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VECTOR

VECTOR

Concept

- Unit Vector

- Position Vector

- Scalar Multiplication, Application of Vectors

addition and

subtraction - Area of parallelogram

- Scalar Product - Angle between two lines

- Vector Product - Point of intersection of

two lines

- Vector and Cartesian

equations of a line

- Vector and Cartesian

equation of a plane

Introduction to Vector

A vector is a quantity that has both

magnitude and a direction in space.

** A scalar is a quantity having only
**

magnitude.

** Vector denoted by a single lower case bold
**

letter, p or lower case and underline it (i.e.

p) or by putting an arrow above the letter

OP

Exercises Determine whether the following is a vector or scalar. c) The time taken to run round the block was 184s. d) A man walks 2 km on a bearing of 062o. b) The volume of the prism is 65cm3. e) A horizontal force of 3 N was applied at right angles to the length of the book. f) The velocity of the airplane is 800 km/h on a bearing 158o. . a) The distance between P and Q is 200m.

Directed Line segment Vector represented by a directed line segment. and The length of the line represents the magnitude of the vector. Direction of vectors B AB End point of directed line A segment The arrow represents the direction from A to B. .

which we write it column. Example 2 a= is vector in two dimensions 3 4 b= 3 is vector in three dimensions 1 Zero Vectors ◦ Any vector with all its components zero.Component A vector may be represented by its component. 0 ◦ Can be written as 0 = 0 0 .

Simply the length of the vector The modulus of the vector PQ is denoted by the symbols | PQ |.MAGNITUDE The modulus of a vector is its magnitude. The modulus of the vector a is written |a|. .

MAGNITUDE It can be calculated as follows a if PQ then PQ a2 b2 b a if PQ b then PQ a2 b2 c2 c .

y1 . z1 and x2 . z 2 d x2 x1 2 y 2 y1 2 ( z 2 z1 ) 2 units . y2 .Distance in Three Dimensions The distance between the points A and B is dAB = AB The distance d between the point x1 .

exercise Example 5 12 1. Given 𝐴𝐵= . find |𝐴𝐵| 8 5 2. Find the magnitude of a = 6 3 .

. Equality of Vectors B Vectors are said to be equal D only if: A F ◦ They have the same magnitude C H and direction. E G a and b are equal a and b have the same direction and a b .

Equality of Vectors Example: Figure shows parallelogram E D ABDE and BCDE. BC . AB BC ED ◦ ED and DE have same magnitude but different direction. therefore. A B C ◦ The directed line segment AB. ED DE . and ED have same magnitude and direction. therefore.

AB CD or CD AB . Negative Vectors B The directed line segment D AB and CD are equal length but A in opposite directions. C o The vectors AB and CD are negative vectors of each other and we write: a b a and b are in opposite direction and a b .

Using negative vector. ◦ Example 1: B BA BO OA OB OA b b a a b O A a .

the vectors are related as follows: 𝑃𝑄 P Q Let be the displacement from P to Q. the displacement 𝑃𝑄followed by the 𝑄𝑅 displacement . and 𝑃𝑅 be the displacement from P to R. . Addition of Vectors Triangle Law of Vector Addition R ◦ In the triangle PQR. is the displacement 𝑃𝑅 and we write: PQ QR PR This process of adding the two vectors using the triangle PQR is known as the triangle law of addition. 𝑄𝑅 be the displacement from Q to R. In physical situation.

Test yourself 1) Simplify : a) AB BC CF b) PQ ST QS TU c) AC FC HF d) PQ QR QS RQ .

◦ Then the sum of u+v is the diagonal of the parallelogram. (same as the triangle law for addition. as in the figure above. ◦ Note: v = AC = BD. . which starts at the same initial point. C D v u+v A u B ◦ Let the two vectors be the two sides of a parallelogram. therefore u+v = AB + BD = AD ◦ This process of adding and using the parallelogram ABCD is known as the Parallelogram law. Addition of Vectors 2) Parallelogram Law of Vector Addition ◦ Refer to the parallelogram ABCD.

T is the midpoint of AD.Exercise ABCD is a parallelogram with 𝐵𝐶 = 𝒎. 𝐵𝐴 = 𝒏. Express 𝐴𝐶 . . 𝐵𝐷 and 𝐵𝑇 in term of m and n.

A. Find 𝐴𝐵. 𝑂𝐶 = 2𝒂 − 3𝒃 and 𝑂𝐷 = 5𝒂 − 𝒃. .𝐴𝐶.Exercise O. 𝑂𝐵 = 𝒃. 𝐵𝐶. C and D are 5 points with 𝑂𝐴 = 𝒂. B. 𝐶𝐷 and 𝐷𝐵 in terms of a and b.

