericity

Variables Initial Extraction

V1 0.859 0.928 • Approx. Chi-Square = 111.314

V2 0.480 0.562 • df = 15

V3 0.814 0.836

• Significance = 0.00000

V4 0.543 0.600

V5 0.763 0.789 • Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of

V6 0.587 0.723 sampling adequacy = 0.660

Initial Eigenvalues

Factor Eigenvalue % of variance Cumulat. %

1 2.731 45.520 45.520

2 2.218 36.969 82.488

3 0.442 7.360 89.848

4 0.341 5.688 95.536

5 0.183 3.044 98.580

6 0.085 1.420 100.000

19-40

Table 19.4 cont.

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Factor Eigenvalue % of variance Cumulat. %

1 2.570 42.837 42.837

2 1.868 31.126 73.964

Factor Matrix

Variables Factor 1 Factor 2

V1 0.949 0.168

V2 -0.206 0.720

V3 0.914 0.038

V4 -0.246 0.734

V5 -0.850 -0.259

V6 -0.101 0.844

Factor Eigenvalue % of variance Cumulat. %

1 2.541 42.343 42.343

2 1.897 31.621 73.964

19-41

Table 19.4 cont.

Variables Factor 1 Factor 2

V1 0.963 -0.030

V2 -0.054 0.747

V3 0.902 -0.150

V4 -0.090 0.769

V5 -0.885 -0.079

V6 0.075 0.847

Variables Factor 1 Factor 2

V1 0.628 0.101

V2 -0.024 0.253

V3 0.217 -0.169

V4 -0.023 0.271

V5 -0.166 -0.059

V6 0.083 0.500

19-42

Table 19.4 cont.

correlation matrix; the diagonal, the communalities;

the upper right triangle, the residuals between the

observed correlations and the reproduced correlations.

Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6

V1 0.928 0.022 -0.000 0.024 -0.008 -0.042

V2 -0.075 0.562 0.006 -0.008 0.031 0.012

V3 0.873 -0.161 0.836 -0.005 0.008 0.042

V4 -0.110 0.580 -0.197 0.600 -0.025 -0.004

V5 -0.850 -0.012 -0.786 0.019 0.789 0.003

V6 0.046 0.629 -0.060 0.645 -0.133 0.723

19-43

SPSS Windows

Analyze>Data Reduction>Factor …

19-44

Factor Rotation

19-45

19-46

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