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# Chapter 1

VECTOR

VECTOR

Concept
- Unit Vector
- Position Vector
- Scalar Multiplication, Application of Vectors
subtraction - Area of parallelogram
- Scalar Product - Angle between two lines
- Vector Product - Point of intersection of
two lines
- Vector and Cartesian
equations of a line
- Vector and Cartesian
equation of a plane

Introduction to Vector
 A vector is a quantity that has both
magnitude and a direction in space.

 A scalar is a quantity having only
magnitude.

 Vector denoted by a single lower case bold
letter, p or lower case and underline it (i.e.
p) or by putting an arrow above the letter


OP

Exercises  Determine whether the following is a vector or scalar. c) The time taken to run round the block was 184s. d) A man walks 2 km on a bearing of 062o. b) The volume of the prism is 65cm3. e) A horizontal force of 3 N was applied at right angles to the length of the book. f) The velocity of the airplane is 800 km/h on a bearing 158o. . a) The distance between P and Q is 200m.

Directed Line segment  Vector represented by a directed line segment. and  The length of the line represents the magnitude of the vector. Direction of vectors B AB End point of directed line A segment  The arrow represents the direction from A to B. .

which we write it column.  Example  2 a=   is vector in two dimensions  3  4  b=     3 is vector in three dimensions  1     Zero Vectors ◦ Any vector with all its components zero.Component  A vector may be represented by its component. 0 ◦ Can be written as 0 =   0 0   .

 Simply the length of the vector  The modulus of the vector PQ is denoted by  the symbols | PQ |.MAGNITUDE  The modulus of a vector is its magnitude.   The modulus of the vector a is written |a|. .

MAGNITUDE  It can be calculated as follows     a if PQ    then PQ  a2  b2 b a       if PQ   b  then PQ  a2  b2  c2 c   .

y1 . z1  and x2 . z 2  d x2  x1  2   y 2  y1  2  ( z 2  z1 ) 2 units . y2 .Distance in Three Dimensions The distance between the points A and B  is dAB = AB The distance d between the point x1 .

exercise Example  5    12  1. Given 𝐴𝐵=   . find |𝐴𝐵| 8   5   2. Find the magnitude of a =  6     3  .

. Equality of Vectors B  Vectors are said to be equal D only if: A F ◦ They have the same magnitude C H and direction. E G a and b are equal  a and b have the same direction and a  b .

Equality of Vectors  Example: Figure shows parallelogram E D ABDE and BCDE. BC . AB  BC  ED ◦ ED and DE have same magnitude but different direction. therefore. A B C ◦ The directed line segment AB. ED  DE . and ED have same magnitude and direction. therefore.

AB  CD or CD   AB . Negative Vectors B  The directed line segment D AB and CD are equal length but A in opposite directions. C o The vectors AB and CD are negative vectors of each other and we write: a  b  a and b are in opposite direction and a  b .

 Using negative vector. ◦ Example 1: B BA  BO  OA     OB  OA b  b  a  a b O A a .

the vectors are related as follows: 𝑃𝑄 P Q  Let be the displacement from P to Q. the displacement 𝑃𝑄followed by the 𝑄𝑅 displacement . and 𝑃𝑅 be the displacement from P to R. . Addition of Vectors Triangle Law of Vector Addition R ◦ In the triangle PQR. is the displacement 𝑃𝑅 and we write: PQ  QR  PR  This process of adding the two vectors using the triangle PQR is known as the triangle law of addition. 𝑄𝑅 be the displacement from Q to R.  In physical situation.

Test yourself 1) Simplify : a) AB  BC  CF b) PQ  ST  QS  TU c) AC  FC  HF d) PQ  QR  QS  RQ .

◦ Then the sum of u+v is the diagonal of the parallelogram. (same as the triangle law for addition. as in the figure above. ◦ Note: v = AC = BD. . which starts at the same initial point. C D v u+v A u B ◦ Let the two vectors be the two sides of a parallelogram. therefore u+v = AB + BD = AD ◦ This process of adding and using the parallelogram ABCD is known as the Parallelogram law. Addition of Vectors 2) Parallelogram Law of Vector Addition ◦ Refer to the parallelogram ABCD.

T is the midpoint of AD.Exercise ABCD is a parallelogram with 𝐵𝐶 = 𝒎. 𝐵𝐴 = 𝒏. Express 𝐴𝐶 . . 𝐵𝐷 and 𝐵𝑇 in term of m and n.

A. Find 𝐴𝐵. 𝑂𝐶 = 2𝒂 − 3𝒃 and 𝑂𝐷 = 5𝒂 − 𝒃. .𝐴𝐶.Exercise  O. 𝑂𝐵 = 𝒃. 𝐵𝐶. C and D are 5 points with 𝑂𝐴 = 𝒂. B. 𝐶𝐷 and 𝐷𝐵 in terms of a and b.

