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# Kinematics of Machinery

K.Naveen. M.E.
Asst.Professor

FUNDAMENTALS
Mechanism:
A Mechanism is a combination of number of bodies (usually rigid bodies) are
assembled in such a way that the motion of one causes constrained and predictable
motion to the others.

A mechanism transmits and modifies a motion.
Machine:
A Machine is a mechanism or combination of mechanisms imparting definite
motions to the parts. Also, it transmits and modifies the available mechanical energy into
desired (or useful) work.

Rigid and Resistance bodies:
Rigid body:
A rigid body does not suffer any distortion (or the distance between any two
points on it remains constant) under the action of force.
Resistance bodies:
A resistance body suffer very lesser amount of distortion under the action of
force.(i.e.)The distortion or deformation is negligible.

For transmission purpose, resistance bodies considered as rigid bodies.
(E.g.) Belt

Engineering Mechanics:
It deals with study of rigid bodies under the influence of force.

Engineering Mechanics

Static Dynamics

Kinematics Kinetics
Static: It deals with study of rigid bodies under the influence of force in rest condition. (static
eequilibrium)

Dynamics: It deals with study of rigid bodies in motion.

Kinematics: It deals with study of rigid bodies in motion without considering the force which
produce the motion.

Kinetics: It deals with study of rigid bodies in motion with considering the force which produce
the motion

Unit III: Cam mechanisms .

reciprocating or oscillating.  A cam and the follower combination belong to the category of higher pair. printing control mechanisms. internal combustion engine machine tools.  Cams are widely used in automatic machines. milling or by punch-presses. .  Complicated output motions (which are difficult to achieve) can be easily produced with the help of cam. and so on. .Cam:  A cam is a mechanical member used to impart desired motion to a follower by direct contact. They are manufactured usually by die-casting.  The cam may be rotating or reciprocating whereas the follow may be rotating.

Necessary elements of a cam mechanism are: • A driver member known as the cam • A driven member called the follower • A frame which supports the cam and guides the follower .

I. and III. The follower F can either translate [or} oscillate. Follower movement. Shape II. . Manner of constraint of the follower.Types of Cam: Cams are classified according to: I. According to Shape:  Wedge and Flat Cams  Radial or Disc Cams  Spiral Cams  Cylindrical Cams  Conjugate Cams  Globoidal Cams  Spherical Cams Wedge and Flat Cams A wedge cam has a wedge which has a translational motion.

rotates about its axis. The velocity of the follower is proportional to the radial distance of the groove from the axis of the cam. The spiral groove consists of teeth which mesh with a pin gear follower. .Radial or Disc Cams A cam in which the follower moves radially from the centre of rotation of the cam is known as a radial or a disc cam Spiral Cams A spiral cam is a face cam in which a groove is cut in the form of a spiral as shown in Figure. Cylindrical Cams In a cylindrical cam. a cylinder which has a circumferential contour cut in the surface.

speed. Conjugate Cams A conjugate cam is a double-disc cam. Spherical Cams In a spherical cam. the follower oscillates about an axis parallel to the axis of rotation of the cam. the two discs being keyed together and are in constant touch with the two rollers of a follower. . Such type of cam is preferred when requirements are low wear. etc. follower has a positive constraint. Note that in a disc cam. better control of the follower. Globoidal Cams A Globoidal cam have two types of surfaces(convex and concave) . Thus. the follower oscillates about an axis perpendicular to the axis or rotation of the cam. A circumferential contour is cut on the surface of rotation of the cam to impart motion to the follower which has an oscillatory motion. low noise. high dynamic loads.

II. According to Follower Movement: Rise-Return-Rise (R-R-R) Dwell-Rise-Return-Dwell (D-R-R-D) Dwell-Rise-Dwell-Return-Dwell (D-R-D-R-D) .

According to Manner of Constraint of the Follower: Pre-loaded Spring Cam Positive-drive cam Gravity cam Pre-loaded Spring Cam Gravity cam Positive-drive cam . III.

Shape II. Movement.Types of Followers: Cam followers are classified according to: I. Location of line of movement According to Shape •Knife-edge Follower •Roller Follower •Mushroom Follower . and III.

According to Movement Reciprocating Follower Oscillating Follower According to Location of Line of Movement Radial Follower Offset Follower .