Algebraic Properties of Vector Vector addition. . vector subtraction and scalar multiplication are operations involving algebraic properties similar to real numbers.

.

Example 2 5 Given vector 𝑂𝐴 = 1 and 𝑂𝐵 = 2 . 3 4 Find the vector 𝐴𝐵. .

y. z). y Column vector: x O p y x z • In term of basic vector: 𝒑 = 𝑥𝒊 + 𝑦𝒋 + 𝑧𝒌 . Cartesian components of a vector in 3D ◦ If Vector P has coordinates (x. z) in a Cartesian plane. z P (x. z) Coordinates Row vector: p = (x. y. then the position vector of P can be written as OP = P. y.

Unit vector Where i . j and z are unit vectors in the positive direction along the x-axis and the y-axis respectively. . The magnitude of the vector P.

.Exercise Find unit vector of 𝑃𝑄 = 2𝑖 + 5𝑗 + 7𝑧.

. find a) ׀a-b׀ b) 2a + 3b c) a unit vector in the direction of 2a – b.Exercise Given that a = 2i – 6j + 3k and b= – i +7j – 5k.

(a) a = i – j . b= 3i+2j-3k 2. B(1. 2. b = 2i + j -2k (b) a = 6i -2j +2k . A(2. Calculate the distance between A and B of each the following. BC and AC. . 3). Find the vectors AB. The position vectors of points A and B are a and b respectively. 1) and C(-1. -2. 0. Hence calculate the lengths of the sides of the triangle. b=-i + 2j +6k (c) a = 2i-2j+k . 2) are vertices of a triangle.Exercise 1.

Find (a) a + b + c (b) a – c (c) 2(b .3c) .Exercise 1. If a=2i+4j-5k. b=i-3j+4k and c=5i-2k.

Exercise The point A and B have position vectors by a=2i-j+3k and b=4i+3j-k respectively a) Find the vector b – a b) Calculate the distance between A and B c) Find a unit vector in the direction of vector b – a. .

find. in terms of a and b: (a) CD (b) AE (c) DB (d) DE . If AB= a.Exercise ABCD is a trapezium with BC parallel to AD. BC = 1/3AD and E is the mid point of BC. BC= b.

in terms of a. where λ is a scalar. (b) Given that OE= λb. OA= a. in terms of a and b. Write down. λ and μ. where μ is a scalar. b and λ. Deduce the values of λ and μ. an expression for CE . Write down. OB = b and C divides AB in the ratio 5:1 (a) Write down. in terms of a. C A B E O D . expressions for AB. (c) Given that OD= μ (b – a). an expression for ED.Exercise In the figure. (d) Given also that E is the mid-point of CD. AC and OC . b.

a a or b b . Parallel vectors From scalar multiplication of vector. If is negative then a is in the opposite direction to b. that is: a b If is positive then a is in the same direction as b. ◦ If two vectors a and b are parallel then one is a scalar multiple of the other.

. except when .) since a and b are not parallel. where . . a b a b where a and b are non parallel and . are scalars.)b ◦ ( .) ( . = 0. = 0 and . that is: = .)a = ( . and = .a = b . then: ◦ a . . Non-parallel vectors If a and b are not parallel and a + b = a + b.b ( .

Find the value of and . If (m-3)a=(n-m+1)b. Exercise 1. Vector a and b are not parallel. The vectors a and b are not parallel and a ( 1) b 7 a ( 2) b where and are scalar. find the values of m and n? 2.

(λ – 4)a + (2 – μ)b=0 d) (2λ – 3) a + 7b = (5– λ)a + (2 – μ)b .Exercise 3. Find the value of λ and μ given that a and b are not parallel: a) 5a + λb = (6 – μ)a + 7b b) (8 + λ)a + (μ – 2)b =0 c) 2a + 3b .

B. The converse is also C true. B. and C lie on a straight line. Hence. and C are collinear AB k BC . A A. and C. Collinear points ◦ Figure shows three distinct points. . B the vectors AB and BC are parallel. where k is a scalar . B. ◦ If A. we have the following results: Three distinct points A.

B and C are collinear. .Exercise If OA = 6a. Show that the point A. OB = 3b and OC = 4a + b.

C and D are collinear. Show that B. . C and D are four points with 𝐴𝐵=3b 𝐴𝐶=6b-3a and 𝐴𝐷=3a. B.Exercise A.

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