Algebraic Properties of Vector  Vector addition. . vector subtraction and scalar multiplication are operations involving algebraic properties similar to real numbers.

.

Example 2 5  Given vector 𝑂𝐴 = 1 and 𝑂𝐵 = 2 . 3 4 Find the vector 𝐴𝐵. .

y. z). y  Column vector:  x O p   y  x z    • In term of basic vector: 𝒑 = 𝑥𝒊 + 𝑦𝒋 + 𝑧𝒌 . Cartesian components of a vector in 3D ◦ If Vector P has coordinates (x. z) in a Cartesian plane. z P (x. z)  Coordinates  Row vector: p = (x. y. then the position vector of P can be written as OP = P. y.

 Unit vector Where i . j and z are unit vectors in the positive direction along the x-axis and the y-axis respectively. . The magnitude of the vector P.

.Exercise Find unit vector of 𝑃𝑄 = 2𝑖 + 5𝑗 + 7𝑧.

. find a) ‫ ׀‬a-b‫׀‬ b) 2a + 3b c) a unit vector in the direction of 2a – b.Exercise Given that a = 2i – 6j + 3k and b= – i +7j – 5k.

(a) a = i – j . b= 3i+2j-3k 2. B(1. 2. b = 2i + j -2k (b) a = 6i -2j +2k . A(2. Calculate the distance between A and B of each the following. BC and AC. . 3). Find the vectors AB. The position vectors of points A and B are a and b respectively. 1) and C(-1. -2. 0. Hence calculate the lengths of the sides of the triangle. b=-i + 2j +6k (c) a = 2i-2j+k . 2) are vertices of a triangle.Exercise 1.

Find (a) a + b + c (b) a – c (c) 2(b .3c) .Exercise 1. If a=2i+4j-5k. b=i-3j+4k and c=5i-2k.

Exercise  The point A and B have position vectors by a=2i-j+3k and b=4i+3j-k respectively a) Find the vector b – a b) Calculate the distance between A and B c) Find a unit vector in the direction of vector b – a. .

find. in terms of a and b: (a) CD (b) AE (c) DB (d) DE . If AB= a.Exercise ABCD is a trapezium with BC parallel to AD. BC = 1/3AD and E is the mid point of BC. BC= b.

in terms of a. where λ is a scalar. (b) Given that OE= λb. OA= a. in terms of a and b. Write down. λ and μ. where μ is a scalar. b and λ. Deduce the values of λ and μ. an expression for CE . Write down. OB = b and C divides AB in the ratio 5:1 (a) Write down. in terms of a. C A B E O D . expressions for AB. (c) Given that OD= μ (b – a). an expression for ED.Exercise In the figure. (d) Given also that E is the mid-point of CD. AC and OC . b.

a a or b b . Parallel vectors  From scalar multiplication of vector.  If  is negative then a is in the opposite direction to b. that is: a  b  If  is positive then a is in the same direction as b. ◦ If two vectors a and b are parallel then one is a scalar multiple of the other.

. except when  .) since a and b are not parallel. where . . a  b  a  b where a and b are non  parallel     and    .  are scalars.)b ◦ ( .)  ( . = 0. = 0 and  . that is:  = .)a = ( . and  = .a = b . then: ◦ a . . Non-parallel vectors  If a and b are not parallel and a + b = a + b.b ( .

Find the value of  and  . If (m-3)a=(n-m+1)b. Exercise 1. Vector a and b are not parallel. The vectors a and b are not parallel and             a  (   1) b 7 a  (  2) b where  and  are scalar. find the values of m and n? 2.

(λ – 4)a + (2 – μ)b=0 d) (2λ – 3) a + 7b = (5– λ)a + (2 – μ)b .Exercise 3. Find the value of λ and μ given that a and b are not parallel: a) 5a + λb = (6 – μ)a + 7b b) (8 + λ)a + (μ – 2)b =0 c) 2a + 3b .

B. The converse is also C true. B. and C lie on a straight line. Hence. and C are collinear  AB  k BC . A A. and C. Collinear points ◦ Figure shows three distinct points. . B the vectors AB and BC are parallel. where k is a scalar . B. ◦ If A. we have the following results: Three distinct points A.

B and C are collinear. .Exercise  If OA = 6a. Show that the point A. OB = 3b and OC = 4a + b.

C and D are collinear. Show that B. . C and D are four points with 𝐴𝐵=3b 𝐴𝐶=6b-3a and 𝐴𝐷=3a. B.Exercise  A.