. Pitch curve: It is the curve drawn by the trace point assuming that the cam is fixed.DEFINITIONS: Base Circle: It is the smallest circle tangent to the cam profile (contour) drawn from the centre of rotation of a radial cam. and the trace point of the follower rotates around the cam. It represents the steepness of the cam profile. Trace point: It is a reference point on the follower to trace the cam profile such as the knife-edge of a knife-edged follower and centre of the roller of a roller follower. Pressure Angle: The pressure angle is angle between the normal to the pitch curve at a point and the direction of the follower motion. A high value of the maximum pressure angle is not desired as it might jam the follower in the bearings. It varies in magnitude at all instants of the follower motion.

Pitch point: It is the point on the pitch curve at which the pressure angle is maximum. Prime circle: The smallest circle drawn tangent to the pitch curve is known as the prime circle . Pitch circle: It is the circle passing through the pitch point and concentric with the base circle.

Angle of Action: Angle of action is the total angle moved by the cam during the time.FOLLOWER DISPLACEMENT PROGRAMMING: Angle of Ascent (or) Angle of Rise (or) Angle of outstroke (θO): It is the angle through which the cam turns during the time the follower rises. between the beginning of rise and the end of the return of the follower. Angle of Dwell (θD): Angle of dwell is the angle through which the cam turns while the follower remains stationary at the highest or the lowest position. . Angle of Descent (or) Angle of Return (θR): It is the angle through which the cam turns during the time the follower returns to the initial position.

e. The ordinate represents the displacement. Cycloidal motion. 1. Simple harmonic motion 3. Uniform velocity: The displacement. may have one of the following motions. velocity and acceleration diagrams when a knife-edged follower moves with uniform velocity are shown in Figure below. during its travel. Uniform acceleration and retardation.FOLLOWER MOTIONS: The follower. the number of seconds required for the cam to complete one revolution) or it may represent the angular displacement of the cam in degrees. 4. or velocity or acceleration of the follower. Uniform velocity 2. The abscissa (base) represents the time (i. 1. .

Displacement diagram Velocity diagram: Acceleration diagram: .

The stroke of the follower is 40 mm and the minimum radius of the cam is 50 mm. . Draw the profile of the cam when (a) the axis of the follower passes through the axis of the cam shaft.A cam is to give the following motion to a knife-edged follower : • Outstroke during 60° of cam rotation . • Dwell for the next 30° of cam rotation . The follower moves with uniform velocity during both the outstroke and return strokes. and (b) the axis of the follower is offset by 20 mm from the axis of the cam shaft.1. • Return stroke during next 60° of cam rotation. and • Dwell for the remaining 210° of cam rotation.

Displacement diagram: Scale X axis 1cm=50 Outstroke G Dwell H Return stroke Dwell Y F I E J D K 40mm C L B M A S T N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0’ 1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ 5’ 6’ X 600 300 600 2100 .

Outstroke G Dwell H Return stroke Dwell Y F I E J D K 40m C L m B M A S T N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 300 0’1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ 5’ 6’ 2100 X 600 600 E D F C B G A 1 0 2 3 4 5 6 600 H 0’ 300 1’ 2’ 600 I 3’ 4’ J 5’ 6’ K L M N .

Outstroke G Dwell H Return stroke Dwell
Y
F I
E J
D K 40mm
C L
B M
A S T N
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 300 0’1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ 5’ 6’ 2100 X
600
600
F E D
C
G B
3 2 1 A
4 0
5
6

H 0’
600
1’ 300
I `
2’ 600
J 3’
4’
K
L 5’
M 6’
N

Simple Harmonic motion:
Displacement diagram:

The displacement diagram is drawn
as follows :
1. Draw a semi-circle on the
follower stroke as diameter.
2. Divide the semi-circle into any
number of even equal parts (say eight).
Velocity diagram: 3. Divide the angular displacements
of the cam during out stroke and return
stroke into the same number of equal
parts.
4. The displacement diagram is
obtained by projecting the points as
Acceleration diagram: shown in figure.

Velocity diagram:
Velocity diagram consists of a sine
curve and the acceleration diagram is a
cosine curve.
Velocity of the follower is zero at
the beginning and at the end of its
Acceleration diagram: stroke and increases gradually to a
maximum at mid-stroke.
On the other hand, the acceleration
of the follower is maximum at the
beginning and at the ends of the stroke
and diminishes to zero at mid-stroke .

S = Stroke of the follower,
θO and θR = Angular displacement of the cam during out stroke and return stroke of the
ω= Angular velocity of the cam in rad/s.
Angular displaceme nt 
We know that, Angular ve locity   
time t

Time required for the out stroke of the follower in seconds, to = θo/ω

the return stroke.Maximum velocity of the follower on the Similarly. maximum velocity of the follower on outstroke the return stroke S 1  S   S  vo  v p   vR   2 0 2 t0 2 R Maximum acceleration of the follower Maximum acceleration of the follower on on the outstroke.  2 2 S  2 2 S aO  a p  aR  2 0  2 2 R  2 .

Speed N = 240 r.p.m. The radius of the base circle of the cam is 40 mm.524 rad. . 3. Cam lift = 40 mm during 90° of cam rotation with simple harmonic motion.047 rad .14 rad. Given : Cam lift S = 40 mm = 0. Dwell during the remaining 180°. Determine the maximum velocity and acceleration of the follower during its ascent and descent. Draw the profile of the cam when (a) the line of stroke of the follower passes through the axis of the cam shaft. Dwell angle θD2 = 1800 = π rad = 3. During the next 60° of cam rotation. 4.2. Angle of accent θO = 90° = π /2 rad = 1.04 m. the follower returns to its original position with simple harmonic motion.A cam is to be designed for a knife edge follower with the following data : 1. if the cam rotates at 240 rpm. Dwell for the next 30°. and (b) the line of stroke is offset 20 mm from the axis of the cam shaft. 2. Dwell angle θD1 = 300 = π /6 rad = 0.571 rad . Angle of decent θR = 60° =π /3 rad = 1.

Displacement diagram: G H e F J d E K 40mm c D L b C M a B A 0 1 2 3 4 5 6S N p R 0’ 1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ 5’ 6’ 900 300 600 1800 .

G H e e F J d ’d E D K ’c 40mm c L b ’b C M a ’a B A’0 1 2 3 4 5 6S N p R 0 1’ 2’ 3’ 4 5 6’ 900 300 ’ 600 ’ ’ 1800 D C B E 1 0A 2 3 F 4 5 900 G 6 300 0 60 0’ 1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ 5’ P 6’ ` L M N H K J .

G H e e F J d ’d E D K ’c 40mm c L b ’b C M a ’a B A’0 1 2 3 4 5 6S N p R 0 1’ 2’ 3’ 4 5 6’ 900 300 ’ 600 ’ ’ 1800 D C B E 2 1 3 A F 4 5 6 G 900 0’ 300 1’ 600 o 2’ H 3’ J 4’ 5’ K L M 6’ N P .

04   50.14  0.8 m/s 2 21.14  0.14 rad/s 60 60  2 2 S aO  2 0  2 We also know that the maximum velocity of the follower during its ascent.  2 2 S and maximum velocity of the follower during its aR  2 R  2 descent.047   113.Maximum velocity of the follower during its Maximum acceleration of the follower ascent and descent during its ascent and descent: We know that angular velocity of the cam.142  0.04 VR    1.142  0.571 2 S   25.    25.  2  25.04 2 R 2 1.571 during its descent.047  2 .51 m/s  2 25. S   25. We know that the maximum acceleration of 2N 2  240 the follower during its ascent.04 VO    1 m/s and maximum acceleration of the follower 2 0 2 1.6 m/s 2 2  1.

Given : Lift S = 50 mm = 0. The displacement of the valve. Angle of second dwell θD2= 1500 Speed N = 100 rpm Base circle radius = 25mm Diameter of roller = 20mm Offset distance = 15mm . To keep the valve closed during rest of the revolution i. 150° . To raise the valve through 50 mm during 120° rotation of the cam . rotating clockwise at a uniform speed is to be designed to give a roller follower. is to take place with simple harmonic motion. while being raised and lowered.1 rad .3. The diameter of the roller is 20 mm and the diameter of the cam shaft is 25 mm. Determine the maximum acceleration of the valve rod when the cam shaft rotates at 100 rpm.05 m . Draw the profile of the cam when (a) the line of stroke of the valve rod passes through the axis of the cam shaft. motion described below : 1. 2. A cam. Angle of rise θO = 120°= 2 π /3 rad = 2. Draw the displacement. Angle of first dwell θD1= 300 Angle of return θR = 60° =π /3 rad = 1.047 rad . at the end of a valve rod. the velocity and the acceleration diagrams for one complete revolution of the cam. and (b) the line of the stroke is offset 15 mm from the axis of the cam shaft. and 4. 3. To lower the valve during next 60°. with a minimum radius of 25 mm. To keep the valve fully raised through next 30°.e.

Displacement diagram G H e F J d E K 40mm c D L b C M a B A 0 1 2 3 4 5 6S N p R 0’ 1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ 5’ 6’ 1200 300 600 1500 .

G H e F J 40mm d E D K c L b C M a B A0 1 2 3 4 5 6S N p R 0’ 1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ 5’ 6’ B C A 1 D 2 3 E 4 1200 5 F 300 6 600 0’ 1’ 6’P G 5’ 2’ 3’ 4’ N M L H J K .

G H e F J 40mm d E D K c L b C M a B A0 1 2 3 4 5 6S N p R 0’ 1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ 5’ 6’ D C B 2 1 0 E A 3 4 F 5 6 1200 300 O G 600 0’ 1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ 5’ 6’ P H M N J L K .

05 VR    0.67 m/s 2  21.47 2  0. (b).1 2 S  10. We know that the maximum acceleration of the 2N 2 100 valve rod to raise the valve.05   6.47  0.  2  10.47 2  0.39 m/s 2 0 2  2. lower the valve.13 m/s 2 2  2.    10. revolution of the cam is shown in Fig.785 m/s 2 R 2 1.047  2 10.  2 2 S aR  2 R  2 S  10.047  2 .Maximum acceleration of the valve rod The velocity diagram for one complete We know that angular velocity of the cam shaft.1 and maximum acceleration of the valve rod to and maximum velocity of the valve rod to lower the valve.47  0.47 rad/s 60 60  2 2 S aO  2 0  2 We also know that maximum velocity of the valve rod to raise valve.05 VO    0.05  24.

Velocity diagram: Acceleration diagram: .

the follower moves inwards with simple harmonic motion. The minimum radius of the cam is 25 mm. The follower dwells for the next 90° of cam rotation. Draw the profile of the cam. The follower dwells during next 30° of cam rotation. During next 120° of cam rotation.4. follower moves outwards through a distance of 20 mm with simple harmonic motion. A cam drives a flat reciprocating follower in the following manner: During first 120° rotation of the cam. Given data: Angle of ascent = 1200 Angle of first dwell = 300 Angle of descent = 1200 Angle of second dwell = 900 Base circle radius of the cam (minimum radius) = 25 mm Lift = 20mm .

Displacement diagram: G H e F J d E K 20 mm D L c C M b B N P a 0’ 1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ 5’ 6’ A0 1 2 3 0 4 5 6 0 120 30 1200 900 .

G H e F J d E K 20 mm D L c C M b B N P a 6 0 0’ 1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ 5’ 6’ A0 1 2 3 0 4 5 0 120 30 120 900 B C 0 A D 1 2 3 E 4 1200 P 6’ 5 O F 5’ 6 300 1200 N 4’ 0’ 3’ M G 1’ 2’ L H K J .

In the similar way as discussed above. therefore the velocity varies directly with the time.3. the displacement diagram for the follower during return stroke may be drawn. Divide the angular displacement of the cam during outstroke ( θO ) into any even number of equal parts (say eight) and draw vertical lines through these points as shown in Figure. Similarly. Uniform acceleration and retardation: The displacement. as shown in Figure. Divide the stroke of the follower (S) into the same number of equal even parts. 2. Since the acceleration and retardation are uniform. Join Aa to intersect the vertical line through point 1 at B. obtain the other points C. 4. Now join these points to obtain the parabolic curve for the out stroke of the follower. Displacement diagram consists of a parabolic curve and may be drawn as discussed below: 1. . 3. D etc. velocity and acceleration diagrams when the follower moves with uniform acceleration and retardation are shown in Figure.

Time required for the follower during outstroke tO = θo/ω Time required for the follower during return stroke tR = θR /ω Mean velocity of the follower during outstroke = S/tO . θO and θR = Angular displacement of the cam during out stroke and return stroke of the follower respectively. S = Stroke of the follower. and ω= Angular velocity of the cam.

Mean velocity of the follower during return stroke = S/tR Maximum velocity of the follower during outstroke. Maximum acceleration of the follower during return stroke. 2S 2S v0   to O Similarly. maximum velocity of the follower during return stroke. vo 2  2S 4 2 S a0    to / 2 t O O  O 2 Similarly. 4 2 S aR   R 2 . 2S 2S vR   tR R Maximum acceleration of the follower during outstroke.

To dwell for the rest period of a revolution i. 3. and 4. is required to give a knife edge follower the motion as described below: 1. Draw the displacement.5. and (ii) When the line of stroke of the follower is off-set by 15 mm. Determine the maximum velocity and acceleration of the follower when the cam shaft rotates at 900 rpm. with a minimum radius of 50 mm. rotating clockwise at a uniform speed. To dwell for next 80°. A cam. The displacement of the follower is to take place with uniform acceleration and uniform retardation. velocity and acceleration diagrams for one complete revolution of the cam Given data: Minimum radius = 50 mm Knife edge follower Displacement S =40 mm Angle of ascent θO=1000 Angle of first dwell θD1= 800 Angle of decent θR = 900 Angle of second dwell θD2= 900 Offset distance = 15 mm Speed N= 900rpm . 90°. To move outwards through 40 mm during 100° rotation of the cam. To return to its starting position during next 90 °. 2.e. Draw the profile of the cam (i) When the line of stroke of the follower passes through the centre of the cam shaft.

Displacement diagram: f G H f’ F J eE e' K d d' 40 mm D c c' L b b' C B a a' M A P 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0’ 1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ N5’ 6’ 1000 800 900 900 .

f G H f F J eE e’ 40 mm K d d' D c 'c L b 'b C B a 'a M A 1 2 3 4 5 P 0 6 0’ 1’ 2’' 3’ 4’N5’ 6’ 1000 800 900 900 C B D A 1 0 E 2 3 F 4 5 1000 900 P 6’ 6 800 900 G N5’ 4’ M 3’ 2’ L 0’ 1’ K J H .

f G H f F J eE e’ 40 mm K d d' D c 'c L b 'b C B a 'a M A 1 2 3 4 5 P 0 6 0’ 1’ 2’' 3’ 4’N5’ 6’ 1000 800 900 900 D C B 2 1 A E 0 3 4 F 5 6 1000 900 G 800 900 P 6’ 5’N 4’ 0’ 1’ 2’ 3’ M L K J H .

04  576 m/s 2 VR   R 1. and maximum acceleration of the follower 2S 2  94.04 during return stroke.26  0.26  0. 2N 2  900 4 2 S   aO  60 60  0 2  94.26  0.32 m/s 4  94.04 2   467 m/s 2 We also know that the maximum velocity 1. of the follower during out stroke.745 2 of the follower during out stroke.26 rad/s 4  94.26  0.Maximum velocity of the follower during out Maximum acceleration of the follower stroke and return stroke: during out stroke and return stroke We know that the maximum acceleration We know that angular velocity of the cam shaft. 2S 2  94.571  4. VO   0 2  1.745 4 2 S aR   R 2  4.04 2 and maximum velocity of the follower  1.8 m/s .5712 during return stroke.

Velocity diagram: Acceleration diagram: .

 1  2  x  S  sin    O 2   O  Velocity diagram: Velocity of the follower after time t seconds dx  1 d 2  2  d  v  S   cos   dt   O dt 2 O   O  dt  The velocity is maximum.Cycloidal motion Displacement diagram: θ = Angle through which the cam rotates in time t seconds. and ω = Angular velocity of the cam. when Acceleration diagram:  2  cos   1  O   2       O    O / 2 . We know that displacement of the follower after time t seconds.

Similarly. when dx  1 d 2  2  d  v  S   cos       2  dt  O dt 2 O  O  dt  sin    1   O  Substituting θ= θO /2 in velocity equation. maximum acceleration of the 2S vR  follower during return stroke.  2      S  O  2 vO  (1  1) O   O / 4 2S vo  Maximum acceleration of the follower during O outstroke. maximum velocity of the follower 2 2 S during return stroke aO   O 2 Similarly. The acceleration is maximum. R 2 2 S Acceleration of the follower after time t sec. aR   R 2 d 2 x S  2  2  d  a 2   sin    dt O  O   O  dt  22 S  2   sin    O 2  O  .

The axis of the roller follower is offset by 10 mm towards right from the axis of cam shaft Given data: Angle of ascent (angle for outstroke) = 1800 Angle of decent (angle for return stroke) = 1500 Angle of dwell = 300 Minimum radius of cam (Base circle radius) = 15mm Roller diameter = 10mm Offset (Right side of the cam shaft) = 10mm Solution: S 31. Return stroke for the next 150° of cam rotation.4 mm during 180 ° of cam rotation. Draw the profile of the cam when the roller follower moves with cycloidal motion during out stroke and return stroke. 3.4 Generating circle radius    5mm 2 2 . Dwell for the remaining 30° of cam rotation. as given below: 1. 2. Outstroke with maximum displacement of 31.7. The minimum radius of the cam is 15 mm and the roller diameter of the follower is 10 mm.

Displacement diagram: G F H E J D K 4 5 C L 4' 5' 3 A 6B M N 6' 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 5’ 4' 3’ 2’ 1’ 3’0’ 1’ 2 1 1800 6’ 1500 2’ 300 .

4 5 G 6 3 F H E 2 1 J D K C L A B M N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 5’ 4' 3’ 2’ 1’ 0’ 1800 6’ 1500 300 .

4 5 3 G 6 F 2 1 H E J D K C L A0 B M 0N 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 4 3 2 1 1800 6 ’ 150 ' 0 ’ ’ ’ ’ 30 ’ 0 B C 1 A 0 0’ N 2 M D 1’ 3 300 1800 2’ L O 1500 4 3’ K E 5 4' 5’ J 6 6’ H F G .

FOLLOWER DISPLACEMENT PROGRAMMING Angle of Ascent (or) Angle of Rise (or) Angle of outstroke (θO): It is the angle through which the cam turns during the time the follower rises. Angle of Descent (or) Angle of Return (θR): It is the angle through which the cam turns during the time the follower returns to the initial position. between the beginning of rise and the end of the return of the follower. Angle of Dwell (θD): Angle of dwell is the angle through which the cam turns while the follower remains stationary at the highest or the lowest position. . Angle of Action: Angle of action is the total angle moved by the cam during the time.

increasing the lateral force.To satisfy the given requirements of the follower displacement. As shown in Figure above the increase in the base circle diameter increases the length of the arc of the circle upon which the wedge (the raised portion) is to be made. a programme can be made keeping in view the following points: (i) Consideration to the velocity and the acceleration must be given in a given specific interval of time. . (iii) The size of the base circle controls the pressure angle. (ii) Cam Surface convex should be maintained optimum value to avoid follower lifting force. A short wedge for a given rise requires a steep rise or a higher pressure angle. thus.

• At very high speeds. cams with discontinuous acceleration characteristic may not show any undesirable characteristic.HIGH SPEEDCAMS: • The higher the speed. even the jerk (related to rate of change of acceleration or force) is made continuous as well. this may not be needed. . however. • In low-speed applications. For most of the applications. but at higher speeds such cams are certainly bound to show the same. the higher is the need for smooth curves.

UNDERCUTTING: The cam profile must be continuous curve without any loop. then the part of the cam shape would be lost and thereafter the intended cam motion would not be achieved. If the curvature of the pitch curve is too sharp. Undercutting occurs in the cam because of attempting to achieve too great a follower lift with very small cam rotation with a smaller cam. Such a cam is said to be undercut. .

Hence the angular velocity of the follower and the surface velocity increases. the following factors take into effect: 1. More space is required.tr/pluginfile. In almost all applications. http://ocw.htm . The force transmission characteristics deteriorate. The cam profile steepness increases.CAM SIZE: Cam size determination is related to the determination of the base circle of the cam. The curvature of the cam profile decreases (sharp curves) 3. In practice the cam size is determined by considering two factors: 1. to minimize the size of the cam being used. 2. Decrease the cam size. Large cams are not desired due to the following reasons: 1. Minimum radius of curvature. 2. Pressure angle and 2.metu.edu. Unbalanced mass increases 3. Strength requirements due to the forces and moments acting on the cam. Follower has a longer path to follow for each cycle.php/6886/mod_resource/content/1/ch8/8-4a.

Construct the profile of a cam to suit the following specifications: Cam shaft diameter = 40 mm.5 mm from the centre of the cam.8. The line of stroke of the follower is off-set 12. Least radius of cam = 25 mm. the motion is S. . Angle of fall = 150°. Lift of the follower = 40 mm. Angle of lift = 120°. During the fall the motion is uniform acceleration and deceleration. The speed of the cam shaft is uniform. During the lift.H.M. Diameter of roller = 25 mm. Numbers of pauses are two of equal interval between motions.

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